1 13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HOSPITAL PIPING SYSTEMS Elliott GOODWIN 1, Emmanuel MARAGAKIS 2, Ahmad ITANI 3 SUMMARY This paper presents findings from shake table experiments on cable-braced and unbraced welded hospital piping systems. The research identifies the capacity characteristics of a hospital piping system with and without bracings as well as the system s weak points. The system was tested to the ICBO AC156 acceptance criteria for nonstructural components. Preliminary results show that the braces limited the displacements, but they did not significantly reduce the accelerations of the system. The input motion of 1g was amplified to 2.6g at the top of the braced and unbraced piping systems. There was no significant damage to the piping system due to the high displacements and accelerations. Two of the eleven braces failed at the highest input excitation, two ½ diameter vertical hanger rods failed during the unbraced tests and a flanged connection began to leak during a pushover test. INTRODUCTION The functioning of an essential facility, such as a hospital, after an earthquake relies heavily on proper functioning of its nonstructural components such as fire suppression and water distribution systems, elevators and medical equipment. In recent earthquakes, nonstructural components in hospitals and medical buildings have suffered a large amount of damage, which resulted in a significant reduction of the functionality of the facilities. The 1971 San Fernando Earthquake caused severe damage to many hospitals and medical facilities. As a result of that damage, 4 of the 11 damaged medical facilities in the area had to be evacuated, Wasilewski . Due to this unacceptable performance, the State of California passed the Hospital Seismic Safety Act, which required that medical facilities be designed and built to remain operational after an earthquake event, Ayres . In order to restrict the movement of piping systems, the Sheet Metal Industry Fund of Los Angeles published the Guidelines for Seismic Restraint of Mechanical Systems in 1976, Wasilewski . Other entities have come out with restraint guidelines for nonstructural components. The National Fire Protection Association has had seismic restraint guidelines since 1939, Ayres . The Seismology Committee of the Structural Engineers Association of California has published seismic restraint guidelines since 1959, Ayres . The above guidelines are reviewed after every major earthquake. For example, after the 1994 Northridge earthquake, 88% of the beds in the damage area (13 hospitals) had to be evacuated due to primarily 1 Graduate Research Assistant, University of Nevada, Reno, USA. 2 Chair and Professor, University of Nevada, Reno, USA. 3 Associate Professor, University of Nevada, Reno, USA.
2 nonstructural damage such as water damage, elevator failure, etc, Ayres . This prompted a major review of the existing building codes and design force levels on nonstructural systems. Before the 1997 Uniform Building Code (1997 UBC), International Conference of Building Officials , codes did not require the design level force to change with respect to the height of the nonstructural component connection. Seismic Bracing The two primary types of seismic restraint for piping systems are solid and cable braces. Both types have a vertical support rod. The cable bracing forces the vertical support rod to be in compression, regardless of the direction of the seismic force. This may cause the vertical support rod to buckle. This is the reason why bracing manufacturers require an angle or strut to be clamped to the vertical support rod. The solid brace, when in compression, causes the support rod to go into tension. This tension may cause pullout failure at the connection point, which can be dangerous when support rods are anchored to concrete slabs, Lama . Objectives Due to the complexity of hospital piping systems, there are many unknown aspects of the behavior of these systems during an earthquake. The objectives of this set of experimental tests are to increase the understanding of the seismic behavior of welded hospital piping systems and to identify their capacity characteristics and weak points. EXPERIMENTAL SPECIMEN Background In consultation with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) engineers, the experimental hospital piping system was modeled after a system in the University of California, Davis medical center. The system was modified slightly to accommodate the dimensions and geometry restrictions of the shake table facility. Piping System The system was made up of approximately 100 of 3 and 4 diameter schedule 40 ASTM A53 grade A black steel pipe. The system includes two water heaters, one simulated heat exchanger, one y-strainer (61 lbs), one check valve (80lbs) and two gate valves (83 lbs/valve). The water heaters were connected to the system through a 4 bolt flanged connection. The heat exchanger and all of the valves were connected to the pipes through an 8 bolt flanged connection. All of the elbow to pipe connections were welded using a shielded metal arc welding process. The system was filled with room temperature water prior to the experiments. The only pressure in the system was the hydrostatic pressure caused by the water. The system was painted with a white wash to aid in observing cracks and leakage. The water heaters and the heat exchanger were anchored to the shake table and the pipes were braced and hung from a stationary frame, which rested on the lab floor, as shown in Figure 1. The fixed frame permitted direct measurement of relative displacements. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the plan and elevation views of the system. The water heaters were braced on the table to avoid premature failure of the piping system due to excessive rigid body motion of the water heaters.
