Vector Fields and Line Integrals

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Vector Fields and Line Integrals"

Transcription

1 Vector Fields and Line Integrals 1. Match the following vector fields on R 2 with their plots. (a) F (, ), 1. Solution. An vector, 1 points up, and the onl plot that matches this is (III). (b) F (, ) 1,. Solution. An vector 1, points up, and the onl plot that matches this is (I). (c) F f, where f is the scalar-valued function f(, ) Solution. f(, ) 2, 2. If we draw the vector 2, 2 with its tail at (, ), then it points awa from the origin. In addition, as and get bigger, the vectors 2, 2 get longer, which describes plot (IV). (d) F (, ) 2 +, Solution. The onl choice left is (II). The vectors there all appear to be the same length, and indeed, 1 for all (, ) (ecept for (, ), since F (, ) is undefined) (I) (II) (III) (IV) 1

2 (The vectors in each picture have been uniforml rescaled so that the pictures are more clear.) 2. Match the following vector fields on R with their plots. z z z (I) (II) (III) (a) F (,, z),, 1. Solution. This is a constant vector field; that is, at ever point (,, z), we draw the same vector,, 1. This matches (II)., 2 + z 2,. (b) F (,, z) z 2 + z 2 Solution. If we draw the vector, 2 + z 2, z 2 + z 2 with its tail at the point (,, z), then it points toward the -ais. This matches (III). (c) F (,, z) ( z 2 ), /2 ( z 2 ), z. /2 ( z 2 ) /2 Solution. If we draw the vector ( z 2 ), /2 ( z 2 ), z /2 ( z 2 ) /2 with its tail at the point (,, z), then it points toward the origin. This matches (I).. Vector fields are used to model various things. For each of the following descriptions, decide which of the vector field plots in #2 (I, II, or III) gives the most appropriate model. (a) Force of gravit eperienced b a fl in a room. More precisel, F (,, z) is the force due to gravit eperienced b a fl located at point (,, z) in a room. (Remember that force is a vector.) Solution. No matter where the fl is in the room, it eperiences the same force due to gravit the magnitude of the force is just the fl s mass multiplied b acceleration due to gravit, or 9.8 m/s 2 (this is reall the fl s weight), and the direction of the force is alwas straight toward the ground. Therefore, we want a constant vector field with all vectors pointing toward the ground, which means (II) is the best model. (b) Force of Earth s gravit eperienced b a space shuttle. More precisel, F (,, z) is the force that 2

3 Earth s gravitational field eerts on a space shuttle located at the point (,, z). In the picture ou ve chosen, where is the Earth? Solution. No matter where the space shuttle is, the force eerted b Earth s gravitational field will be a vector pointing toward the Earth. The force should be stronger near the Earth (vectors of greater magnitude or length) and less strong awa from the Earth (vectors of smaller magnitude). This matches (I), with the Earth at the origin. (c) f, where f(,, z) is the temperature in a room in which there is a heater along one edge of the floor. In the picture ou ve chosen, where is the heater? (Hint: The gradient of a function f alwas points in the direction in which f is?) Solution. We know that the gradient of a function f alwas points in the direction in which f is increasing the most (instantaneousl). In this case, f represents temperature, so the gradient at an point points towards the warmest direction. This matches (III), with the heater being positioned along the -ais. 4. Let F be the vector field on R 2 defined b F (, ) 1,. (We saw this vector field alread in #1.) (a) Let be the bottom half of the unit circle (in R 2 ), traversed counter-clockwise. Evaluate F d r. Solution. First, we must parameterize the curve. One possible parameterization is r(t) cos t, sin t with t 2. (1) Then, we can simpl compute, using the definition of the line integral: 2 F d r F ( r(t)) r (t) dt F (cos t, sin t) sin t, cos t dt 1, cos t sin t, cos t dt ( sin t + cos 2 t) dt ( sin t + ) 1 + cos 2t 2 cos t + t sin 2t t t dt (b) We write to mean the same curve as (in this case, the bottom half of the unit circle) but oriented in the opposite direction (so clockwise instead of counter-clockwise). What is F d r? (1) One wa to arrive at this parameterization is to think about a particle traveling along the curve. In polar coordinates, the unit circle is just r 1. The particle starts at θ and moves toward θ 2 (with θ increasing). So, in polar coordinates, we could parameterize the curve just b taking r 1, θ t with t 2. Translating this back to artesian coordinates, cos t and sin t, so we have the parameterization r(t) cos t, sin t.

