1 VIRGINIA SHOULD ABOLISH THE ARCHAIC TORT DEFENSE OF CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE AND ADOPT A COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE DEFENSE IN ITS PLACE Peter Nash Swisher * I. INTRODUCTION Contributory negligence is conduct on the part of the plaintiff, contributing as a proximate cause to the tortuous harm the plaintiff has suffered, which falls below the standard of care to which the plaintiff is required to conform for his or her own protection. 1 When contributory negligence is found, it constitutes a complete defense to the plaintiff s negligence cause of action, even though the defendant s negligence may have greatly exceeded the plaintiff s negligence. 2 This rather severe legal doctrine that the plaintiff s contributory negligence would constitute a complete defense to the plaintiff s negligence cause of action even though the defendant s conduct may be far more negligent than the plaintiff s conduct was first enunciated in the 1809 English case of Butterfield v. Forrester. 3 In Butterfield, Lord Ellenborough, a controversial and tempestuous Tory judge in his own day, cited no supporting authority, nor gave * Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law; J.D., 1973, University of California, Hastings College of Law; M.A., 1967, Stanford University; B.A., 1966, Amherst College. 1. E.g., Rose v. Jaques, 268 Va. 137,149, 597 S.E.2d 64, 71 (2004); Lerwill v. Regent Van & Storage, Inc., 217 Va. 490, , 496, 229 S.E.2d 880, (1976); Charlottesville Music Ctr., Inc. v. McCray, 215 Va. 31, 37, 205 S.E.2d 674, 679 (1974); RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS 463, at (1965). 2. See, e.g., Burroughs v. Keffer, 272 Va. 162, , 630 S.E.2d 297, (2006); Litchford v. Hancock, 232 Va. 496, 499, 352 S.E.2d 335, 337 (1987); Fein v. Wade, 191 Va. 203, , 61 S.E.2d 29, (1950). 3. (1809) 103 Eng. Rep. 926 (K.B.) ; 11 East 60,
2 360 UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND LAW REVIEW [Vol. 46:359 any satisfactory explanation for this draconic legal doctrine. 4 As Professor Dan Dobbs has observed: [This] rule was extreme. The plaintiff who was guilty of only slight or trivial negligence was barred completely, even if the defendant was guilty of quite serious negligence, as contemporary courts have had occasion to observe in criticizing the rule. The traditional contributory negligence rule was extreme not merely in results but in principle. No satisfactory reasoning has ever explained the rule. It departed seriously from ideals of accountability and deterrence [in tort law] because it completely relieved the defendant from liability even if he was by far the most negligent actor. A regime of accountability would, in contrast, hold the defendant liable for a proportionate share of the harm [under the doctrine of comparative negligence]. 5 Accordingly, forty-six states to date have abolished this archaic doctrine of contributory negligence, by judicial or legislative action, and in its place have adopted the doctrine of comparative negligence. 6 In contrast to contributory negligence, comparative negligence acts not as a complete bar to the plaintiff s recovery in tort, but only as a partial bar, resulting in a percentage reduction from otherwise recoverable damages awarded to the plaintiff. 7 Virginia and four other jurisdictions, however, still recognize the traditional tort defense of contributory negligence. 8 The purpose of this essay is to argue that the time has now come for Virginia, by judicial or legislative action, to abolish its archaic common law tort defense of contributory negligence and replace it with a comparative negligence defense. Adopting a comparative negligence defense would more equitably and more fairly recognize and apportion damages according to the bedrock 4. See id. 5. DAN B. DOBBS, THE LAW OF TORTS, 199, at (2000). 6. VICTOR E. SCHWARTZ WITH EVELYN F. ROWE, COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE 1.01, at 3 4 (5th ed. 2010) ( By 1994, comparative negligence had replaced contributory negligence as a complete defense in... forty-six states.... ); HENRY WOODS & BETH DEERE, COMPARATIVE FAULT 1:11, at (3d ed. 1996). 7. SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 2.01, at 31; WOODS & DEERE, supra note 6, 22:2, at 502, Alabama, Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia, and the District of Columbia still continue to recognize the traditional tort defense of contributory negligence. VICTOR E. SCHWARTZ ET AL., PROSSER, WADE, AND SCHWARTZ S TORTS: CASES AND MATERIALS 621 (12th ed. 2010); see also Burroughs v. Keffer, 272 Va. 162, 167, 630 S.E.2d 297, 300 (2006); Faith v. Keefer, 736 A.2d 422, 443 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. 1999); Williams v. Delta Int l Mach. Corp., 619 So. 2d 1330, 1333 (Ala. 1993).
3 2011] TORT DEFENSE 361 underlying tort legal principles of accountability, deterrence, and distribution of loss. 9 II. HISTORY AND RATIONALE FOR THE LEGAL DOCTRINE OF CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE The doctrine of contributory negligence had its origin in the English case of Butterfield v. Forrester. 10 In that case, the plaintiff was injured by a fall from his horse when, riding at a fast pace, he ran into an obstruction in the road left by the defendant. 11 Lord Ellenborough held that, under these particular circumstances, the plaintiff was absolutely barred from any recovery based on his contributory negligence, even though the defendant s negligent conduct also was a significant cause of the plaintiff s injuries. 12 Contributory negligence entered American jurisprudence sixteen years later in the Massachusetts case of Smith v. Smith, 13 and in the Vermont case of Washburn v. Tracy. 14 In the space of a few decades, the doctrine of contributory negligence gained almost unanimous acceptance within the United States, rapidly spread[ing], not unlike an unchecked conflagration in a windstorm throughout the country, thus becoming a [well- ]recognized part of American common law. 15 Indeed, its complete acceptance in the nineteenth century is illustrated by a Pennsylvania judge in 1854 who stated that the defense of contributory negligence was a rule of law from time immemorial which was not likely to be changed in all time to come. 16 But like many 9. DOBBS, supra note 5, 1, at 1, 8, at 12 13, 9, at 13 14, 10, at 17 18, 11, at 19; PROSSER AND KEETON ON THE LAW OF TORTS 4, at (W. Page Keeton et al. eds. 1984); see also RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF TORTS 3, at (2000) (abolishing the doctrine of contributory negligence and replacing it with comparative negligence). 10. (1809) 103 Eng. Rep. 926 (K.B.) 927; 11 East 60, Id. at ; 11 East at Id. at 927; 11 East at Mass. (2 Pick.) 621 (1824) ( [T]his action cannot be maintained, unless the plaintiff can show that he used ordinary care; for without that, it is by no means certain that he himself was not the cause of his own injury. ) D Chip. 128 (Vt. 1824) ( [I]f it appear[s] that the injury complained of would not have happened, but for a want of ordinary care and diligence in the plaintiff, the plaintiff is not entitled to recover. ). 15. STUART M. SPEISER ET AL., 3 THE AMERICAN LAW OF TORTS 12:2, at (2008) (citations omitted). 16. R.R. Co. v. Aspell, 23 Pa. 147, 149 (Pa. 1854).