4 12'-3 1 2" 3'-9" 7'-0 1 2" 2'-5" 11'-4" 2'-7 1 2" 12'-1 1 8" 22'-9" 14'-8 1 2" 1'-3" 10'-8" HX DWH 11'-5" Ø1'-6" ACTUATOR 4'-0 1 2" 2'-7 3 8" SHAKE TABLE 1'-3" 5'-6" Figure 3. Elevation View of Experimental Setup Seismic Restraints The bracings used were cable style braces as shown in Figure 4. There were seven brace points and four hanger points in which there were vertical supports only. Figure 5 illustrates the bracing layout. This layout illustrates the bracing numbers that will be used later in this paper. The cables were made of ⅛ diameter prestretched galvanized 7x19 aircraft grade steel. The vertical hanger rods were of two sizes: ⅝ diameter all-thread rod for supporting the 4 diameter pipe and ½ diameter all-thread rod for supporting the 3 diameter pipe. The vertical hanger rods were braced continuously along their length with 1⅝ square, 12 gauge strut. Clevis cross bolt 1 8" Ø cable brace Strut brace All-thread vertical hanger rod Clevis hanger Pipe Pipe clamp Transverse Brace Longitudinal Brace Figure 4. Typical Brace Details
5 Braced and Unbraced Piping Systems Two systems, one braced and one unbraced, were tested in the experimental protocol. The unbraced system geometry and materials were the same as the braced system, except that the cable braces, the strut bracing the all-thread vertical rod and the clevis cross braces were removed. This reflects the unbraced condition of piping systems seen in the field. 8" 3'-3 3 8" 3'-10" 1' " LONGITUDINAL BRACE 5'-4 1 4" B9 B10 B7 B8 TRANSVERSE BRACE CLEVIS SUPPORT B6 4'-2 1 2" SHAKE TABLE 1'-8 1 4" B11 10" 1'-7 1 4" B4 B5 1'-2 1 4" 2'-9" B3 1' 2'-9" B1 B2 1' Figure 5. Seismic Restraint Location TESTING CRITERIA Response Spectrum Derivation The piping system was tested to meet the ICBO AC156 Acceptance Criteria for Seismic Qualification Testing of Nonstructural Components, ICBO Evaluation Service, Inc. . AC156 requires that the nonstructural component be subjected to a synthetic input motion that meets a response spectrum where the maximum spectral acceleration is determined according to the 1997 UBC formula: h = + Ca (1) x A 2.5C a 1 3 < 4 h r where: C a = seismic coefficient (1997 UBC Table 16-Q) h x = element or component attachment elevation with respect to grade h r = structure roof elevation with respect to grade For this research, the following assumptions were made: S D soil type h x = h r
6 C a = 0.44N a Z = seismic zone factor (1997 UBC Figure 16-2) Z = 0.4 N a = near source factor (1997 UBC Table 16-S) N a = 1.5 C a = 0.66 Formula (1) is derived from Equation of the UBC. By using Formula (1), the maximum spectral acceleration was found to be 2.64g. Synthetic Input Motion Generation The AC156 requires that the input motion have a build, hold and decay curve of 5, 15 and 10 seconds, respectively and meet a desired response spectrum. The program SIMQKE, Gasparini , was used to generate a synthetic input motion, shown in Figure 6, which conforms to the AC156. Figure 6. Synthetic Input Motions A maximum acceleration of 1 g was chosen as the SIMQKE input. An additional synthetic motion using the program RSCTH, Halldorsson , was also generated (see Figure 6). The RSCTH motion met the response spectra as seen in Figure 7, but did not meet the AC156 due to the fact that it could not produce a motion that had a build, hold and decay envelope. Figure 7 shows the required response spectra, the envelope that the AC156 requires the synthetic motion response spectra fall between, and the response spectra of the generated motions. Figure 8 illustrates the displacement and acceleration spectra for the SIMQKE motion.
