1 MIGRATION BETWEEN MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES
3 MIGRATION BETWEEN MEXICO AND THE UNITED STATES BINATIONAL STUDY VOLUME 1 THEMATIC CHAPTERS MEXICO-UNITED STATES BINATIONAL MIGRATION STUDY Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform Mexico City Washington, D.C.
4 Copyright 1998 by Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs and U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform All rights reserved. One-time publication rights. All rights revert to authors of the reports. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior permission of the publisher or the authors of the reports. Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mexico City U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform Washington, D.C. Mexico-United States Binational Migration Study. Migration between Mexico and the United States. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. Contents: v. 1. Thematic chapters v Research and Materials. 1. Mexico Emigration and immigration. 2. United States Emigration and immigration. 3. Mexicans United States. 4. Mexican-Americans. 5. Immigrants United States. I. Title. JV7401.M (pbk.: alk. paper) Printed in the United States of America at Morgan Printing in Austin, Texas
5 Contents Volume 1 Thematic Chapters The Quantification of Migration between Mexico and the United States Frank D. Bean, Rodolfo Corona, Rodolfo Tuirán and Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield Characteristics of Migrants: Mexicans in the United States Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor and Paz Trigueros Legarreta Factors that Influence Migration Agustín Escobar Latapí, Philip Martin, Paul S. Davies, Gustavo López Castro and Katharine Donato Impacts of Migration: U.S. Impacts of Mexican Immigration Michael J. Greenwood and Marta Tienda Impacts of Migration in Mexico Gustavo Verduzco and Kurt Unger Responses to Migration Issues Sidney Weintraub, Francisco Alba, Rafael Fernández de Castro and Manuel García y Griego
6 vi Volume 2 Research Reports and Background Materials QUANTIFICATION OF MIGRATION Estimating Unauthorized Mexican Migration to the United States: Issues and Results Jennifer Van Hook and Frank D. Bean Estimating Underenumeration among Unauthorized Mexican Migrants to the United States: Applications of Mortality Analyses Jennifer Van Hook and Frank D. Bean The Mexican-origin Population of the United States in the Twentieth Century Jennifer E. Glick and Jennifer Van Hook Emigration: Implications for U.S. Immigration Policy Research Ellen Percy Kraly Estimating Authorized Immigration Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield Viewing Emigration at Century s End Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRANTS The Process of Acquiring Citizenship and/or Nationality at Birth in Mexico and the United States Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor and Paz Trigueros Legarreta The Selectivity of International Labor Migration and Characteristics of Mexico-to-U.S. Migrants: Theoretical Considerations Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor and Paz Trigueros Legarreta Data Sources Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor and Paz Trigueros Legarreta Immigrant Characteristics from U.S. Data Sources Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor and Paz Trigueros Legarreta
7 vii Mexico-to-U.S. Migrant Characteristics from Surveys Involving Samples Drawn in Mexico Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor and Paz Trigueros Legarreta Mexico-to-U.S. Migrant Characteristics from Mexican Data Sources Jorge A. Bustamante, Guillermina Jasso, J. Edward Taylor and Paz Trigueros Legarreta Some Thoughts on Perceptions and Policies Jorge A. Bustamante Volume 3 Research Reports and Background Materials FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MIGRATION U.S.-Mexican Migration Philip Martin Mexican Immigrant Workers and U.S. Food Expenditures Philip Martin Guest Workers: Past and Present Philip Martin Proposition 187 in California Philip Martin Mexican Migration Project Data Katharine Donato Coyotes and Alien Smuggling Gustavo López Castro Factores de la Migración y Redes Migratorias Jean Papail IMPACTS OF MIGRATION The Participation of Mexican-born Households in Means-tested U.S. Welfare Programs Paul S. Davies and Michael J. Greenwood
8 viii Labor Market Implications of Mexican Migration: Economies of Scale, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Michael J. Rosenfeld and Marta Tienda The U.S. Labor Market Impacts of Low-skill Migration from Mexico Paul S. Davies, Michael J. Greenwood, Gary L. Hunt, Ulrich Kohli and Marta Tienda Mexican Immigrants and Mexican American Political Assimilation Michael J. Rosenfeld Transferability of Skills and the Economic Rewards to U.S. Employment for Return Migrants in Mexico Steven S. Zahniser and Michael J. Greenwood Impactos de las Cambios Económicos en el Agro Mexicano y en la Migración: Un Análysis Micro-multisectorial Antonio Yúnez Naude Las Remesas de los Migrantes Mexicanos en Estados Unidos: Estimaciones para 1995 Fernando Lozano Ascencio RESPONSES TO MIGRATION The Bracero Program Manuel García y Griego Mexico s 1982 Economic Crisis Francisco Alba IRCA and the Facilitation of U.S.-Mexico Migration Dialogue Sidney Weintraub The Riverside Incident Rafael Fernández de Castro Selected Court Cases on Immigration Enforcement U.S. Court Decisions On the Unrenounceability of Mexican Nationality Sidney Weintraub
9 ix Acknowledgements The Mexico/United States Binational Study on Migration was a joint effort undertaken by twenty scholars from both countries who worked together in teams on five separate subject areas. The subject areas and team members are listed below. These researchers wrote background research papers and individual team reports, whose information and conclusions were collaboratively condensed and compiled into a joint summary report published under the title The Binational Study on Migration Between Mexico and the United States. The present three-volume publication contains the individual team reports (Volume 1) and background research papers and materials (Volumes 2 and 3) that were prepared as part of the Binational Study and that constitute the basis for the joint summary. We are appreciative of the efforts of the team members who, despite their different academic disciplines and subject area expertise, worked in a productive and collegial atmosphere. The summary report, the team reports, and the background papers all demonstrate the commitment of the binational members to producing a state-of-the art assessment of many aspects of Mexicoto-United States migration. The Binational Study was funded by both the Mexican and United States governments in conjunction with private sector funding in both countries. This