4 Solution. It is simpl the negative of F d r, or 2 2. (c) Now, let be the line segment from (, ) to (, 1). Looking at the picture of F (in #1), do ou think F d r is positive, negative, or zero? Wh? Solution. Here is a plot of the vector field, together with the curve (drawn in red): Along the path, F alwas points to the right, while the path goes up. In particular, F is alwas perpendicular to the path, so the line integral should be zero. To be more precise about it, if we were to find a parameterization r(t) of the curve, then F ( r(t)) is alwas perpendicular to r (t) (which is tangent to ), so the dot product F ( r(t)) r (t) is alwas. This is the thing we integrate to compute the line integral, so the line integral must be as well. (2) (d) What if is instead the line segment from (, ) to (1, 1)? Is the line integral F d r positive, negative, or zero? Solution. Here is a plot of the vector field, together with the curve (drawn in red): Along this path, the vector field generall goes the same direction as the path; that is, the path makes an acute angle with the vectors in the vector field. So, the line integral is positive. (2) To confirm, we could parameterize the curve and compute the line integral; one parameterization of is r(t), t, t 1. 4

5 More precisel, if we were to find a parameterization r(t) of the curve, then F ( r(t)) (the vector field F at a particular point on the path) alwas makes an acute angle with r (t) (the direction the path is going), so the dot product F ( r(t)) r (t) is alwas positive. () Since we integrate this dot product to compute the line integral, the line integral will also be positive. (4) 5. Let f(, ) e + and F f, a vector field on R 2. Let be the curve in R 2 parameterized b r(t) t, t 2, t 1. (a) ompute the line integral F d r. Solution. We compute F (, ) f(, ) e +,. To find the line integral, we just use the definition of the line integral: F d r F ( r(t)) r (t) dt F (t, t 2 ) 1, 2t dt e t + t 2, t 1, 2t dt (e t + t 2 ) dt e t + t t1 e t (b) What is f( r(t))? Did ou use this anwhere when ou computed the line integral in (a)? an ou eplain wh this happened? Solution. f( r(t)) e t + t. We saw this in the second-to-last step of (a): it was what we got from integrating F ( r(t)) r (t) (so we ended up just plugging the starting and ending values of t into this). This can be eplained b the hain Rule, which sas that d dt f( r(t)) f( r(t)) r (t). In this case, f F, so d dt f( r(t)) F ( r(t)) r (t). This was the thing we were integrating with respect to t, and we know b the Fundamental Theorem of alculus that if we integrate d dt (something) with respect to t, we ll just get that something back. (c) Suppose we want to look at a new curve, parameterized b r(t) (sin t)e cos t2 + t, sin t + cos t with t. Find F d r. () Remember that the dot product u v can be written as u v cos θ, where θ is the angle between the vectors u and v. If θ is an acute angle, then cos θ > ; if θ is an obtuse angle, then cos θ <. So, if the angle between u and v is acute, then u v > ; if the angle between u and v is obtuse, then u v <. (4) To confirm, we could parameterize the curve and compute the line integral; one parameterization of is r(t) t, t, t 1. 5

6 Solution. Using what we figured out (b), we can jump directl to the end of the computation: F d r f( r(t)) t t f( r()) f( r()) From the given formula for r(t), r(), 1 and r(), 1, so the line integral is f(, 1) f(, 1). 6

A vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity.

A vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity. Chapters and 6 Introduction to Vectors A vector quantity has direction and magnitude. There are many examples of vector quantities in the natural world, such as force, velocity, and acceleration. A vector

More information

COMPONENTS OF VECTORS

COMPONENTS OF VECTORS COMPONENTS OF VECTORS To describe motion in two dimensions we need a coordinate sstem with two perpendicular aes, and. In such a coordinate sstem, an vector A can be uniquel decomposed into a sum of two

More information

Physics 53. Kinematics 2. Our nature consists in movement; absolute rest is death. Pascal

Physics 53. Kinematics 2. Our nature consists in movement; absolute rest is death. Pascal Phsics 53 Kinematics 2 Our nature consists in movement; absolute rest is death. Pascal Velocit and Acceleration in 3-D We have defined the velocit and acceleration of a particle as the first and second

More information

6.3 Polar Coordinates

6.3 Polar Coordinates 6 Polar Coordinates Section 6 Notes Page 1 In this section we will learn a new coordinate sstem In this sstem we plot a point in the form r, As shown in the picture below ou first draw angle in standard

More information

Section V.2: Magnitudes, Directions, and Components of Vectors

Section V.2: Magnitudes, Directions, and Components of Vectors Section V.: Magnitudes, Directions, and Components of Vectors Vectors in the plane If we graph a vector in the coordinate plane instead of just a grid, there are a few things to note. Firstl, directions

More information

PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6

PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6 PHYSICS 151 Notes for Online Lecture #6 Vectors - A vector is basically an arrow. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude (value) and the arrow points in the direction. Many different quantities

More information

Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates. A flat plate is in the shape of the region in the first quadrant ling between the circles + and +. The densit of the plate at point, is + kilograms per square meter

More information

10.2 The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine

10.2 The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine 0. The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine 77 0. The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine In Section 0.., we introduced circular motion and derived a formula which describes the linear velocit of an object moving on

More information

1.(6pts) Find symmetric equations of the line L passing through the point (2, 5, 1) and perpendicular to the plane x + 3y z = 9.

