Adaptive Fractal Image Coding in the Frequency Domain

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Adaptive Fractal Image Coding in the Frequency Domain"

Transcription

1 PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON IMAGE PROCESSING: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS 2-22 JUNE,1994 BUDAPEST,HUNGARY Adaptve Fractal Image Codng n the Frequency Doman K AI UWE BARTHEL AND THOMAS VOYÉ Insttut für Fernmeldetechnk, Technsche Unverstät Berln Enstenufer 25, D-1587 Berln, Germany Phone: , E-mal: ABSTRACT Fractal mage codng has been used successfully to encode dgtal grey level mages. Especally at very low btrates fractal coders perform better than cosne-transform-based JPEG coders. A block-based fractal mage coder s able to explot the redundancy of grey level mages by descrbng mage blocks through contractvely transformed blocks of the same mage. Prevous fractal coders used affne lnear transformatons n combnaton wth 1 st order lumnance transformatons that change the brghtness and scale the lumnance values of mage blocks. We propose an extenson to hgh order lumnance transformatons that operate n the frequency doman. Wth ths transformaton and an adaptve codng scheme a better approxmaton of mage blocks can be acheved. Btrate reductons are hgher than those acheved by "spatal-doman" fractal codng schemes. An addtonal effect of ths new transformaton s a better convergence at the decoder. I. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW The prncple of fractal mage codng conssts n fndng a constructon rule that produces a fractal mage whch approxmates the orgnal mage. Redundancy reducton s acheved by descrbng the orgnal mage through contracted parts of the same mage (self-transformablty). Fractal mage codng s based on the mathematcal theory of terated functon systems (IFS) developed by Barnsley [1]. Jacqun [2] was the frst to propose a block-based fractal codng scheme for grey level mages. In [3] we have shown that the codng performance can be greatly mproved by applyng a vector quantzaton to the optmal lumnance transformaton and usng a better geometrcal search scheme. In ths paper we descrbe a new lumnance transformaton n the frequency doman. Wth ths transformaton the codng effcency can be further enhanced. At the decoder fewer teratons are needed to reconstruct the mage. In secton II, we brefly present the prncple of a block based fractal mage coder. An mproved codebook desgn and an adaptve geometrcal search scheme are descrbed n secton III. The proposed new lumnance transformaton s presented n secton IV. The descrpton of the new coder can be found n secton V. Fnally, n secton VI, we present some results and dscuss the merts of the new codng scheme. II. THE PRINCIPLE OF A FRACTAL BLOCK-CODER The mage to be encoded s parttoned nto non-overlappng square blocks. R,j s the mage block at the poston (, j) and s called a range block. The task of a fractal coder s to fnd a good approxmaton for all range blocks. Each range block s approxmated by a transformed larger block D l,k of the same mage (doman block) as shown n fgure 1.

2 τ, j z D l, k R,j z R ',j y y x x orgnal mage transformed approxmaton Fg. 1. Approxmaton of a range block through a transformed doman block The transformaton τ,j combnes a geometrcal transformaton and a lumnance transformaton. The geometrcal transformaton s an affne lnear transformaton that conssts of a spatal contracton and a poston shft that maps the doman block to the poston of the range block. The doman block that has been scaled down to the sze of the range block s referred to as codebook block. Jacqun proposed a 1 st order lumnance transformaton that scales the dynamc range and changes the brghtness of the pxel values of a codebook block. In matrx form τ,j can be expressed as follows: LxO k k x x τ j, M y P = L OL O Mk k PMyP + L O 21 M y P NM zqp NM 22 aqp NM zqp NM b QP (1) z denotes the pxel ntensty of an mage at the poston x, y. ( a, b, k m,n R) Only the transformatons of each range block have to be transmtted to the decoder. The set of all transformatons can be seen as the fractal code for the orgnal mage. Ths code, teratvely appled to any ntal mage, generates the reconstructed mage. To ensure the convergence at the decoder the transformatons τ,j have to be contractve. Ths means: det L M N k k k k O < 1 and a < 1 (2) P Q The process of fractal encodng s lossy. The approxmaton error ε, that s determned at the coder ncreases durng the decodng process snce the codebook blocks are generated at the decoder from the fractal reconstructon mage whch s not free of errors. If the scalng factor a s assumed constant, the upper bound for the approxmaton error after the decodng s gven by ε / (1- a ). As the total number of transformatons has to be kept low, herarchcal coders wth varable range block szes are used. If the approxmaton error for a large range block exceeds a gven level, ths block s splt nto up to four smaller range blocks for whch addtonal transformatons are determned. For hgh codng effcency well chosen codng parameters n combnaton wth effcent codng of the fractal transformaton parameters are necessary. III. GEOMETRICAL TRANSFORMATION The search for a geometrcal transformaton can be seen as a search n a codebook that contans the set of contracted doman blocks. Codng effcency strongly depends on the constructon of ths codebook. Another mportant aspect s the order n whch ths codebook s searched. 2