8 INSTRUMENTATION PLAN An instrumentation plan, seen in Figure 9, was developed for the experiment. The instrumentation consisted of 29 Celesco (20 stroke) displacement transducers and 16 Kinemetrics (±4g) accelerometers. Displacement transducers and accelerometers were oriented in the vertical direction and in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pipe. Linear Transducers Accelerometers Figure 9. Instrumentation Plan TESTING PROTOCOL An testing protocol was developed that subjected the braced and unbraced systems to varying intensities of the SIMQKE and RSCTH motions in both principle axes (N-S, E-W directions can be seen in Figure 5) as well as a biaxial excitation at 45 with respect to the principle axes. Both systems were subjected to sine sweeps in all three directions. The braced system was also subjected to a dynamic pushover. Overall, the system was subject to 121 excitation motions. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Braced System During the braced E-W 100% SIMQKE input motion two braces failed. The cable portion of both longitudinal brace #B11and the transverse brace #B10 (see Figure 5 for brace positions) failed. Figure 10 illustrates the failure at the longitudinal portion of brace #B11. The flanged connection joining the heat exchanger to the pipe began to leak, as shown in Figure 11, during the 10 dynamic pushover. White washing the surface of the pipes not only aided in identifying leaks, but also illustrated the permanent relative displacement of the braces to the piping system. Figure 12 shows that brace #B7 s clevis scraped off the whitewash in the places it had touched the pipe during the excitation. Every brace point had at least 1 of permanent displacement after the testing of the braced system and brace #B2 moved permanently 4.
10 Figure 12. Permanent Displacement of Brace #B7 Unbraced System For the unbraced set of experiments, the brace points will be referred to as hangers. During the biaxial 100% SIMQKE input motion, hanger #B2 failed. The rod failed at the connection steel frame. Hanger #B1 failed in the same manner as hanger #B2 during biaxial 100% RSCTH motion. The only two rods to fail during the tests were ½ in diameter. None of the ⅝ diameter rods, which supported the 4 diameter pipe, failed. Braced and Unbraced System Response Comparison Figure 13 shows a comparison of the braced and unbraced displacement response of instrument nv17 at the highest SIMQKE input motion. As noted on the graph, the maximum unbraced displacement response for instrument nv17 was 9.65 in, and for the braced case the maximum displacement response for instrument nv17 was 3.56 in. Figure 13 also shows a comparison of the braced and unbraced acceleration response of instrument nv26, which was located at the same position as nv17. The maximum unbraced acceleration response for instrument nv26 was 2.64g and for the braced case, the maximum acceleration response was 2.65g. Similar behavior was observed in other instruments. The above can be explained by looking at the displacement and response spectra s for the SIMQKE motion shown in Figure 8. The accelerations are constant for frequencies between 2 and 33 Hz. However, the displacements drop off sharply for increasing frequency.