1.(6pts) Find symmetric equations of the line L passing through the point (2, 5, 1) and perpendicular to the plane x + 3y z = 9. .(6pts Find symmetric equations of the line L passing through the point (, 5, and perpendicular to the plane x + 3y z = 9. (a x = y + 5 3 = z (b x (c (x = ( 5(y 3 = z + (d x (e (x + 3(y 3 (z = 9 = y 3

More information

2.1 Three Dimensional Curves and Surfaces

2.1 Three Dimensional Curves and Surfaces . Three Dimensional Curves and Surfaces.. Parametric Equation of a Line An line in two- or three-dimensional space can be uniquel specified b a point on the line and a vector parallel to the line. The

More information

Solutions to old Exam 1 problems

Solutions to old Exam 1 problems Solutions to old Exam 1 problems Hi students! I am putting this old version of my review for the first midterm review, place and time to be announced. Check for updates on the web site as to which sections

More information

Exam 1 Sample Question SOLUTIONS. y = 2x

Exam 1 Sample Question SOLUTIONS. y = 2x Exam Sample Question SOLUTIONS. Eliminate the parameter to find a Cartesian equation for the curve: x e t, y e t. SOLUTION: You might look at the coordinates and notice that If you don t see it, we can

More information

Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #8

Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #8 Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #8 Chapter 27 Problem 22 An electron moves with velocity v= (7.0i - 6.0j)10 4 m/s in a magnetic field B= (-0.80i + 0.60j)T. Determine the magnitude and direction of the

More information

Equations Involving Lines and Planes Standard equations for lines in space

Equations Involving Lines and Planes Standard equations for lines in space Equations Involving Lines and Planes In this section we will collect various important formulas regarding equations of lines and planes in three dimensional space Reminder regarding notation: any quantity

More information

Higher. Polynomials and Quadratics 64

Higher. Polynomials and Quadratics 64 hsn.uk.net Higher Mathematics UNIT OUTCOME 1 Polnomials and Quadratics Contents Polnomials and Quadratics 64 1 Quadratics 64 The Discriminant 66 3 Completing the Square 67 4 Sketching Parabolas 70 5 Determining

More information

Core Maths C2. Revision Notes

Core Maths C2. Revision Notes Core Maths C Revision Notes November 0 Core Maths C Algebra... Polnomials: +,,,.... Factorising... Long division... Remainder theorem... Factor theorem... 4 Choosing a suitable factor... 5 Cubic equations...

More information

Some linear transformations on R 2 Math 130 Linear Algebra D Joyce, Fall 2015

Some linear transformations on R 2 Math 130 Linear Algebra D Joyce, Fall 2015 Some linear transformations on R 2 Math 3 Linear Algebra D Joce, Fall 25 Let s look at some some linear transformations on the plane R 2. We ll look at several kinds of operators on R 2 including reflections,

More information

2.4 Inequalities with Absolute Value and Quadratic Functions

2.4 Inequalities with Absolute Value and Quadratic Functions 08 Linear and Quadratic Functions. Inequalities with Absolute Value and Quadratic Functions In this section, not onl do we develop techniques for solving various classes of inequalities analticall, we

More information

Review Sheet for Test 1

Review Sheet for Test 1 Review Sheet for Test 1 Math 261-00 2 6 2004 These problems are provided to help you study. The presence of a problem on this handout does not imply that there will be a similar problem on the test. And

More information

13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT

13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT 710 Chapter Thirteen A FUNDAMENTAL TOOL: VECTORS 62. Use the following steps and the results of Problems 59 60 to show (without trigonometry) that the geometric and algebraic definitions of the dot product

More information

LINEAR FUNCTIONS. Form Equation Note Standard Ax + By = C A and B are not 0. A > 0

LINEAR FUNCTIONS. Form Equation Note Standard Ax + By = C A and B are not 0. A > 0 LINEAR FUNCTIONS As previousl described, a linear equation can be defined as an equation in which the highest eponent of the equation variable is one. A linear function is a function of the form f ( )

More information

Chapter 1 Vectors, lines, and planes

Chapter 1 Vectors, lines, and planes Simplify the following vector expressions: 1. a (a + b). (a + b) (a b) 3. (a b) (a + b) Chapter 1 Vectors, lines, planes 1. Recall that cross product distributes over addition, so a (a + b) = a a + a b.

More information

15.1. Exact Differential Equations. Exact First-Order Equations. Exact Differential Equations Integrating Factors

15.1. Exact Differential Equations. Exact First-Order Equations. Exact Differential Equations Integrating Factors SECTION 5. Eact First-Order Equations 09 SECTION 5. Eact First-Order Equations Eact Differential Equations Integrating Factors Eact Differential Equations In Section 5.6, ou studied applications of differential

More information

Find the Relationship: An Exercise in Graphing Analysis

Find the Relationship: An Exercise in Graphing Analysis Find the Relationship: An Eercise in Graphing Analsis Computer 5 In several laborator investigations ou do this ear, a primar purpose will be to find the mathematical relationship between two variables.

More information

D) A block pulled with a constant force will have a constant acceleration in the same direction as the force.