4 362 UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND LAW REVIEW [Vol. 46:359 other nineteenth century economic philosophies and common law doctrines, the doctrine of contributory negligence was not destined to last permanently in the vast majority of American states. 17 What were the reasons and underlying justifications for adopting the defense of contributory negligence in nineteenth century America? A number of reasons for the adoption of the contributory negligence doctrine have been given over the years. All of [these purported reasons] have been the subject of [severe] criticism, and [n]one of them appear convincing. 18 The wide acceptance of this all or nothing defense of contributory negligence is perhaps best explained by the fact that this legal doctrine emerged just as the Industrial Revolution was getting underway. It may well have been that as a matter of legal and social policy, the doctrine of contributory negligence was welcomed to protect infant American industries from overly sympathetic juries involved in workplace-related accidents. 19 As Judge D. Arthur Kelsey observes: In theory, but hardly in practice, employees in [nineteenth] century factories were protected by their employer s duty to provide employees with a reasonably safe place in which to work. Whatever succor this duty provided to employees, it soon surrendered to the unholy trinity of employer defenses: contributory negligence, assumption of risk, and the fellow servant rule. They became the wicked sisters of the common law because, working together, they effectively nullified any realistic possibility of holding an employer liable for the great majority of on-the-job injuries SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 1.02, at SPEISER ET AL., supra note 15, 12:4, at 254. [T]he courts often employed the rationale that the plaintiff s negligence was the proximate cause of the accident or was an intervening, insulating cause between the defendant s negligence and the injury.... [S]ome of the early adopting courts took the position that, similarly to the clean hands doctrine in equity, the contributory negligence doctrine was intended to punish the plaintiff for his own misconduct. Still another reason given for the defense of contributory negligence is that it is intended to discourage accidents by denying recovery to those who fail to use proper care for their own safety. Id. 12:4, at (citations omitted). 19. William L. Prosser, Comparative Negligence, 51 MICH. L. REV. 465, (1953); see also Gardner v. Geraghty, 423 N.E.2d 1321 (Ill. App. Ct. 1981); Sun Oil Co. v. Seamon, 84 N.W.2d 840, 843 (Mich. 1957). 20. D. Arthur Kelsey, Social Compact as Law: The Workers Compensation Act and the Wicked Sisters of the Common Law, VBA NEWS J., Oct./Nov. 2005, at 13 (quoting Fields v.
5 2011] TORT DEFENSE 363 However, since the adoption of workers compensation statutes in all fifty states, including Virginia, in the early twentieth century, this legal and social rationale for contributory negligence as applied to workplace-related accidents ceased to have any viable justification. In 1918, the Virginia General Assembly enacted Virginia s first workers compensation legislation, largely modeled on Indiana s workers compensation statutes. 21 Basically, under applicable Virginia workers compensation statutes, in exchange for giving up the right to file a lawsuit against an employer for a job-related injury, the claimant employee has the advantage of not having to prove any negligence against the employer to recover workers compensation benefits. 22 Furthermore, the employer generally does not have available to it the defenses of contributory negligence [or] assumption of... risk by the claimant employee, except for a few statutory areas involving willful negligence or intentional misconduct. 23 Another nineteenth century justification of the application of a contributory negligence defense involved personal injury suits brought by railroad employees against the railroads. Various courts feared that railroads would be perceived by many jurors to be impersonal and potentially harmful entities with deep pockets. 24 This nineteenth century social and legal concern has been subsequently addressed by remedial statutory law. Today, a comparative negligence defense, and not contributory negligence, applies in Virginia under the Federal Employers Liability Act, 25 Virginia Ry. Co., 114 Va. 558, 561, 77 S.E. 501, 502 (1913)); see also PROSSER AND KEETON ON TORTS, supra note 9, 80, at ; Lawrence M. Friedman & Jack Ladinsky, Social Change and the Law of Industrial Accidents, 67 COLUM. L. REV. 50, (1967). 21. See, e.g., Richmond Cedar Works v. Harper, 129 Va. 481, 488, 106 S.E. 516, 519 (1921) ( The Virginia [workers compensation] act... has for its humane purpose the providing for all workmen coming within its provisions who are injured during the course of their employment of compensation therefor which is certain in amount without deduction. ) (emphasis added). 22. VA. CODE ANN (A) (Repl. Vol. 2007); PETER N. SWISHER, ROBERT E. DRAIM & DAVID HUDGINS, VIRGINIA TORT AND PERSONAL INJURY LAW 18.1, at 488 (2010). 23. SWISHER ET AL., supra note 22, 18.1, at (emphasis added); accord Fauver v. Bell, 192 Va. 518, 522, 65 S.E.2d 575, 577 (1951); Feitig v. Chalkley, 185 Va. 96, 98, 38 S.E.2d 73, 73 (1946); Farmers Mfg. Co. v. Warfel, 144 Va. 98, , 131 S.E. 240, (1926). 24. WOODS & DEERE, supra note 6, 1:4, at 6; accord Wex S. Malone, The Formative Era of Contributory Negligence, 41 ILL. L. REV. 151, (1946) U.S.C (2006).