10 x structure was created to optimize the independence of the research teams and to make the final summary report immediately available to institutions interested in the critical role of migration in the bilateral relationship. The Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs funded the Study and, with the Ministry of Interior, supported the work of this Study. The U.S. Congress appropriated funds coordinated by the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, and both the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Department of State made contributions. We also acknowledge funding received from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and the United States Information Service in Mexico. Private sector funders were very interested in the project. The Fundación Muguel Alemán in Mexico contributed and the Ford and the Hewlett Foundations in the United States also supported the entire project. We are grateful for the data and information supplied to the Binational Study by government institutions in Mexico and the United States. We also appreciate the commissioned analyses prepared by Mexican and American consultants to the Study. Finally, we acknowledge the many individuals in both countries who gave of their time and assisted the Study in gaining invaluable insights above and beyond the more mundane aspects of academic research. The Binational Study alternated its meeting sites between Mexico and the United States and visited several communities in both countries. Government officials were forthcoming in sharing information and hosting opportunities to learn in Mexico City, San Diego, Tijuana, Oaxaca, Washington, San Antonio, and Chicago. The members of the Binational Study especially appreciated the frank exchanges with community residents and migrants in Tijuana, Oaxaca, Guadalajara, and Chicago. The publication of the present three-volume set did not occur before the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform sunset on December 31, Publication was thus subsequently undertaken by the Mexican Migration and Policy Program of The University of Texas at Austin, a joint program of the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs and the Population Research Center, under the supervision of Frank D. Bean. The three volumes and the joint summary are also currently available electronically from Special thanks are owed to Anne Isenhower, without whose Herculean and well-organized efforts this project would not have been completed. José A. Arréllaga Acosta, Maria McGivney Arréllaga, Marlena Crusere, Eve Kleinman, Raquel Marquez, Nancy Meredith, Terry Sherrell, and Ruth Whitenton also provided valuable assistance. Other members of the staff of both the LBJ School and the Population Research Center also helped in the publication of these volumes, for which the Binational Study wishes to express its gratitude.
11 xi NATIONAL COORDINATORS AND STAFF United States Coordinators: Susan Martin, United States National Coordinator, Executive Director, U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform (USCIR) B. Lindsay Lowell, Assistant United States National Coordinator (USCIR) Deborah Meyers, Project Associate (USCIR) Mexican Coordinators: Enrique Loaeza Tovar, Coordinador Nacional de México, Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores Carlos Planck, Coordinador Adjunto, Secretaría de Gobernación Remedios Gómez Arnau, Secretaria Técnica del Estudio Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 1. QUANTIFICATION OF MIGRATION Frank D. Bean, University of Texas at Austin* Rodolfo Corona, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte* Rodolfo Tuirán, Consejo Nacional de Población Karen A. Woodrow-Lafield, Mississippi State University 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRANTS Jorge Bustamante, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte* Guillermina Jasso, New York University* Edward J. Taylor, University of California at Davis Paz Trigueros, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana 3. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MIGRATION Agustín Escobar Latapí, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social* Philip Martin, University of California at Davis* Katharine Donato, Louisiana State University Gustavo López Castro, El Colegio de Michoacán 4. EFFECTS OF MIGRATION Marta Tienda, Princeton University* Gustavo Verduzco, El Colegio de México* Michael J.Greenwood, University of Colorado Kurt Unger, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
12 xii 5. RESPONSES TO MIGRATION Francisco Alba, El Colegio de México* Sidney Weintraub, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C.* Rafael Fernández de Castro, Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México Manuel García y Griego, University of California at Irvine *Core Group Member/Lead
13 xiii Contributors Alba, Francisco, El Colegio de México Bean, Frank D., The University of Texas at Austin Bustamante, Jorge A., El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Corona, Rodolfo, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Davies, Paul S., Social Security Administration* Donato, Katharine, Louisiana State University Escobar Latapí, Agustín, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social Fernández de Castro, Rafael, Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México García y Griego, Manuel, University of California, Irvine Glick, Jennifer E., The University of Texas at Austin Greenwood, Michael J., University of Colorado at Boulder Hunt, Gary L., University of Maine, Orono Jasso, Guillermina, New York University
14 xiv Kohli, Ulrich, University of Geneva Kraly, Ellen Percy, Colgate University López Castro, Gustavo, El Colegio de Michoacán Lozano Ascencio, Fernando, The University of Texas at Austin Martin, Philip, University of California, Davis Papail, Jean, Universidad de Guadalajara Parrado, Emilio A., University of Pennsylvania Rosenfeld, Michael J., University of Chicago Taylor, J. Edward, University of California, Davis Tienda, Marta, Princeton University Trigueros Legarreta, Paz, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Tuirán, Rodolfo, Consejo Nacional de Población Unger, Kurt, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas Van Hook, Jennifer, The University of Texas at Austin Verduzco, Gustavo, El Colegio de México Weintraub, Sidney, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C. Woodrow-Lafield, Karen A., Mississippi State University Yúnez Naude, Antonio, University of California, Davis Zahniser, Steven S., University of Colorado at Boulder * This research was conducted while Paul Davies was at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Social Security Administration.