3 y t l When constructng the codebook, the set of all possble affne-lnear transformatons (equaton 1: k m,n, x, and y) has to be reduced to a sutable subset. As dgtal mages are sampled mages wth a gven spatal resoluton not all affne lnear transformatons are possble. The sze rato of range to doman block s usually chosen to 1:2 n x- and y-drectons. A smaller contracton rato allows a better approxmaton of range blocks but results n a hgher error propagaton at the decoder. Usng hgher contracton ratos leads to decreasng smlartes between range and codebook blocks. To assure contractvty the codebook blocks are generated from the fltered and sub-sampled orgnal mage. Jacqun proposed a smple averagng flter. We obtaned better codng results usng a 1-tap antalasng flter wth a cut-off frequency below π/2. We determned an effcent search path by examnng the dstrbuton of codebook block postons that yeld the best approxmaton for a gven range block. Very often the best codebook block corresponds to the doman block drectly above or close to the poston of the range block to be encoded. Ths fact can be used for an optmzed adaptve search scheme. The codebook blocks beng the most probable are examned frst. The search path has the form of a spral and starts wth the codebook block drectly above the range block (Fg. 3). By ntroducng search regons a varable length of the search path s possble. The search s aborted at the end of each search regon f the approxmaton error s below a threshold value. Ths search scheme reduces the encodng tme and the average search ndex. Fgure 2 shows the probablty densty functon of the search ndces. In the gven example an mage was encoded wth an 8 bt geometrcal codebook as shown n fgure 3. The entropy of the search ndces s reduced f addtonal smaller search regons wth error thresholds are ntroduced. Note that we use a relatve addressng of the codebook blocks and a varable doman block shft. y t s n e d b a b o r p n o t c n u f wth 3 search regons and error threshold wthout error threshold search ndex Fg. 2. Probablty densty functon of the geometrcal codebook ndces usng a search scheme as shown n fg. 3. The maxmum search regon was 8 bt. The addtonal search regons used a search wdth of and 4 bts. mage border possble postons of doman blocks AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA frst doman block range block search path: frst doman block mnmum search maxmum search Fg. 3. Adaptve search scheme usng a mnmum search regon 3

4 o o IV. LUMINANCE TRANSFORMATION Problems of 1 st order lumnance transformatons The 1 st order lumnance transformaton λ 1 proposed by Jacqun scales the dynamc range (a) and changes the brghtness of the pxel values (b) of a codebook block g: λ 1 agf= a g+ b (3) Ths 1 st order transformaton has two dsadvantages: - Only small and 'smple structured' range blocks can be approxmated well. - The convergence at the decoder s poor. In partcular f a hgh approxmaton error s tolerated at the coder, the error propagaton at the decoder s very hgh. In ths case the number of teratons necessary to decode the reconstructon mage wll rse. Modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton Fgure 4 shows the dstrbuton of optmal non-quantzed a/b-values obtaned from a fractal coder usng the conventonal 1 st order lumnance transformaton b t e s f f 2 1 b t e s f f scalng factor a scalng factor a Fg. 4. Dstrbuton of the optmal a/b-coeffcents usng Fg. 5. Dstrbuton of the optmal a/b-coeffcents usng the conventonal 1 st order lumnance transformaton the modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton From eq. (3) t can be seen that the b-offset serves to adjust the scaled means of the codebook blocks and s dependent on a. Decreasng a-values generally requre ncreasng b-values. Ths leads to a trangular shaped a/b-dstrbuton (Fg. 4). There s a strong accumulaton of the a/b-values n the regon of a-values near 1. Ths ndcates that the dynamc range of most codebook blocks s kept almost constant. Scalng values close to 1 have the dsadvantage that they result n a hgh error propagaton at the decoder. The a/b-dstrbuton and the fact that the means represent the largest energy component of the codebook blocks result n a hgh upper error bound. Avodng the scalng of the codebook means by large a-values reduces the error propagaton at the decoder. We propose a smple modfcaton of the lumnance transformaton. We decorrelate the a/b-values by only scalng the dynamc part of the codebook blocks. Wth ths modfed transformaton a smlar approxmaton of the range blocks s possble. Wth a well-chosen factor a a lower upper error bound at the decoder can be acheved. λ 1mod. g f= a ( g µ ) + a µ + b a g g (4) The constant factor a can be chosen from to 1 and s found as a compromse: For a = 1 the varance of the a/b-coeffcents reaches ts mnmum, but the lumnance transformaton s not contractve anymore. If a s set 4