6 364 UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND LAW REVIEW [Vol. 46:359 which governs suits brought by railroad employees against their employers. 26 Therefore, lacking any modern justification or rationale, in law or social policy, the archaic nineteenth century defense of contributory negligence should now be abolished in Virginia, either by legislative or judicial action, like it has been abolished in fortysix other states, in favor of a modern comparative negligence defense in tort. 27 III. THE EMERGENCE AND ADOPTION OF COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE IN THE VAST MAJORITY OF AMERICAN STATES TODAY Comparative negligence is a relatively recent legal concept, having been first enunciated by Professors A. Chambers Mole and Lyman Wilson in a scholarly 1932 law review article. 28 By the time Professor Ernest Turk wrote his 1950 law review article entitled Comparative Negligence on the March, 29 and Professor William Prosser wrote his 1953 law review article on Comparative 26. E.g., Stover v. Norfolk & W. Ry. Co., 249 Va. 192, 199, 455 S.E.2d 238, 242 (1995); Norfolk & W. Ry. Co. v. Hodges, 248 Va. 254, , 448 S.E.2d 592, 596 (1994); Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. v. Richmond, 217 Va. 258, 261, 227 S.E.2d 707, 710 (1976); Seaboard Coast Line R.R. Co. v. Ward, 214 Va. 543, 545, 202 S.E.2d 877, 879 (1974). But see Chandler v. Nat l R.R. Passenger Corp., 875 F. Supp. 1172, (E.D. Va. 1995) (rejecting application of the Virginia railroad comparative negligence law in a truck/train collision). Although this is a federal statute, legal actions may be brought in a Virginia state court. See generally SWISHER ET AL., supra note 22, 3.50, at There still appears to be a misguided, and unsubstantiated, opinion in some quarters that if Virginia, as a pro-business state, retains its traditional common law defense of contributory negligence, this will in some way influence a number of new businesses to relocate to Virginia. The truth is that other pro-business states, such as Texas, North Carolina, and Nevada, that are listed higher than Virginia in best states to do business have all adopted a comparative negligence regime, without any apparent harm to their probusiness competitiveness. See, e.g., Gregory J. Gilligan, State Wins High Business Ranking, RICH. TIMES-DISPATCH, Jan. 23, 2008 at B9. Virginia stood out in this year s rankings [listed at number four among the best states to do business] because the state has maintained low jobless levels and has had a good pace of growth.... CEOs consider Virginia to be a nice place to live and hire people, evidenced by their A-rating for work-force quality and living environment. Id. Governor Bob McDonnell stated [w]e don t have public sector unions in Virginia, we have a right-to-work state, we have very few unions overall, and it s one of the great selling points that I ve got to be able to attract business [to Virginia]. Olympia Meola, Wisconsin s Unrest Unlikely in Virginia, RICH. TIMES-DISPATCH, Feb. 23, 2011, at A A. Chalmers Mole & Lyman P. Wilson, A Study of Comparative Negligence, 17 CORNELL L.Q. 333 (1932). 29. Ernest A. Turk, Comparative Negligence on the March, 28 CHI.-KENT L. REV. 189 (1950).
7 2011] TORT DEFENSE 365 Negligence, 30 only five states had recognized comparative negligence in one form or another. 31 By 1992, however, most states had abolished the archaic legal doctrine of contributory negligence, and had adopted the doctrine of comparative negligence in its place, by legislative or judicial action. 32 Modern comparative negligence law, rather than barring all recovery by the plaintiff, reduces the plaintiff s recovery in proportion to the plaintiff s fault. 33 This concept largely evolved from admiralty law, 34 and from the Federal Employers Liability Act, which governed lawsuits brought by railroad employees against their employers. 35 Today, forty-six states recognize some form of comparative negligence, either through a pure or a modified comparative negligence regime. 36 Pure comparative negligence applies comparative fault to all plaintiffs in negligence cases. Under this system, no plaintiff is completely barred from recovery based on his or her contributory negligence. 37 Twelve states, and many federal statutes, have adopted a pure comparative negligence regime. 38 Modified comparative negligence continues to utilize a traditional complete bar rule when the plaintiff s negligence reaches a specific break-point. 39 In twenty-one states, the plaintiff is completely barred from any recovery if his or her negligence exceeds or is greater than the negligence of the defendant, under a socalled greater than 50% approach Prosser, supra note SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 1.01, at 2 (Georgia, Mississippi, Nebraska, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Arkansas adopted the comparative negligence principle in 1955, with Puerto Rico following in 1956, and Maine in 1965.). 32. Id. 1.04, at 13 17, 1.05, at Id. 2.01, at See generally THOMAS J. SCHOENBAUM, ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME LAW 12-4, at (2d ed. 1994) ( [L]iability for such [maritime] damage is to be allocated among the parties proportionally to the comparative degree of their fault. ). 35. See supra notes and accompanying text. 36. SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 1.01, at Id. 2.01, at 32 33, 3.02, at WOODS & DEERE, supra note 6, 1.11, at Alaska, California, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, Rhode Island, and Washington follow a system of pure comparative negligence. Id. 39. See SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 2.01, at WOODS & DEERE, supra note 6, 1.11, at Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont,