11 nv17 nv26 Figure 13. Response of Instruments nv26 and nv17
12 CONCLUSIONS AND OBSERVATIONS The only leakage came during a 10 dynamic pushover experiment. Two cable braces failed during the highest input motions for the braced system, and two ½ diameter hanger rods failed during the highest input motion for the unbraced system. Due to the displacement and acceleration spectra for the SIMQKE input motion, the accelerations for the braced and unbraced systems were similar while the displacements for the braced system were smaller than the unbraced system. Future Work In late March of 2004, a system identical to that of the welded system will be tested. The only difference will be that the pipe will have threaded connections, not welded. It is expected that the threaded system will be more brittle than the welded system and will sustain much more damage. Acknowledgements This work is funded through the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER). This financial support is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks to William Staehlin of the California Division of the State Architect and Chris Tokas of the California Office of State Wide Health Planning and Development, David Ainsworth of Stecher-Ainsworth-Miner, Mechanical Engineers, Rich Lloyd of Mason Industries and Pete Rezac from Cooper B-Line. REFERENCES 1. Wasilweski, R.J., 1998, Seismic Restraints for Piping Systems, ASHRAE Trans. 1998, Vol. 104, Part 1, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia. 2. Ayres, J.M., Phillips, R.J., 1998, Water Damage in Hospitals Resulting from the Northridge Earthquake, ASHRAE Trans. 1998, Vol. 104, Part 1, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia. 3. International Conference of Building Officials, 1997, Uniform Building Code, Structural Engineering Design Requirements, Vol. 2, 1997 Edition, pp 2-24 to 2-35, Whittier, California. 4. ATC/SEAOC, 1999, Seismic Response of Nonstructural Components, Part A: Overview of Component Types and Behavior, ATC/SEAOC Joint Venture Training Curriculum, Redwood City, California. 5. Lama, P., 1998, Seismic Codes, HVAC Pipe Systems, and Practical Solutions, ASHRAE Trans. 1998, Vol. 104, Part 1, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia. 6. ICBO Evaluation Service, Inc., 2000, Acceptance Criteria for Seismic Qualification Testing of Nonstructural Components, AC156, International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California. 7. Gasparini, D.A., and Vanmarcke, E.H., 1976 Simulated Earthquake Motions Compatible with Prescribed Response Spectra, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
13 8. Halldorsson, B., Dong, G. and Papageorgiou, A.S., 2002, Earthquake motion input and its dissemination via the Internet Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp (http://civil.eng.buffalo.edu/engseislab/) 9. Maragakis, E., Itani, A., and Goodwin, E., 2003, Seismic Behavior of Welded Hospital Piping Systems, Proceedings of the Applied Technology Council (ATC) 29-2: Seminar on seismic design performance, and retrofit of nonstructural components in critical facilities, pp , Redwood City, California. 10. Goodwin, E., Maragakis, E., Itani, A., 2003, Experimental Evaluation of the Seismic Performance of Hospital Piping Systems, Proceedings of the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) 72nd Annual Convention, pp , Squaw Creek, California.
SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual Bob Wasilewski Project Manager, Technical Resources SMACNA ANSI/SMACNA 001-2000 Approved by ANSI July 31, 2000 History 1976 Guidelines for Seismic Restraint of Mechanical
EARTHQUAKE ASHRAE PROTECTION The following details can be used to help prevent the effects of earthquakes on: Mechanical Systems Electrical Systems Piping Cable Trays, Ductwork Bus Ducts Suspended Equipment
Rehabilitation of a 1985 Steel Moment- Frame Building Gregg Haskell, a) M.EERI A 1985 steel moment frame is seismically upgraded using passive energy dissipation, without adding stiffness to the system.