5 to we obtan a mnmal error propagaton and a mnmal decodng tme at the decoder. In ths case the varance of the a/b-dstrbuton s maxmum. Our studes have shown that wth quantzed a/b-coeffcents the best codng results are reached for a =.5. Fgure 5 shows the dstrbuton of optmal non-quantzed a/bvalues of the modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton. Fgure 6 compares the convergence at the decoder for a crtcal part of the "Clown"-mage. We compare the conventonal and the modfed lumnance transformaton wth quantzed and non-quantzed coeffcents. It can be seen that the modfed lumnance transformaton outperforms the conventonal transformaton n the reconstructon error and the number of teratons needed. Decodng examples are shown n fgure 7. The sgnfcance of the artfacts as shown n fgure 7b s mage dependent and they only occur wth quantzed parameters. By usng the modfed lumnance transformaton these artfacts can always be avoded mean squared error Iteraton number Fg. 6. Comparson of the conventonal and the modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton: conventonal: 1 non-quantzed, 3 quantzed, modfed: 2 non-quantzed, 4 quantzed a) orgnal b) conventonal 1 st order lumnance transformaton (1 th teraton) c) modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton (1 th teraton) Fg.7. Orgnal and decoded mages usng the conventonal and the modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton wth quantzed a/b-values. 5

6 Hgh order lumnance transformatons n the frequency doman Any mprovement n the approxmaton of range blocks wll mprove the mage qualty and can reduce the total number of transformatons needed to descrbe the fractal approxmaton of the mage to be encoded. One approach to do ths s to use addtonal 'basc codebook blocks' [4], such as smple polynomnal blocks. We feel that such an approach s not very promsng because these smple blocks are easy to encode wth the fractal coder tself. Another possblty s the use of squared and cubc scalng of the pxel ntenstes of the codebook blocks. The optmal scalng parameters are dffcult to determne because of the dependency of the parameters on each other. A further problem s to guarantee the contractvty of such a transformaton. A hgh order lumnance transformaton has to fulfll the followng condtons: To enable ther ndvdual adaptaton the transformaton coeffcents should be ndependent of each other. To assure a control of the contractvty, the requrements for the contractvty should be controllable ndependently by the transformaton coeffcents. Our proposal for a hgh order lumnance transformaton s an extenson of our modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton: Frst we transform all range and codebook blocks va the dscrete cosne transform (DCT). In the frequency doman we obtan the energy compacted spectra of range and codebook blocks. Then by ndvdually settng or scalng the spectral values of the codebook block G(u,v) we can approxmate the spectrum of the range block F(u,v). N 1 N 1 λ( g ) = IDCT UU auv (, ) Guv (, ) + buv (, ) G( uv, ) = DCT( g), Fuv (, ) = DCT( f ) (5) u= v= whereby N denotes the sze of the blocks, the IDCT s the nverse DCT Many codng schemes are possble usng subsets of ths general lumnance transformaton (5). If all spectral values were set or scaled, the number of transformaton parameters to be transmtted would ncrease drastcally. However, many range blocks can be approxmated wth low order lumnance transformatons. In ths paper we propose a codng scheme usng one or more scalng factors for the dynamc part of the codebook spectrum. For a lumnance transformaton of order K we merge subsets of the spectral values to non-overlappng regons R 1 to R K. The mean s approxmated the same way as wth the modfed 1 st order lumnance transformaton. If usng a 1 st order lumnance transformaton, all dynamc coeffcents are scaled wth only one scalng factor (a 1 ). A 2 nd order lumnance transformaton has got three regons, so the dynamc part of the spectrum s scaled wth two coeffcents (a 1, a 2 ). For lumnance transformatons of order 2 and hgher varous frequency doman parttons are possble. Fgure 8 shows some examples of parttons for 2, 3, and 4 regons. These hgh order lumnance transformatons can be expressed the followng way: λ K ( g ) = IDCT N 1 u= N 1 a G(,) u v + b u, v f = = v= auv (, ) Guv (, ) else UU auv (,) = a f (,) uv R = 1,.., K (6) For every regon R the optmal scalng factor a opt can be evaluated : a opt = { Guv (, ) Fuv (, )} ( uv, ) R ( uv, ) R 2 bopt = F(,) a G(,) Guv (, ) (7) To assure contractvty a opt must not exceed a value of 1. a agan s set to.5. 6