8 366 UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND LAW REVIEW [Vol. 46:359 Twelve other states apply an alternate modified system of comparative negligence, holding that the plaintiff is completely barred from any tort recovery if his or her negligence is equal to or greater than defendant s negligence under a so-called 50% or greater approach. 41 Adoption of this better-reasoned comparative negligence rule means that the doctrine of contributory negligence no longer applies as a complete bar to any tort recovery. In effect, contributory negligence remains a partial bar to the extent that plaintiff s negligence shall proportionately reduce the amount of damages attributable to the entire injury to which a nonnegligent plaintiff would be entitled. 42 Accordingly, there are still elements of contributory negligence found in both of the modified comparative negligence systems, and as the Michigan Supreme Court observed, these modified comparative negligence rules do not completely eliminate the traditional bar of contributory negligence they only lower the barrier. 43 Comparative negligence clearly is the better-reasoned solution to an archaic and obsolete nineteenth century doctrine of contributory negligence in fostering and furthering bedrock tort law principles of proportionate compensation to the plaintiff for his or her injuries, legal accountability of both parties, equitable distribution of loss, and deterrence of similar misconduct by the defendant. 44 As one commentator persuasively states the case for comparative negligence: The predominant argument for abandonment of contributory negligence rests, of course, upon the undeniable inequity and injustice in casting an entire accidental loss upon a plaintiff whose negligence combined with another s negligence in causing the loss suffered, no matter how trifling plaintiff s negligence might be. Liability based on fault is the cornerstone of tort law, and a system such as contributo- Wisconsin, and Wyoming forbid a plaintiff from recovering if his negligence is greater than half. Id. 41. SWISHER ET AL., supra note 22, 3:49, at 138. Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Nebraska, North Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, and West Virginia follow this approach. WOODS & DEERE, supra note 6, 1.11, at SPEISER ET AL., supra note 15, 13:1, at SWISHER ET AL., supra note 22, 3:49, at 143 (quoting Placek v. City of Sterling Heights, 275 N.W.2d 511, 519 (Mich. 1979)). 44. See, e.g., DOBBS, supra note 5, 1, at 1 2, 10, at 17 18, 11, at 19; PROSSER AND KEETON ON THE LAW OF TORTS, supra note 9, 1, at 4, 6, 4, at 21 26; Prosser, supra note 19, at ; Turk, supra note 29, at See generally SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 1.01, at 2 5; WOODS & DEERE, supra note 6, at
9 2011] TORT DEFENSE 367 ry negligence which permits one of the contributing wrongdoers to avoid all liability simply does not serve any principle of fault liability. 45 Therefore, it is respectfully submitted that now is an appropriate time for the Virginia General Assembly, or the Supreme Court Virginia, or both, to re-assess the archaic and obsolete nineteenth century judge-made law of contributory negligence in light of the needs of contemporary Virginia society, and seriously consider whether... adopting the doctrine of comparative negligence would be in the best interests of all the citizens of Virginia. 46 IV. SHOULD COMPARATIVE NEGLIGENCE BE ADOPTED BY THE VIRGINIA GENERAL ASSEMBLY, OR THE SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA? Assuming that Virginia should abolish its obsolete nineteenth century doctrine of contributory negligence in favor of a comparative negligence regime, a final question remains: Who should make this decision to abolish contributory negligence and adopt comparative negligence the Virginia General Assembly, or the Supreme Court of Virginia? A number of states have adopted comparative negligence by statutory enactment through their state legislatures. 47 In 1969 and 1970 [for example], Minnesota, New Hampshire, Hawaii, Vermont, and Massachusetts adopted modified comparative negligence [statutes]. 48 Subsequently, in 1971, Colorado, Idaho, and 45. SPEISER ET AL., supra note 15, 13:5, at There are no serious commentators today who would argue that the archaic contributory negligence defense is superior in any way to comparative negligence in contemporary American tort law. See, e.g., RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF TORTS, APPORTIONMENT OF LIAB., supra note 9, 3, at (abolishing the doctrine of contributory negligence in favor of comparative negligence, where a plaintiff s negligence only reduces his or her recovery, rather than totally barring plaintiff s recovery). 46. SWISHER ET AL., supra note 22, 3:49, at See generally SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 1.04, at (discussing state legislative adoption of comparative negligence). 48. Id. at 16; Act of May 23, 1969, ch. 624, 1969 Minn. Laws 1069 (codified as amended MINN. STAT. ANN (2005)); Act of Aug. 12, 1969, ch. 225, 1969 N.H. Laws 177 (codified as amended at N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. 507:7-a (2006)); Act of July 14, 1969, Act 227, 2969 Haw. Sess. Laws 422 (codified as amended HAW. REV. STAT (2005)); Act of Apr. 1, 1970, No. 234, 1969 Vt. Acts & Resolves 193 (Adj. Sess.) (codified as amend-