D) A block pulled with a constant force will have a constant acceleration in the same direction as the force. Phsics 100A Homework 4 Chapter 5 Newton s First Law A)If a car is moving to the left with constant velocit then the net force applied to the car is zero. B) An object cannot remain at rest unless the net

More information

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Chapter 6 Eponential and Logarithmic Functions Section summaries Section 6.1 Composite Functions Some functions are constructed in several steps, where each of the individual steps is a function. For eample,

More information

88 CHAPTER 2. VECTOR FUNCTIONS. . First, we need to compute T (s). a By definition, r (s) T (s) = 1 a sin s a. sin s a, cos s a

88 CHAPTER 2. VECTOR FUNCTIONS. . First, we need to compute T (s). a By definition, r (s) T (s) = 1 a sin s a. sin s a, cos s a 88 CHAPTER. VECTOR FUNCTIONS.4 Curvature.4.1 Definitions and Examples The notion of curvature measures how sharply a curve bends. We would expect the curvature to be 0 for a straight line, to be very small

More information

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE 1 P a g e Motion Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE If an object changes its position with respect to its surroundings with time, then it is called in motion. Rest If an object

More information

Section 1.1. Introduction to R n

Section 1.1. Introduction to R n The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section. Introduction to R n Calculus is the study of functional relationships and how related quantities change with each other. In your first exposure to

More information

SECTION 7-4 Algebraic Vectors

SECTION 7-4 Algebraic Vectors 7-4 lgebraic Vectors 531 SECTIN 7-4 lgebraic Vectors From Geometric Vectors to lgebraic Vectors Vector ddition and Scalar Multiplication Unit Vectors lgebraic Properties Static Equilibrium Geometric vectors

More information

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE velocity Velocity v is a vector, with units of meters per second ( m s ). Velocity indicates the rate of change of the object s position ( r ); i.e., velocity tells you how

More information

POLAR COORDINATES DEFINITION OF POLAR COORDINATES

POLAR COORDINATES DEFINITION OF POLAR COORDINATES POLAR COORDINATES DEFINITION OF POLAR COORDINATES Before we can start working with polar coordinates, we must define what we will be talking about. So let us first set us a diagram that will help us understand

More information

Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F

Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F CHAPTER I VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantities are anything which can be measured, and stated with number. Quantities in physics are divided into two types; scalar and vector quantities. Scalar quantities have

More information

With the Tan function, you can calculate the angle of a triangle with one corner of 90 degrees, when the smallest sides of the triangle are given:

With the Tan function, you can calculate the angle of a triangle with one corner of 90 degrees, when the smallest sides of the triangle are given: Page 1 In game development, there are a lot of situations where you need to use the trigonometric functions. The functions are used to calculate an angle of a triangle with one corner of 90 degrees. By

More information

To Be or Not To Be a Linear Equation: That Is the Question

To Be or Not To Be a Linear Equation: That Is the Question To Be or Not To Be a Linear Equation: That Is the Question Linear Equation in Two Variables A linear equation in two variables is an equation that can be written in the form A + B C where A and B are not

More information

Math 259 Winter 2009. Recitation Handout 1: Finding Formulas for Parametric Curves

Math 259 Winter 2009. Recitation Handout 1: Finding Formulas for Parametric Curves Math 259 Winter 2009 Recitation Handout 1: Finding Formulas for Parametric Curves 1. The diagram given below shows an ellipse in the -plane. -5-1 -1-3 (a) Find equations for (t) and (t) that will describe

More information

STRESS TRANSFORMATION AND MOHR S CIRCLE

STRESS TRANSFORMATION AND MOHR S CIRCLE Chapter 5 STRESS TRANSFORMATION AND MOHR S CIRCLE 5.1 Stress Transformations and Mohr s Circle We have now shown that, in the absence of bod moments, there are si components of the stress tensor at a material

More information

Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature. E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000)

Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature. E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000) Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000) Finding the formula in polar coordinates for the angular momentum of a moving

More information

FINAL EXAM SOLUTIONS Math 21a, Spring 03

FINAL EXAM SOLUTIONS Math 21a, Spring 03 INAL EXAM SOLUIONS Math 21a, Spring 3 Name: Start by printing your name in the above box and check your section in the box to the left. MW1 Ken Chung MW1 Weiyang Qiu MW11 Oliver Knill h1 Mark Lucianovic

More information

Solutions for Review Problems

Solutions for Review Problems olutions for Review Problems 1. Let be the triangle with vertices A (,, ), B (4,, 1) and C (,, 1). (a) Find the cosine of the angle BAC at vertex A. (b) Find the area of the triangle ABC. (c) Find a vector

More information

Lecture 6. Weight. Tension. Normal Force. Static Friction. Cutnell+Johnson: 4.8-4.12, second half of section 4.7

Lecture 6. Weight. Tension. Normal Force. Static Friction. Cutnell+Johnson: 4.8-4.12, second half of section 4.7 Lecture 6 Weight Tension Normal Force Static Friction Cutnell+Johnson: 4.8-4.12, second half of section 4.7 In this lecture, I m going to discuss four different kinds of forces: weight, tension, the normal

More information

Solutions to Exercises, Section 5.1

Solutions to Exercises, Section 5.1 Instructor s Solutions Manual, Section 5.1 Exercise 1 Solutions to Exercises, Section 5.1 1. Find all numbers t such that ( 1 3,t) is a point on the unit circle. For ( 1 3,t)to be a point on the unit circle

More information

Q28.1 A positive point charge is moving to the right. The magnetic field that the point charge produces at point P (see diagram below) P