7 If the a /b-parameters are lmted or quantzed, we get an approxmaton error plus a quantzaton error: K 2 2 e( FG, ) = b + F( u, v) = 1 ( uv, ) R ( uv, ) FuvGuv (, ) (, ) R 2 Guv (, ) ( uv, ) R 2 + a 2 2 G( u, v) ( uv, ) R a = aopt a b= bopt b (8) a R 1: a (u,v) = a 1 R 2: a (u,v) = a 2 R 3: a (u,v) = a 3 2 regons ( 1st order ) u 3 regons ( 2nd order ) v 4 regons ( 3rd order ) Fg. 8. Examples of dfferent frequency doman parttons for lumnance transformatons of 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd order (block sze 8x8) V. DESCRIPTION OF THE CODER Before descrbng our new codng scheme, we suggest some mportant modfcatons of the conventonal fractal codng scheme: Improvements of the fractal codng scheme Partal approxmaton: To reduce the total number of transformatons generally herarchcal codng schemes wth varable range block szes are used. In a frst step, transformatons for the largest range blocks of the hghest herarchy level are determned. If the approxmaton error s too hgh for any of the four range blocks of the next herarchy level, the large range block contanng these smaller blocks s splt nto sub blocks. For these sub blocks addtonal transformatons are determned. The transformaton for the large range block s kept f the number of addtonal transformatons does not exceed two. The total number of transformatons can be sgnfcantly reduced f new transformaton parameters are determned for the remanng part of the large range block. The codng procedure for large range blocks can then be descrbed as follows: The transformaton of a large range block and the resultng errors n the sub blocks are determned. The sub block that s responsble for the hghest error component s excluded and a new transformaton for the remanng ¾-block s searched. If necessary, ths procedure s repeated for the ¾-block and leads to a ½-block. Many large range blocks that were totally splt usng the conventonal scheme can now be coded as ½- or ¾-blocks. 7