10 368 UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND LAW REVIEW [Vol. 46:359 Oregon also enacted modified comparative negligence statutes, while Rhode Island enacted a pure comparative negligence statute. 49 In 1973, [e]ight states Connecticut, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming adopted... modified forms of comparative negligence, and Washington [State] adopted [a] pure form [of comparative negligence]. 50 In the following years, comparative negligence has been adopted by [statute] in Kansas (1974, modified form), Montana (1975, modified form), New York (1975, pure form), Pennsylvania (1976, modified form), Ohio (1980, modified form), Louisiana (1979, pure form), Iowa (1984, modified form), Indiana, (1983, modified form), Arizona (1984, pure form), and Delaware (1984, modified form). 51 In 1984, the Virginia General Assembly debated a comparative negligence bill, House Bill 107, which originally was a pure comed VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 12, 1036 (2005)); Act of Aug. 22, 1969, ch. 761, 1969 Mass. Acts 685 (codified as amended at MASS. GEN. LAWS ANN. ch. 231, 85 (2008)). 49. Act of June 8, 1971, ch. 125, 1971 Colo. Sess. Laws 496 (codified as amended at COLO. REV. STAT (2008)); Act of Mar. 24, 1971, ch. 186, 1971 Idaho Sess. Laws 862 (codified as amended at IDAHO CODE ANN to 806 (2003)); Act of June 30, 1971, ch. 668, 1971 Or. Laws 1516 (codified as amended at OR. REV. STAT (2006)); Act of July 16, 1971, ch. 206, 1971 R.I. Pub. Laws 786 (codified as amended at R.I. GEN. LAWS (2004)). 50. SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 1.04, at 16 17; see also Act of June 17, 1973, Pub. Act , 1973 Conn. Acts 1458 (Reg. Sess.) (codified as amended at CONN. GEN. STAT h (2005)); Act of May 3, 1973, ch. 787, 1973 Nev. Stat (codified as amended at NEV. REV. STAT (2006)); Act of May 24, 1973, ch. 146, 1973 N.J. Laws 300 (codified as amended at N.J. STAT. ANN. 2A: to 5-3 (2008)); North Dakota Comparative Negligence Act of Mar. 13, 1973, ch. 78, 1973 N.D. Laws (codified as amended at N.D. CENT. CODE (2003)); Act of Apr. 18, 1973, ch. 30, 1973 Okla. Sess. Laws 40 (codified as amended at OKLA. STAT. ANN. tit to 14 (2005)); Act of Apr. 9, 1973, ch. 28, 1973 Tex. Gen. Laws (codified as amended at TEX. REV. CIV. PRAC. & REM. CODE ANN (2008)); Act of Mar. 8, 1973, ch. 209, 1973 Utah Laws 710 (codified as amended at UTAH CODE ANN (2006)); Act of Feb. 8, 1973, ch. 28, 1973 Wyo. Sess. Laws 30 (codified as amended at WYO. STAT. ANN to (2005)); Act of Apr. 23, 1973, ch. 139, 1973 Wash. Sess. Laws 949 (codified as amended at WASH. REV. CODE. ANN (2009)). 51. SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, at 17 (citing Act of Mar. 15, 1974, ch. 240, 1974 Kan. Sess. Laws 828 (codified as amended at KAN. STAT. ANN a (2007)); Act of Mar. 17, 1975, ch. 60, 1975 Mont. Laws 126 (codified as amended at MONT. CODE ANN (2005)); Act of May 6, 1975, ch. 69, 1975 N.Y. Law 1411 (2005)); Act of July 9, 1976, No. 152, 1976 Pa. Laws 855 (codified as amended at PA. CONS. STAT. ANN (2007)); Act of Jul. 12, 1979, No. 431, 1979 La. Acts 1165, 1166 (codified as amended at LA. CIV. CODE ANN. art (2008)); Act of Mar. 21, 1980, ch. 165, 1980 Ohio Laws 594 (codified as amended at OHIO REV. CODE ANN (2010)); Act of Jan. 1, 1985, Pub. L. No , 1983 Ind. Acts (codified as amended at IND. CODE (2008)); Act of May 17, 1984, ch. 1293, 1984 Iowa Acts (codified as amended at IOWA CODE ANN (2008)); Act of Apr. 24, 1984, ch. 237, 1984 Ariz. Sess. Laws 878 (codified as amended in ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN (2008)); Act of July 17, 1984, ch. 384, 1984 Del. Laws 920 (codified as amended in DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 10, 8132 (2006)).
11 2011] TORT DEFENSE 369 parative negligence statute. This bill was defeated on the house floor by a vote of 51 to House Bill 107 was then redrafted into a modified comparative negligence statute, and subsequently passed the house by a vote of 56 to This bill was subsequently killed in a senate committee, without reaching a floor vote in the senate. It may arguably be time to reassess comparative negligence in Virginia in the General Assembly, by reintroducing former House Bill 107, and allowing a floor vote in the house and the senate regarding comparative negligence for the benefit of all Virginia citizens. Alternately, the Supreme Court of Virginia also has the legal right and power to reassess the common law doctrine of contributory negligence. Although a large number of states have adopted comparative negligence by statutory enactment, a number of other states also have implemented comparative negligence through judge-made law. 54 In each of these states that have judicially adopted comparative negligence, the courts have forthrightly addressed the propriety of judicial versus legislative adoption. In each case, the courts have found that contributory negligence is a judicially created common law doctrine which can be altered, abolished, or replaced by the court which created it, based upon the contemporary needs of modern society. 55 For example, the Supreme Court of Illinois, in Alvis v. Ribar, held that the failure to enact six comparative negligence bills in five years indicated that the Illinois legislature was waiting for court action. 56 Since the Illinois legislature had failed to pass comparative negligence legislation, it was the imperative duty of [this] court to repair that injustice and reform the law to be re- 52. H. JOURNAL, House of Delegates of Va., Reg. Sess. 416 (1984). 53. H. JOURNAL, House of Delegates of Va., Reg. Sess. 533 (1984). 54. Kaatz v. State, 540 P.2d 1037, 1049 (Alaska 1975); Li v. Yellow Cab Co., 532 P.2d 1226, 1229 (Cal. 1975); Hoffman v. Jones, 280 So.2d 431, 438 (Fla. 1973); Alvis v. Ribar, 421 N.E.2d 886 (Ill. 1981); Goetzman v. Wichern, 327 N.W.2d 742, 744 (Iowa 1982); Hilen v. Hays, 673 S.W.2d 713, 720 (Ky. 1984); Placek v. City of Sterling Heights, 275 N.W.2d 511, 514 (Mich. 1979); Gustafon v. Benda, 661 S.W.2d 11, 16 (Mo. 1983); Scott v. Rizzo, 634 P.2d 1234, 1236 (N.M. 1981); Nelson v. Concrete Supply Co., 399 S.E.2d 783, 784 (S.C. 1991); McIntyre v. Balentine, 833 S.W.2d 52, 53 (Tenn. 1992); Bradley v. Appalachian Power Co., 256 S.E.2d 879, 885 (W.Va. 1979). See generally SCHWARTZ, supra note 6, 1.05 (discussing the history of the judicial adoption of comparative negligence). 55. See generally SPEISER ET AL., supra note 15, 13:5, at N.E.2d at 895.