Q28.1 A positive point charge is moving to the right. The magnetic field that the point charge produces at point P (see diagram below) P Q28.1 A positive point charge is moving to the right. The magnetic field that the point charge produces at point P (see diagram below) P r + v r A. points in the same direction as v. B. points from point

More information

Math 21a Curl and Divergence Spring, 2009. 1 Define the operator (pronounced del ) by. = i

Math 21a Curl and Divergence Spring, 2009. 1 Define the operator (pronounced del ) by. = i Math 21a url and ivergence Spring, 29 1 efine the operator (pronounced del by = i j y k z Notice that the gradient f (or also grad f is just applied to f (a We define the divergence of a vector field F,

More information

Section 5: The Jacobian matrix and applications. S1: Motivation S2: Jacobian matrix + differentiability S3: The chain rule S4: Inverse functions

Section 5: The Jacobian matrix and applications. S1: Motivation S2: Jacobian matrix + differentiability S3: The chain rule S4: Inverse functions Section 5: The Jacobian matri and applications. S1: Motivation S2: Jacobian matri + differentiabilit S3: The chain rule S4: Inverse functions Images from Thomas calculus b Thomas, Wier, Hass & Giordano,

More information

PROBLEM SET. Practice Problems for Exam #1. Math 2350, Fall 2004. Sept. 30, 2004 ANSWERS

PROBLEM SET. Practice Problems for Exam #1. Math 2350, Fall 2004. Sept. 30, 2004 ANSWERS PROBLEM SET Practice Problems for Exam #1 Math 350, Fall 004 Sept. 30, 004 ANSWERS i Problem 1. The position vector of a particle is given by Rt) = t, t, t 3 ). Find the velocity and acceleration vectors

More information

11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space

11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11 Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11.1 Vectors in the Plane Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives! Write the component form of

More information

Alex and Morgan were asked to graph the equation y = 2x + 1

Alex and Morgan were asked to graph the equation y = 2x + 1 Which is better? Ale and Morgan were asked to graph the equation = 2 + 1 Ale s make a table of values wa Morgan s use the slope and -intercept wa First, I made a table. I chose some -values, then plugged

More information

SL Calculus Practice Problems

SL Calculus Practice Problems Alei - Desert Academ SL Calculus Practice Problems. The point P (, ) lies on the graph of the curve of = sin ( ). Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at P. Working:... (Total marks). The diagram

More information

Geometry: Unit 1 Vocabulary TERM DEFINITION GEOMETRIC FIGURE. Cannot be defined by using other figures.

Geometry: Unit 1 Vocabulary TERM DEFINITION GEOMETRIC FIGURE. Cannot be defined by using other figures. Geometry: Unit 1 Vocabulary 1.1 Undefined terms Cannot be defined by using other figures. Point A specific location. It has no dimension and is represented by a dot. Line Plane A connected straight path.

More information

4.1 Piecewise-Defined Functions

4.1 Piecewise-Defined Functions Section 4.1 Piecewise-Defined Functions 335 4.1 Piecewise-Defined Functions In preparation for the definition of the absolute value function, it is etremel important to have a good grasp of the concept

More information

Math, Trigonometry and Vectors. Geometry. Trig Definitions. sin(θ) = opp hyp. cos(θ) = adj hyp. tan(θ) = opp adj. Here's a familiar image.

Math, Trigonometry and Vectors. Geometry. Trig Definitions. sin(θ) = opp hyp. cos(θ) = adj hyp. tan(θ) = opp adj. Here's a familiar image. Math, Trigonometr and Vectors Geometr Trig Definitions Here's a familiar image. To make predictive models of the phsical world, we'll need to make visualizations, which we can then turn into analtical

More information

7.3 Graphing Rational Functions

7.3 Graphing Rational Functions Section 7.3 Graphing Rational Functions 639 7.3 Graphing Rational Functions We ve seen that the denominator of a rational function is never allowed to equal zero; division b zero is not defined. So, with

More information

Vector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson

Vector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson Vector Math Computer Graphics Scott D. Anderson 1 Dot Product The notation v w means the dot product or scalar product or inner product of two vectors, v and w. In abstract mathematics, we can talk about

More information

4.2. LINE INTEGRALS 1. 2 2 ; z = t. ; y = sin

4.2. LINE INTEGRALS 1. 2 2 ; z = t. ; y = sin 4.2. LINE INTEGRALS 1 4.2 Line Integrals MATH 294 FALL 1982 FINAL # 7 294FA82FQ7.tex 4.2.1 Consider the curve given parametrically by x = cos t t ; y = sin 2 2 ; z = t a) Determine the work done by the

More information

Chapter 6 Quadratic Functions

Chapter 6 Quadratic Functions Chapter 6 Quadratic Functions Determine the characteristics of quadratic functions Sketch Quadratics Solve problems modelled b Quadratics 6.1Quadratic Functions A quadratic function is of the form where

More information

A QUICK GUIDE TO THE FORMULAS OF MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS

A QUICK GUIDE TO THE FORMULAS OF MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS A QUIK GUIDE TO THE FOMULAS OF MULTIVAIABLE ALULUS ontents 1. Analytic Geometry 2 1.1. Definition of a Vector 2 1.2. Scalar Product 2 1.3. Properties of the Scalar Product 2 1.4. Length and Unit Vectors

More information

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS: CHAPTER 10. Click here for solutions. Click here for answers.