Protecting data centers from seismic activity Understanding enclosure standards is critical to protecting equipment Author: Joel Young, engineer at Crenlo Abstract In the event of an earthquake, the type
OSHPD Special Seismic Certification Preapproval (OSP) Preapproval of Special Seismic Certification by OSHPD is a voluntary program for Equipment Manufacturers! Facilities Development Division The Building
SEG-12 Seismic Engineering Guidelines IBC 2009 / CBC 2010 Cooper B-Line, Inc. is a leading manufacturer and fabricator of metal products used in the support of pipe and equipment for industrial, residential,
Critical Facility Round Table October 16, 2003 San Francisco Seismic Risk for Data Centers David Bonneville Senior Principal Degenkolb Engineers San Francisco, California Presentation Outline Seismic Risk
NEES/E-Defense Tests: Seismic Performance of Ceiling / Sprinkler Piping Nonstructural Systems in Base Isolated and Fixed Base Building S. Soroushian, K. L. Ryan, M. Maragakis, & J. Wieser University of
NCEE Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July -5, Anchorage, Alaska SEISMIC TESTING OF NON-STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESCRIBED
SECTION 15200 VIBRATION ISOLATION PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. Drawings and general provisions of Contract including General and Supplementary Conditions, Division 1 Specification Sections,
Part I - GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. The work covered under this section consists of the furnishing of all necessary labor, supervision, materials, equipment, and services to completely execute the
NFPA 13, 2002 Edition Seismic Design for Fire Sprinkler Systems Speaker Steven Scandaliato, S.E.T. Scandaliato Design Group 12354 W. Alameda Pkwy., Ste. 170 Lakewood, CO 80228 Ph: (303) 985-3300 Email:
SECTION 260548 - VIBRATION AND SEISMIC CONTROLS FOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section includes: 1. Isolation pads. 2. Spring isolators. 3. Restrained spring isolators. 4. Channel
Fig. 1CBS - Clevis Bolt Spacer (Cooper B-Line B3100PS) Size Range: Size 1" (25mm) thru 20" (500mm) clevis hanger Function: Used as a spacer at a seismic brace location to keep clevis hanger from collapsing
SECTION 15240 - VIBRATION ISOLATION PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. Basic Requirements: Provisions of Section 15010, BASIC MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS are a part of this Section. 1.02 SUMMARY A.
10NCEE Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July 21-25, 2014 Anchorage, Alaska NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A HORIZONTALLY CURVED BRIDGE MODEL K. Kinoshita
SECTION 230529 - PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. This Section includes the following: 1. Steel pipe hangers and supports. 2. Metal framing systems. 3. Thermal-hanger shield inserts. 4. Fastener systems.
Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers 3-1 Pre-Installation Establishes the minimum requirements for the siting, design, materials, access, and installation of manufactured dwellings, accessory
Paper No. 682 PERFORMANCE BASED SEISMIC EVALUATION AND RETROFITTING OF UNSYMMETRICAL MEDIUM RISE BUILDINGS- A CASE STUDY Jimmy Chandra, Pennung Warnitchai, Deepak Rayamajhi, Naveed Anwar and Shuaib Ahmad
Contractors & Industrial Supply, Inc. SEISMIC INNOVATIVE SEISMIC, STRUT AND PIPE HANGING SOLUTIONS SEISMIC BRACING SYSTEMS Rigid Bracing System Attachments Wide Range of Components for Rigid Earthquake
SECTION 26 05 49 VIBRATION AND SEISMIC CONTROLS FOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. This Section includes seismic restraints and other earthquake-damage-reduction measures for electrical
EFFECTS ON NUMBER OF CABLES FOR MODAL ANALYSIS OF CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES Yang-Cheng Wang Associate Professor & Chairman Department of Civil Engineering Chinese Military Academy Feng-Shan 83000,Taiwan Republic
Watts Spacemaker Sa f e t y Wa t e r He a t e r Installation Products Enclosures Stands Restraints Ta b l e o f Co n t e n t s / In t r o d u c t i o n / Seismic Zo n e s Table of Contents Seismic Zones
SECTION 27 05 36 CABLE TRAYS FOR COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 DESCRIPTION A. The work covered by this section of the Specifications includes all labor necessary to perform and complete such
FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY FEMA 413/January 2004 INSTALLING SEISMIC RESTRAINTS FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Notice: This guide was prepared by the Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control Manufacturers
REHABILITATION OF THE FIGUEIRA DA FOZ BRIDGE A.Rito Proponte, Lda, Lisbon, Portugal J. Appleton A2P Consult, Lda, Lisbon, Portugal ABSTRACT: The Figueira da Foz Bridge includes a 405 m long cable stayed
Project Structural Conditions Survey and Seismic Vulnerability Assessment For SFCC Civic Center Campus 750 Eddy Street San Francisco, California 94109 Prepared For San Francisco Community College District
13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 4 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY Tomohiko KAMIMURA
Carrier Engineering Newsletter Volume 1, Issue 2 The Fundamentals of Seismic Compliance and Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems (HVAC) Earthquakes are a real problem and not just in California
Testing Anchors in Cracked Concrete Guidance for testing laboratories: how to generate cracks BY ROLF ELIGEHAUSEN, LEE MATTIS, RICHARD WOLLMERSHAUSER, AND MATTHEW S. HOEHLER ACI Committee 355, Anchorage
SECTION 22 05 48 VIBRATION CONTROLS FOR PLUMBING PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section includes the following: 1. Isolation pads. 2. Isolation mounts. 3. Spring isolators. 4. Pipe riser resilient supports.