12 370 UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND LAW REVIEW [Vol. 46:359 sponsive to the demands of society. 57 Likewise, in Gustafson v. Benda, the Supreme Court of Missouri judicially abolished the doctrine of contributory negligence in Missouri, and judicially adopted comparative negligence, after remaining quiescent more than five years while waiting for the legislature to act. 58 And the Supreme Court of Tennessee, in McIntyre v. Balentine, in judicially adopting a modified form of comparative negligence, stated: We recognize that this action could be taken by our General Assembly. However, legislative inaction has never prevented judicial abolition of obsolete common law doctrines, especially those, such as contributory negligence, conceived in the judicial womb.... Indeed, our abstinence would sanction a mutual state of inaction in which the court awaits action by the legislature and the legislature awaits guidance from the court,... thereby prejudicing the equitable resolution of legal conflicts. 59 It is respectfully submitted that McIntyre v. Balentine is an excellent illustrative case for the judicial adoption of a modified form of comparative negligence that the Supreme Court of Virginia might find very persuasive, especially since the supreme court has rejected other obsolete common law precedents in the past. 60 Alternately, the Supreme Court of Virginia might act in tandem with the Virginia General Assembly in rejecting contributory negligence and establishing comparative negligence in its place. For example, after the Supreme Court of Illinois judicially adopted comparative negligence in the case of Alvis v. Ribar, 61 the Illinois legislature also subsequently passed legislation regarding comparative negligence. 62 Likewise, after the Supreme Court of Iowa in 1981 judicially adopted comparative negligence in 57. Id. at S.W.2d at S.W.2d at 56 (quoting Alvis, 421 N.E.2d at 896). 60. See Weishaupt v. Commonwealth, 227 Va. 389, 400, 315 S.E.2d 847, 852 (1984) (refusing to recognize the archaic and obsolete common law rule that a husband who forcibly rapes his wife could not be prosecuted for that crime). Thus, by statute and case law, we are free, in essence, to adopt from English common law those principles that fit our way of life and to reject those which do not. Id N.E.2d at 898 (adopting a pure form of comparative negligence) ILL. COMP. STAT. ANN. 5/ (West 2011) (adopting a modified form of comparative negligence).
13 2011] TORT DEFENSE 371 Goetzman v. Wichern, 63 the Iowa legislature subsequently passed comparative negligence legislation in But whatever approach ultimately prevails whether this legal process comes through the Virginia General Assembly, the Supreme Court of Virginia, or both it is now time to abolish the obsolete and archaic tort defense of contributory negligence in Virginia and replace it with a comparative negligence defense, based upon important contemporary legal, social, and public policy reasons. 65 The time has now come, by statute or case law, that we are free, in essence, to adopt from [the] common law those principles that fit our way of life and to reject those which do not N.W.2d 742, 754 (Iowa 1982) (adopting a pure form of comparative negligence) Iowa Acts 524 (codified as amended at IOWA CODE ANN ). 65. See supra notes and accompanying text. The Supreme Court of Virginia, or the General Assembly, or both, might also determine whether implied assumption of risk would continue to constitute an absolute defense, or whether it too should be merged into a comparative negligence defense. Both the Supreme Court of Montana and the Supreme Court of Florida merged assumption of risk into comparative negligence. Kopischke v. First Cont l Corp., 610 P.2d 668, 687 (Mont. 1980); Blackburn v. Dorta, 348 So. 2d 287, 293 (Fla. 1977). 66. Weishaupt v. Commonwealth, 227 Va. 389, 400, 315 S.E.2d 847, 852 (1984).
MEDICAL MALPRACTICE STATE STATUTORY REFERENCE GUIDE 41 MEDICAL MALPRACTICE STATE STATUTORY REFERENCE GUIDE The following references to statutes relevant to medical malpractice cases are intended exclusively
ADULT PROTECTIVE SERVICES, INSTITUTIONAL ABUSE AND LONG TERM CARE OMBUDSMAN PROGRAM LAWS: CITATIONS, BY STATE (Laws current as of 12/31/06) Prepared by Lori Stiegel and Ellen Klem of the American Bar Association
Model Regulation Service April 2005 Corporate Owned Life Insurance (COLI) is life insurance a corporate employer buys covering one or more employees. With COLI, the employer is generally the applicant,
Summary of statutory or regulatory provision by entity. Alabama As long as may be necessary to treat the patient and for medical legal purposes. Ala. Admin. Code r. 545-X-4-.08 (2007). (1) 5 years. Ala.
Alabama Ala. Code 5-25-5 Bond only required where licensee does not submit evidence of net worth. Loan originators may be covered by Alaska 25,000 Alaska Stat. 06.60.045 Arizona $10,000-$15,000 Ariz. Rev.
0-State Analysis School Attendance Age Limits 700 Broadway, Suite 810 Denver, CO 80203-32 303.299.3600 Fax: 303.296.8332 Introduction School Attendance Age Limits By Marga Mikulecky April 2013 This 0-State
Model Regulation Service - January 1993 These Guidelines have been prepared for use by state insurance department personnel who may be presented with questions or concerns regarding charitable gifts of
Alabama any other person called upon to render aid to any child ALA. CODE 26-14-10 Alaska ALA. CODE 26-14-3(a) paid employees of domestic violence and sexual assault programs, and crisis intervention and
National Compendium of Statutes of Repose for Products Liability and Real Estate Improvements By Alan R. Levy Current as of September 1, 2010. Note: This chart is not an exhaustive list of the characteristics
State STATE BY STATE ANTI-INDEMNITY STATUTES Sole Negligence Sole or Partial Negligence Closes A.I. Loophole Comments Alabama Alaska Alaska Stat. 45.45.900. Except for hazardous substances. Arizona (Private
Video Voyeurism Laws Federal Law Video Voyeurism Prevention Act of 2004, 18 U.S.C.A. 1801. Jurisdiction limited to maritime and territorial jurisdiction, or federal property including but not limited to
Default Definitions of Person in State Statutes State Alabama ALA. CODE 1-1-1 (2014) 1-1-1. Definitions. The following words, whenever they appear in this code, shall have the signification attached to