8 Codebook-update and a/b-update: One problem of fractal mage codng s the error propagaton at the decoder. It results from the fact that at the decoder the codebook s generated from the reconstructed mage whereas at the coder the codebook s generated from the orgnal mage. The error propagaton at the decoder can be reduced f the coder codebook s updated wth the coded versons of the range blocks. The a/b-update s comparable to the codebook-update. At the end of the codng process the best possble approxmaton of the orgnal mage s known. Now the coder could start codng the mage agan and agan gettng a better and better approxmaton of the decoder codebook. As ths ncreases the codng tme we propose to keep the geometrcal transformatons, but to redetermne the best a/b-values. The a/b-update can be repeated. We found that 1 to 2 a/b-updates are useful. Usng the modfed lumnance transformaton and the descrbed update procedures, the error propagaton can be reduced and a slghtly hgher codng effcency s obtaned. The ncrease of the decodng error can be reduced to approxmately 1-4 % of the codng error compared to more than 1 % usng the conventonal scheme. Coder descrpton We use a coder wth a three level herarchy wth range block szes of 16x16, 8x8 and 4x4 pxels. For the quantzaton of the lumnance transformaton we apply a vector quantzaton (VQ) technque. We use an adaptve search algorthm to determne the order of the lumnance transformaton and the search regon that s used for the geometrcal transformaton. For each herarchy level we defne a set of search classes. A search class contans a fxed search regon and a lumnance transformaton wth fxed order and VQ-codebook sze. These search classes are searched successvely. If the approxmaton error after searchng one class fulflls a gven search stop crteron (error threshold) the search s aborted, otherwse the next search class s examned. To obtan good codng effcency the bt costs are ncreased durng the search. Ths assures to encode a range block wth the lowest necessary rate. Smulatons have shown that t s useful to ncrease both the VQ-codebook sze and the search wdth. If even wth the maxmum search class no good approxmaton can be found, then ths transformaton s rejected and addtonal transformatons are determned usng the partal block approxmaton. For smaller range blocks ths scheme s repeated untl the hghest search class of the lowest herarchy level s reached. As the splttng crteron we check all errors of the smallest range block sze. The advantage of ths codng scheme s that we can locally adapt the btrate to the mage contents. No classfcaton of the range blocks s done before the codng process. Fgure 9 shows the search classes of the lowest herarchy level (block sze 4x4 pxels). A complete set of codng parameters s shown n table 1. 3 s o m e try 25 2 lum nance geom etry AAA AAA AAA AAA bts s e a rc h c la s s Fg. 9. Adaptve search scheme combnng geometrcal and lumnance transformaton (search classes 1 to 4) The appled frequency doman parttons of the lumnance transformatons are shown. 8

9 Transformaton parameters to be transmtted to the decoder are: - splttng partton of range blocks of the hgher herarchy levels, - search class, - geometrcal ndex of the codebook block and the sometry (f used) and - codebook ndex of the lumnance transformaton VQ (scalng factors a 1 to a K and the offset b). (The search class of a block and the splttng partton are entropy-coded.) The mage qualty respectvely the btrate can be controlled over a large range by only adjustng the error thresholds. For very low btrates however, the block szes have to be enlarged to 32x32, 16x16, and 8x8 pxels. herarchy level block sze search class splt error threshold search stop error threshold lumnance transformaton geometrcal transformaton [msq] [msq] order VQ codebook sze [bts] codebook sze (search) [bts] st st st st st st nd rd (som.) Table 1. : Codng parameters used for the codng results shown n table 2. level and search class classfcaton [bts] partton [bts] geometry [bts] lumnance [bts] sum [bts] number of blocks product [bts] 3 x _ _1x _ _2x x _ _1x _ _2x _ _ _ _ PSNR = db total : bpp Table 2. : Codng results for the Lena mage (512 x 512 pxels). k x : level k, block s totally splt; k_j : level k, search class j, block s not splt; k_jx : level k, search class j, block s partally splt (the splttng partton s addtonally coded) 9

10 VI. SIMULATION RESULTS AND CONCLUSION We have proposed a new block-orented fractal codng scheme usng an adaptve search scheme wth an extended lumnance transformaton n the frequency doman. Ths transformaton s able to better approxmate codebook blocks to range blocks and has a better convergence at the decoder. The btrate s reduced because fewer transformatons are needed to descrbe the fractal approxmaton of the mage to be encoded. The subjectve qualty of mages coded wth our new scheme s superor compared to conventonal fractal coded mages. Blockng artfacts are reduced and detaled structures are better preserved. In our smulatons we used a herarchcal fractal coder wth varable block szes. Our results show that the 'Lena'-mage (512 x 512 pxels) can be coded at the rate of.1 bpp to yeld a peak-to-peak SNR of 3 db. Fgure 1 shows the coder performance compared to JPEG. Due to the hgh number of parameters detaled nvestgatons are needed to acheve optmal codng effcency. Wth optmzed parameters and better codebooks for the lumnance transformaton further mprovements are to be expected. Many dfferent codng schemes are possble usng the general lumnance transformaton expressed n equaton 5. A new effcent codng scheme unfyng fractal and transform codng wll be presented n a further publcaton fractal coder PSNR JPEG bpp Fg. 1. Codng results of the new fractal codng scheme compared to JPEG. (Image: Lena 512x512 pxels) REFERENCES [1] M. F. Barnsley, Fractals Everywhere. New York: Academc Press, [2] A. Jacqun, Image Codng Based on a Fractal Theory of Iterated Contractve Image Transforms. SPIE Vol. 136 Vsual Communcatons and Image Processng 9 [3] K. U. Barthel, T. Voyé, P. Noll, Improved Fractal Image Codng, Proceedngs of PCS ' 93, secton 1.5 [4] M. Gharav-Alkhansar and T. S. Huang, A Fractal-Based Image Block-Codng Algorthm, Proceedngs ICASSP 93,V [5] E. W. Jacobs, Y. Fsher and R. D. Boss, Image Processng. A study of the terated transform method, Sgnal Processng 29 (1992)