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS: CHAPTER 10. Click here for solutions. Click here for answers. CHALLENGE PROBLEMS CHALLENGE PROBLEMS: CHAPTER 0 A Click here for answers. S Click here for solutions. m m m FIGURE FOR PROBLEM N W F FIGURE FOR PROBLEM 5. Each edge of a cubical bo has length m. The bo

More information

Pre Calculus Math 40S: Explained!

Pre Calculus Math 40S: Explained! Pre Calculus Math 0S: Eplained! www.math0s.com 0 Logarithms Lesson PART I: Eponential Functions Eponential functions: These are functions where the variable is an eponent. The first tpe of eponential graph

More information

SECTION 2.2. Distance and Midpoint Formulas; Circles

SECTION 2.2. Distance and Midpoint Formulas; Circles SECTION. Objectives. Find the distance between two points.. Find the midpoint of a line segment.. Write the standard form of a circle s equation.. Give the center and radius of a circle whose equation

More information

Dr. Fritz Wilhelm, DVC,8/30/2004;4:25 PM E:\Excel files\ch 03 Vector calculations.doc Last printed 8/30/2004 4:25:00 PM

Dr. Fritz Wilhelm, DVC,8/30/2004;4:25 PM E:\Excel files\ch 03 Vector calculations.doc Last printed 8/30/2004 4:25:00 PM E:\Ecel files\ch 03 Vector calculations.doc Last printed 8/30/2004 4:25:00 PM Vector calculations 1 of 6 Vectors are ordered sequences of numbers. In three dimensions we write vectors in an of the following

More information

Applications of Trigonometry

Applications of Trigonometry chapter 6 Tides on a Florida beach follow a periodic pattern modeled by trigonometric functions. Applications of Trigonometry This chapter focuses on applications of the trigonometry that was introduced

More information

Solutions to Homework 5

Solutions to Homework 5 Solutions to Homework 5 1. Let z = f(x, y) be a twice continously differentiable function of x and y. Let x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ be the equations which transform polar coordinates into rectangular

More information

Applications of Trigonometry

Applications of Trigonometry 5144_Demana_Ch06pp501-566 01/11/06 9:31 PM Page 501 CHAPTER 6 Applications of Trigonometr 6.1 Vectors in the Plane 6. Dot Product of Vectors 6.3 Parametric Equations and Motion 6.4 Polar Coordinates 6.5

More information

Equilibrium of a Particle & Truss Analysis

Equilibrium of a Particle & Truss Analysis Equilibrium of a article & Truss nalsis Notation: b = number of members in a truss () = shorthand for compression F = name for force vectors, as is X, and F = name of a truss force between joints named

More information

L 2 : x = s + 1, y = s, z = 4s + 4. 3. Suppose that C has coordinates (x, y, z). Then from the vector equality AC = BD, one has

L 2 : x = s + 1, y = s, z = 4s + 4. 3. Suppose that C has coordinates (x, y, z). Then from the vector equality AC = BD, one has The line L through the points A and B is parallel to the vector AB = 3, 2, and has parametric equations x = 3t + 2, y = 2t +, z = t Therefore, the intersection point of the line with the plane should satisfy:

More information

CHAPTER 10 SYSTEMS, MATRICES, AND DETERMINANTS

CHAPTER 10 SYSTEMS, MATRICES, AND DETERMINANTS CHAPTER 0 SYSTEMS, MATRICES, AND DETERMINANTS PRE-CALCULUS: A TEACHING TEXTBOOK Lesson 64 Solving Sstems In this chapter, we re going to focus on sstems of equations. As ou ma remember from algebra, sstems

More information

Parametric Curves, Vectors and Calculus. Jeff Morgan Department of Mathematics University of Houston

Parametric Curves, Vectors and Calculus. Jeff Morgan Department of Mathematics University of Houston Parametric Curves, Vectors and Calculus Jeff Morgan Department of Mathematics University of Houston jmorgan@math.uh.edu Online Masters of Arts in Mathematics at the University of Houston http://www.math.uh.edu/matweb/grad_mam.htm

More information

Section P.9 Notes Page 1 P.9 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities

Section P.9 Notes Page 1 P.9 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities Section P.9 Notes Page P.9 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities Sometimes the answer to certain math problems is not just a single answer. Sometimes a range of answers might be the answer.