This chart accompanies Protection From Creditors for Retirement Plan Assets, in the January 2014 issue of The Tax Adviser. State-by-state analysis of IRAs as exempt property State State Statute IRA Alabama
Postsecondary Tuition and Fees Introduction Tuition-Setting Authority for Public Colleges and Universities By Kyle Zinth and Matthew Smith October 2012 Who sets tuition? Regardless of the state in question,
Life Without Parole (JLWOP) February 2010 STATE LWOP Law JLWOP 1 ALABAMA YES 62 0 court Ala. Stat. 13A-6-2 ALASKA No LWOP parole always possible No -- -- - Max. age of 18 yrs. old Alaska Stat. 11.41.100
False Claims Act Regulations by State Under the False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. 3729-3733, those who knowingly submit, or cause another person or entity to submit, false claims for payment of The purpose of
Chart Overview of Nurse Practitioner Scopes of Practice in the United States Sharon Christian, JD, Catherine Dower, JD, Edward O Neil, PhD, MPA, FAAN Center for the Health Professions University of California,
SURVEY OF THE CURRENT INSURANCE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT FOR AFFINITY MARKETIG ARRANGEMENTS (FORC Journal: Vol. 23 Edition 4 - Winter 2012) Kevin G. Fitzgerald, Esq. (414) 297-5841 N. Wesley Strickland (850)
APPENDIX 1 PRIMARY SOURCES BY JURISDICTION This appendix contains citation information about reporters, statutory compilations, session laws, and administrative compilations and registers for state, territorial,
National Conference of State Legislatures Discrimination Laws Regarding Off-Duty Conduct Updated October 18, 2010 The issue of employees' rights to engage in certain off-duty activities and in the competing
NONJUDICIAL TRANSFER OF TRUST SITUS CHART 1 This chart provides a survey of the State statutory provisions for all States and the District of Columbia relating to the nonjudicial transfer of the principal
Order Code RL32928 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Breastfeeding and Jury Duty: State Laws, Court Rules, and Related Issues May 17, 2005 Douglas Reid Weimer Legislative Attorney American
Model Regulation Service June 2004 MODEL REGULATION TO REQUIRE REPORTING OF STATISTICAL DATA Table of Contents Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section 6. Section 7. Section 8. Section
State Definition Citation Text ALABAMA MORTGAGE BROKERS LICENSING ACT Mortgage broker means any person who directly or indirectly solicits, Ala. Code 5 25 2(9) processes, places, or negotiates mortgage
Public School Teacher Experience Distribution Lower Quartile Median Upper Quartile Mode Alabama Percent of Teachers FY Public School Teacher Experience Distribution Lower Quartile Median Upper Quartile
Model Regulation Service April 1995 LIFE AND HEALTH INSURANCE POLICY LANGUAGE SIMPLIFICATION MODEL ACT Table of Contents Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section 6. Section 7. Section
Impacts of Sequestration on the States Alabama Alabama will lose about $230,000 in Justice Assistance Grants that support law STOP Violence Against Women Program: Alabama could lose up to $102,000 in funds
NOTICE OF PROTECTION PROVIDED BY This notice provides a brief summary of the [STATE] Life and Health Insurance Guaranty Association (the Association) and the protection it provides for policyholders. This
MATTHIESEN, WICKERT & LEHRER, S.C. 1111 E. Sumner Street P.O. Box 270670 Hartford, WI 53027 (262) 673-7850 (262) 673-3766 (Fax) www.mwl-law.com 50 STATE DEDUCTIBLE REIMBURSEMENT CHART July 2007 STATE ALABAMA
Three-Year Moving Averages by States % Home Internet Access Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana
LEGAL BARRIERS FOR PEOPLE IN RECOVERY FROM DRUG AND ALCOHOL ADDICTION: LICENSES AND CREDENTIALS There are many legal obstacles facing people who have overcome addiction and are in good recovery. This memorandum
ALABAMA Alabama State Specific Release Form Control\Release Forms_pdf\Alabama 1-2 Weeks ALASKA ARIZONA Arizona State Specific Release Form Control\Release Forms_pdf\Arizona 7-8 Weeks by mail By Mail ARKANSAS
Table of Contents Model Regulation Service October 2005 GROUP LIFE INSURANCE DEFINITION AND GROUP LIFE INSURANCE STANDARD PROVISIONS MODEL ACT Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section
VCF Program Statistics (Represents activity through the end of the day on June 30, 2015) As of June 30, 2015, the VCF has made 12,712 eligibility decisions, finding 11,770 claimants eligible for compensation.
NON-RESIDENT INDEPENDENT, PUBLIC, AND COMPANY ADJUSTER LICENSING CHECKLIST ** Utilize this list to determine whether or not a non-resident applicant may waive the Oklahoma examination or become licensed
1444 I St NW, Suite 1105 Washington, DC 20005 (202) 289-7661 Fax (202) 289-7724 I. Introduction HEALTH CARE INTERPRETERS: ARE THEY MANDATORY REPORTERS OF CHILD ABUSE? 1 As the nation continues to diversify
State /Federal Statute & Regulations Active Brake Federal Regulations 49 C.F.R. 393.42 (b)(4) 49 C.F.R. 393.48 49 C.F.R. 393.40(b)(5) Light Duty Trailers: Every commercial motor vehicle must have brakes
UniFirst.com Uniform Program Options Uniform Cost-Sharing Regulations Uniform cost-sharing through employee payroll deductions presents many benefits to both the uniform wearer and the company. The net
PRODUCER MILK MARKETED UNDER FEDERAL MILK ORDERS BY STATE OF ORIGIN, 2005 During 2005, milk processors regulated under the Federal milk order (FMO) system purchased about 115 billion pounds of milk from
Pro Se Advisory for Immigrants with Multiple Drug Possession Convictions: Instructions for Challenging Whether You Have Been Convicted of an Aggravated Felony Last updated October 17, 2007 This advisory
BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES Small Business Ownership Description Total number of employer firms and self-employment in the state per 100 people in the labor force, 2003. Explanation Business ownership
Exhibit B State-By-State Data Security Overview Michele A. Whitham Partner, Founding Co-Chair Security & Privacy Practice Group Foley Hoag LLP 155 Seaport Boulevard Boston, MA 02210 State Statute Citation
STATE SECURITY DEPOSIT LAWS August 14, 2013 IREM Legislative White Paper Table of Contents Common Provisions in Security Deposit Laws..2 Limits on the Size of Deposits...2 Return of Deposit...2 Deductions.