New Seismic Compliance Requirements for Hospitals Special Seismic Certification Preapproval Program Rebroadcast of June 17, 2010 Web Seminar Welcome & Program Overview Roger Richter Roger Richter is Senior
SEISMIC DESIGN Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: 1. Seismic Performance Category (SPC), varies from A to E, depending on how the
Division 15 MECHANICAL VIBRATION ISOLATION Section 15070 Bid Opportunity #: 436-2011 Page 1 of 5 GENERAL 1.1 RELATED WORK.1 The General Conditions and General Specifications form an integral part of this
GAP.2.0.9 A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC EARTHQUAKE DESIGN OF BUILDINGS INTRODUCTION Buildings in many areas of the world are susceptible to damage from moderate to severe earthquakes.
Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D1143 07, ASTM D3689 07, ASTM D3966 07 and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents
Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses 71 6 RETROFITTING POST & PIER HOUSES by James E. Russell, P.E. 72 Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses Retrofitting Post & Pier Houses 73 RETROFITTING POST AND PIER HOUSES This
TECHNICAL NOTE On Cold-Formed Steel Construction 1201 15th Street, NW, Suite 320 W ashington, DC 20005 (202) 785-2022 $5.00 Design of Diagonal Strap Bracing Lateral Force Resisting Systems for the 2006
SEISMIC CODE EVALUATION MEXICO Evaluation conducted by Jorge Gutiérrez NAME OF DOCUMENT: Normas Técnicas Complementarias para Diseño por Sismo ( Complementary Technical Norms for Earthquake Resistant Design
13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 3292 DESIGN DRIFT REQUIREMENTS FOR LONG-PERIOD STRUCTURES Gary R. Searer 1 and Sigmund A. Freeman 2 SUMMARY
Nonlinear Static Analysis of a Coker Support Structure Y.S. Salem, California State Polytechnic Univesrity, Pomona K. Sham California State Polytechnic Univesrity, Pomona SUMMARY: In this study, the seismic
13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 2136 AN ANALYSIS OF FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM FAILURES DURING THE NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE AND COMPARISON WITH
2010 Residential Water Heater Replacement Check List The intent of this check list is to provide installers a general reference for the enforcement of code requirements in the Greater San Diego Area. This
SEISMIC MODEL TEST AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TOWER HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS Wensheng LU 1 And Xilin LU 2 SUMMARY This paper summarizes tests of several scaled multi-tower high-rise building models on the shaking
SECTION 32 31 13 CHAIN LINK FENCES PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. This Section includes: 1. Galvanized fence framework, fabric, and accessories. 2. Excavation for post bases, and concrete for post footings.
ASME B31.3 Process Piping Charles Becht IV, PhD, PE Don Frikken, PE Instructors BECHT ENGINEERING COMPANY, INC. ayout and Support - 1 Piping Development Process 1. Establish applicable system standard(s)
Bolting: Attachment Of The Mudsill To The Foundation If the mudsill of a house (the pink area in the illustration at right) is not bolted, the lateral loads (back and forth motions) of an earthquake can
1111 Receipt of a satisfactory Test Report from WSDOT Materials Laboratory is required indicating the lot (or lots) or batch of material meets the requirement of the specifications under which it is listed.