More information

Physics 112 Homework 5 (solutions) (2004 Fall) Solutions to Homework Questions 5

Physics 112 Homework 5 (solutions) (2004 Fall) Solutions to Homework Questions 5 Solutions to Homework Questions 5 Chapt19, Problem-2: (a) Find the direction of the force on a proton (a positively charged particle) moving through the magnetic fields in Figure P19.2, as shown. (b) Repeat

More information

1. Units of a magnetic field might be: A. C m/s B. C s/m C. C/kg D. kg/c s E. N/C m ans: D

1. Units of a magnetic field might be: A. C m/s B. C s/m C. C/kg D. kg/c s E. N/C m ans: D Chapter 28: MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Units of a magnetic field might be: A C m/s B C s/m C C/kg D kg/c s E N/C m 2 In the formula F = q v B: A F must be perpendicular to v but not necessarily to B B F must be

More information

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY

CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY CHAPTER 6 WORK AND ENERGY CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS. REASONING AND SOLUTION The work done by F in moving the box through a displacement s is W = ( F cos 0 ) s= Fs. The work done by F is W = ( F cos θ). s From

More information

This makes sense. t 2 1 + 1/t 2 dt = 1. t t 2 + 1dt = 2 du = 1 3 u3/2 u=5

This makes sense. t 2 1 + 1/t 2 dt = 1. t t 2 + 1dt = 2 du = 1 3 u3/2 u=5 1. (Line integrals Using parametrization. Two types and the flux integral) Formulas: ds = x (t) dt, d x = x (t)dt and d x = T ds since T = x (t)/ x (t). Another one is Nds = T ds ẑ = (dx, dy) ẑ = (dy,

More information

MAT188H1S Lec0101 Burbulla

MAT188H1S Lec0101 Burbulla Winter 206 Linear Transformations A linear transformation T : R m R n is a function that takes vectors in R m to vectors in R n such that and T (u + v) T (u) + T (v) T (k v) k T (v), for all vectors u

More information

LINE INTEGRALS OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS: GREEN S THEOREM. Contents. 2. Green s Theorem 3

LINE INTEGRALS OF VECTOR FUNCTIONS: GREEN S THEOREM. Contents. 2. Green s Theorem 3 LINE INTEGRALS OF VETOR FUNTIONS: GREEN S THEOREM ontents 1. A differential criterion for conservative vector fields 1 2. Green s Theorem 3 1. A differential criterion for conservative vector fields We

More information

4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching

4.4 Concavity and Curve Sketching Concavity and Curve Sketching Section Notes Page We can use the second derivative to tell us if a graph is concave up or concave down To see if something is concave down or concave up we need to look at

More information

Surface Normals and Tangent Planes

Surface Normals and Tangent Planes Surface Normals and Tangent Planes Normal and Tangent Planes to Level Surfaces Because the equation of a plane requires a point and a normal vector to the plane, nding the equation of a tangent plane to

More information

Electromagnetism Laws and Equations

Electromagnetism Laws and Equations Electromagnetism Laws and Equations Andrew McHutchon Michaelmas 203 Contents Electrostatics. Electric E- and D-fields............................................. Electrostatic Force............................................2

More information

So, using the new notation, P X,Y (0,1) =.08 This is the value which the joint probability function for X and Y takes when X=0 and Y=1.

So, using the new notation, P X,Y (0,1) =.08 This is the value which the joint probability function for X and Y takes when X=0 and Y=1. Joint probabilit is the probabilit that the RVs & Y take values &. like the PDF of the two events, and. We will denote a joint probabilit function as P,Y (,) = P(= Y=) Marginal probabilit of is the probabilit

More information

Colegio del mundo IB. Programa Diploma REPASO 2. 1. The mass m kg of a radio-active substance at time t hours is given by. m = 4e 0.2t.

Colegio del mundo IB. Programa Diploma REPASO 2. 1. The mass m kg of a radio-active substance at time t hours is given by. m = 4e 0.2t. REPASO. The mass m kg of a radio-active substance at time t hours is given b m = 4e 0.t. Write down the initial mass. The mass is reduced to.5 kg. How long does this take?. The function f is given b f()

More information

GRAPH OF A RATIONAL FUNCTION

GRAPH OF A RATIONAL FUNCTION GRAPH OF A RATIONAL FUNCTION Find vertical asmptotes and draw them. Look for common factors first. Vertical asmptotes occur where the denominator becomes zero as long as there are no common factors. Find

More information

LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS

LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS OVERVIEW Here s what ou ll learn in this lesson: Eponential Functions a. Graphing eponential functions b. Applications of eponential

More information

Two vectors are equal if they have the same length and direction. They do not

Two vectors are equal if they have the same length and direction. They do not Vectors define vectors Some physical quantities, such as temperature, length, and mass, can be specified by a single number called a scalar. Other physical quantities, such as force and velocity, must

More information

1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two non-zero vectors u and v,

1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two non-zero vectors u and v, 1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19 1.3 Dot Product 1.3.1 Definitions and Properties The dot product is the first way to multiply two vectors. The definition we will give below may appear arbitrary. But it is not. It

More information

Lecture L6 - Intrinsic Coordinates

Lecture L6 - Intrinsic Coordinates S. Widnall, J. Peraire 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Version 2.0 Lecture L6 - Intrinsic Coordinates In lecture L4, we introduced the position, velocity and acceleration vectors and referred them to a fixed

More information

Version 001 Electrostatics II tubman (12125) 1. second particle of charge 13 µc. Determine the magnitude of the initial acceleration

Version 001 Electrostatics II tubman (12125) 1. second particle of charge 13 µc. Determine the magnitude of the initial acceleration Version 001 Electrostatics II tubman (12125) 1 This print-out should have 15 questions. Multiple-choice questions ma continue on the net column or page find all choices before answering. Negativel Charged