MARKETING AND SALE OF TRAVEL INSURANCE GETS TOUGHER IN NEW YORK (FORC Journal: Vol. 18 Edition 2 - Summer 2007) According to Bureau of Transportation statistics at the U.S. Department of Transportation,
CAREGIVER DEFINITIONS: PROVISIONS AND CITATIONS IN ADULT PROTECTIVE SERVICES LAWS, BY STATE (Laws current as of 12/31/06) Prepared by Lori Stiegel and Ellen Klem of the American Bar Association Commission
Forms are listed alphabetically by form title. INDEX POLICY CODES 1. Auto 2. Fire and Multiple Peril 3. Liability 4. Property, other than Fire and Multiple Peril (e.g. Crime & Inland Marine) 5. Workers
Licensure Resources by State Alabama Alabama State Board of Social Work Examiners http://socialwork.alabama.gov/ Alaska Alaska Board of Social Work Examiners http://commerce.state.ak.us/dnn/cbpl/professionallicensing/socialworkexaminers.as
Massachusetts Adopts Strict Security Regulations Governing Personal Information LISA M. ROPPLE, KEVIN V. JONES, AND CHRISTINE M. SANTARIGA Establishing itself as a leader in the data security area, Massachusetts
LABORATORY CORPORATION OF AMERICA HOLDINGS BUSINESS PRACTICES MANUAL Subject: Compliance With False Claims Acts Section: 27.0 Under Federal and State Laws Update: January 2015 Replaces: January 2013 Initiated
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Effective 10/16/11: Producers holding a life line of authority on or before 10/16/11 who sell or wish to sell
Net-Temps Job Distribution Network The Net-Temps Job Distribution Network is a group of 25,000 employment-related websites with a local, regional, national, industry and niche focus. Net-Temps customers'
Englishinusa.com Positions in MSN under different search terms. Search Term Position 1 Accent Reduction Programs in USA 1 2 American English for Business Students 1 3 American English for Graduate Students
High Risk Health Pools and Plans by State State Program Contact Alabama Alabama Health 1-866-833-3375 Insurance Plan 1-334-263-8311 http://www.alseib.org/healthinsurance/ahip/ Alaska Alaska Comprehensive
Property Assessment Standards in the United States Larry DeBoer Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University January, 2000 An assessment standard defines the taxable value of property that assessors
The Development of the Law of Joint and Several Liability Presented by: Robert S. Peck Center for Constitutional Litigation PC Washington, D.C. Where Friends Meet Friends 2004 Annual Meeting Federation
PPD Benefits by State Michigan State University, 2008 A Caution about These Summaries We will list below summaries of how permanent partial benefits are paid in each state. We caution that these are intended
Model Regulation Service April 1996 COLLISION DAMAGE WAIVER MODEL ACT Table of Contents Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Section 5. Section 6. Section 7. Section 1. Title of Chapter Scope Purpose
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California This jurisdiction has pending annuity training legislation/regulation Annuity Training Requirement Currently Effective Initial 8-Hour Annuity Training Requirement:
American C.E. Requirements Alaska Board of Nursing Two of the following: 30 contact hours 30 hours of professional nursing activities 320 hours of nursing employment Arizona State Board of Nursing Arkansas
LexisNexis Law Firm Billable Hours Survey Top Line Report June 11, 2012 Executive Summary by Law Firm Size According to the survey, we found that attorneys were not billing all the time they worked. There
FELONY DUI SYNOPSIS The information in the following charts was compiled by examining the felony DUI laws in all 50 sates and the District of Columbia. The analysis focuses on the felony DUI threshold,
Alabama Alaska Ai Arizona Arkansas California This jurisdiction has pending annuity training legislation/regulation Initial 8 Hour Annuity Training Requirement: Prior to selling annuities in California,
Textbook Adoption Education Commission of the States 700 Broadway, Suite 1200 Den ver, CO 80203-3460 303.299.3600 Fax: 303.296.8332 www.ecs.org State Textbook Adoption By Kyle Zinth January 2005 Introduction
22 States do not provide access to Chapter 9 Bankruptcy -Georgia explicitly denies access to municipal bankruptcy. (GA Code 36 80-5) States with No Statutes: Alaska Delaware Hawaii Indiana Kansas Maine
Tax Research: Understanding Sources of Tax Law (Why my IRC beats your Rev Proc!) Understanding the Federal Courts There are three levels of Federal courts that hear tax cases. At the bottom of the hierarchy,
Select a state below to display the current regulation and requirements, or continue to scroll down. Light grey text signifies states that have not adopted an annuity training program. Alabama Illinois
BY STATE INFORMATION This information is being provided to assist in your 2014 tax preparations. The information is also mailed to applicable Columbia fund non-corporate shareholders with their year-end
MEMORANDUM DATE: August 26, 2008 RE: Express Consent Requirement for Delivery of Recorded Messages The following sets forth the individual state and federal requirements regarding express consent for the
United States Bankruptcy Court District of Arizona NOTICE TO: DEBTOR ATTORNEYS, BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS AND DEBTORS UPDATED REQUIREMENTS FOR FORMAT OF MASTER MAILING LIST The meeting of creditors
MATTHIESEN, WICKERT & LEHRER, S.C. 1111 E. Sumner Street, P.O. Box 270670, Hartford, WI 53027 Phone: (262) 673-7850 Fax: (262) 673-3766 email@example.com www.mwl-law.com DOG BITE LAWS IN ALL 50 STATES
Real Progress in Food Code Adoption The Association of Food and Drug Officials (AFDO), under contract to the Food and Drug Administration, is gathering data on the progress of FDA Food Code adoptions by
Annual Survey of Public Pensions: State- and Locally- Administered Defined Benefit Data Summary Report: Economy-Wide Statistics Division Briefs: Public Sector By Phillip Vidal Released July 2015 G14-ASPP-SL
Topic: Question by: : Question for the filing office of Texas, Re: the Texas LLC act Professor Daniel S. Kleinberger William Mitchell College of Law, Minnesota Date: March 18, 2012 Manitoba Corporations