CITY OF SAN JOSE BUILDING DIVISION POLICY Policy on Water Heater Installations Policy No. UPC 510-1-94 Effective: September 1, 1995 Revised: February 10, 1996 All new and replacement water heaters installed
SECTION 7 Engineered Buildings Field Investigation Types of Data to Be Collected and Recorded A field investigator looking at engineered buildings is expected to assess the type of damage to buildings.
1. Introduction Blasting is common in the coal industry to remove rock overburden so that the exposed coal can be mechanically excavated. A portion of the blast energy released is converted to wave energy
Rock Bolt Condition Monitoring Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves Bennie Buys Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of Pretoria Introduction Rock Bolts and their associated problems
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology E-ISSN 0976-3945 Research Paper DEVELOPMENT OF LOW COST SHAKE TABLES AND INSTRUMENTATION SETUP FOR EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING LABORATORY C. S. Sanghvi
Volume, Special Issue, ICSTSD Behaviour of Steel Bracing as a Global Retrofitting Technique Miss S. S. Nibhorkar M. E (Structure) Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering
SECTION 05510 METAL STAIRS, LADDERS, AND WALKWAYS PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section Includes: Technical requirements for metal stairs, ladder, and walkways. 1.2 REFERENCES A. General: References to
SECTION 8 Industrial Facilities Field Investigation Types of Data to Be Collected and Recorded Warehouses, manufacturing facilities, energy-producing facilities, and factories should be inspected for performance
Chapter 3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FEATURES IMPORTANT TO SEISMIC PERFORMANCE To satisfy the performance goals of the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions, a number of characteristics are important to the
EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST Abstract Camelia SLAVE University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Marasti
ATLANTA MODEL 50 SPECIFICATIONS Dimensions: Roof Dimensions (point to point) 50-0 Column Dimensions (out to out of columns) 44-0 Eave Height 8-0 Roof Height @ Peak ±21-8⅞ Hip Roof 6:12 pitch Square Feet
THERMAL EXPANSION OF BOILERS INTRODUCTION Boiler is made up of plates, tubes, pipes and simple steel of various grades depending upon the duty conditions. Depending on the service such as cold air / hot
September 2013 Page 1 of 12 Part 1 General 1.1 DESCRIPTION OF WORK.1 The work shall consist of the supply and construction of a chain link fence, barb wire fences or mesh fences as shown on the Plans or
UL COMPLIANCE REPORT CUSTOMER NAME: Rize Enterprises LLC 1st Fl 81 Spence St. Bay Shore, NY 11706 PRODUCT NAME: KL100, KL150 and KL200 Kwik-Locs with accessories TESTED TO: Telcordia Technologies GR-63-CORE,
Evaluating Seismic Requirements in Specifications Updated April 29, 2003 When reviewing a Specification, there are 4 or 5 items that are critical in determining the extent of the seismic componentry that
ASCE 41 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings Presentation Topics: 1. How to define a Rehabilitation Objective per ASCE 41. 2. Data Collection and Testing. 3. Analysis Requirements. 4. Modeling.
Issue: 01 Revision: 00 Page 1 of 5 1 ASSEMBLY - GENERAL 1.1 The work of this section includes the provision of all design, labour, materials, equipment and services required to fabricate and install stair
PART 1 GENERAL SECTION 32 31 00 EXPANDED METAL FENCING Meets Buy American Procurement 1.1 SUMMARY A. Section Includes 1. Supply and install all materials and accoutrements required for the installation
Seismic retrofit of non-ductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips bracing Mustafa Taghdi, Michel Bruneau, & Murat Saatcioglu Ottawa Carleton Earthquake Engineering Research Centre Department of
23 Study on Seismic Safety of the Small-bore Piping and Support System KUNIHIKO SATO *1 MASATSUGU MONDE *2 DAISAKU HIRAYAMA *3 TAKUYA OGO *4 In Japan, according to the revised Regulatory Guide for Aseismic
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.