More information

3.2 Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals

3.2 Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals 3.2. Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals 6 3.2 Sources, Sinks, Saddles, and Spirals The pictures in this section show solutions to Ay 00 C By 0 C Cy D 0. These are linear equations with constant coefficients

More information

D.2. The Cartesian Plane. The Cartesian Plane The Distance and Midpoint Formulas Equations of Circles. D10 APPENDIX D Precalculus Review

D.2. The Cartesian Plane. The Cartesian Plane The Distance and Midpoint Formulas Equations of Circles. D10 APPENDIX D Precalculus Review D0 APPENDIX D Precalculus Review APPENDIX D. The Cartesian Plane The Cartesian Plane The Distance and Midpoint Formulas Equations of Circles The Cartesian Plane Just as ou can represent real numbers b

More information

Mathematics Placement Packet Colorado College Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

Mathematics Placement Packet Colorado College Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Mathematics Placement Packet Colorado College Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Colorado College has two all college requirements (QR and SI) which can be satisfied in full, or part, b taking

More information

SUMMING VECTOR QUANTITIES USING PARALELLOGRAM METHOD

SUMMING VECTOR QUANTITIES USING PARALELLOGRAM METHOD EXPERIMENT 2 SUMMING VECTOR QUANTITIES USING PARALELLOGRAM METHOD Purpose : Summing the vector quantities using the parallelogram method Apparatus: Different masses between 1-1000 grams A flat wood, Two

More information

SOLUTIONS. f x = 6x 2 6xy 24x, f y = 3x 2 6y. To find the critical points, we solve

SOLUTIONS. f x = 6x 2 6xy 24x, f y = 3x 2 6y. To find the critical points, we solve SOLUTIONS Problem. Find the critical points of the function f(x, y = 2x 3 3x 2 y 2x 2 3y 2 and determine their type i.e. local min/local max/saddle point. Are there any global min/max? Partial derivatives

More information

Module 8 Lesson 4: Applications of Vectors

Module 8 Lesson 4: Applications of Vectors Module 8 Lesson 4: Applications of Vectors So now that you have learned the basic skills necessary to understand and operate with vectors, in this lesson, we will look at how to solve real world problems

More information

Biggar High School Mathematics Department. National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress

Biggar High School Mathematics Department. National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress Biggar High School Mathematics Department National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress Expressions & Formulae Topic Learning Intention Success Criteria I understand this Approximation

More information

Parametric Surfaces. Solution. There are several ways to parameterize this. Here are a few.

Parametric Surfaces. Solution. There are several ways to parameterize this. Here are a few. Parametric Surfaces 1. (a) Parameterie the elliptic paraboloid = 2 + 2 + 1. Sketch the grid curves defined b our parameteriation. Solution. There are several was to parameterie this. Here are a few. i.

More information

Why should we learn this? One real-world connection is to find the rate of change in an airplane s altitude. The Slope of a Line VOCABULARY

Why should we learn this? One real-world connection is to find the rate of change in an airplane s altitude. The Slope of a Line VOCABULARY Wh should we learn this? The Slope of a Line Objectives: To find slope of a line given two points, and to graph a line using the slope and the -intercept. One real-world connection is to find the rate

More information

INVESTIGATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 1.1.1 1.1.4. Example 1

INVESTIGATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 1.1.1 1.1.4. Example 1 Chapter 1 INVESTIGATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 1.1.1 1.1.4 This opening section introduces the students to man of the big ideas of Algebra 2, as well as different was of thinking and various problem solving strategies.

More information

Solutions to Practice Problems for Test 4

Solutions to Practice Problems for Test 4 olutions to Practice Problems for Test 4 1. Let be the line segmentfrom the point (, 1, 1) to the point (,, 3). Evaluate the line integral y ds. Answer: First, we parametrize the line segment from (, 1,

More information

Physics 1A Lecture 10C

Physics 1A Lecture 10C Physics 1A Lecture 10C "If you neglect to recharge a battery, it dies. And if you run full speed ahead without stopping for water, you lose momentum to finish the race. --Oprah Winfrey Static Equilibrium

More information

6/2016 E&M forces-1/8 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES. PURPOSE: To study the deflection of a beam of electrons by electric and magnetic fields.

6/2016 E&M forces-1/8 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES. PURPOSE: To study the deflection of a beam of electrons by electric and magnetic fields. 6/016 E&M forces-1/8 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES PURPOSE: To study the deflection of a beam of electrons by electric and magnetic fields. APPARATUS: Electron beam tube, stand with coils, power supply,

More information

D.2. The Cartesian Plane. The Cartesian Plane The Distance and Midpoint Formulas Equations of Circles. D10 APPENDIX D Precalculus Review

D.2. The Cartesian Plane. The Cartesian Plane The Distance and Midpoint Formulas Equations of Circles. D10 APPENDIX D Precalculus Review D0 APPENDIX D Precalculus Review SECTION D. The Cartesian Plane The Cartesian Plane The Distance and Midpoint Formulas Equations of Circles The Cartesian Plane An ordered pair, of real numbers has as its

More information