Module 2 LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS. Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 2 LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS. Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur Module LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Lesson 3 Lossless Compresson: Huffman Codng Instructonal Objectves At the end of ths lesson, the students should be able to:. Defne and measure source entropy..

More information

The Development of Web Log Mining Based on Improve-K-Means Clustering Analysis

The Development of Web Log Mining Based on Improve-K-Means Clustering Analysis The Development of Web Log Mnng Based on Improve-K-Means Clusterng Analyss TngZhong Wang * College of Informaton Technology, Luoyang Normal Unversty, Luoyang, 471022, Chna wangtngzhong2@sna.cn Abstract.

More information

Effective wavelet-based compression method with adaptive quantization threshold and zerotree coding

Effective wavelet-based compression method with adaptive quantization threshold and zerotree coding Effectve wavelet-based compresson method wth adaptve quantzaton threshold and zerotree codng Artur Przelaskowsk, Maran Kazubek, Tomasz Jamrógewcz Insttute of Radoelectroncs, Warsaw Unversty of Technology,

More information

benefit is 2, paid if the policyholder dies within the year, and probability of death within the year is ).

benefit is 2, paid if the policyholder dies within the year, and probability of death within the year is ). REVIEW OF RISK MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS LOSS DISTRIBUTIONS AND INSURANCE Loss and nsurance: When someone s subject to the rsk of ncurrng a fnancal loss, the loss s generally modeled usng a random varable or

More information

Communication Networks II Contents

Communication Networks II Contents 8 / 1 -- Communcaton Networs II (Görg) -- www.comnets.un-bremen.de Communcaton Networs II Contents 1 Fundamentals of probablty theory 2 Traffc n communcaton networs 3 Stochastc & Marovan Processes (SP

More information

Nonlinear data mapping by neural networks

Nonlinear data mapping by neural networks Nonlnear data mappng by neural networks R.P.W. Dun Delft Unversty of Technology, Netherlands Abstract A revew s gven of the use of neural networks for nonlnear mappng of hgh dmensonal data on lower dmensonal

More information

MAPP. MERIS level 3 cloud and water vapour products. Issue: 1. Revision: 0. Date: 9.12.1998. Function Name Organisation Signature Date

MAPP. MERIS level 3 cloud and water vapour products. Issue: 1. Revision: 0. Date: 9.12.1998. Function Name Organisation Signature Date Ttel: Project: Doc. No.: MERIS level 3 cloud and water vapour products MAPP MAPP-ATBD-ClWVL3 Issue: 1 Revson: 0 Date: 9.12.1998 Functon Name Organsaton Sgnature Date Author: Bennartz FUB Preusker FUB Schüller

More information

Frequency Selective IQ Phase and IQ Amplitude Imbalance Adjustments for OFDM Direct Conversion Transmitters

Frequency Selective IQ Phase and IQ Amplitude Imbalance Adjustments for OFDM Direct Conversion Transmitters Frequency Selectve IQ Phase and IQ Ampltude Imbalance Adjustments for OFDM Drect Converson ransmtters Edmund Coersmeer, Ernst Zelnsk Noka, Meesmannstrasse 103, 44807 Bochum, Germany edmund.coersmeer@noka.com,

More information

An Enhanced Super-Resolution System with Improved Image Registration, Automatic Image Selection, and Image Enhancement

An Enhanced Super-Resolution System with Improved Image Registration, Automatic Image Selection, and Image Enhancement An Enhanced Super-Resoluton System wth Improved Image Regstraton, Automatc Image Selecton, and Image Enhancement Yu-Chuan Kuo ( ), Chen-Yu Chen ( ), and Chou-Shann Fuh ( ) Department of Computer Scence

More information

Basic Image Compression Algorithm and Introduction to JPEG Standard

Basic Image Compression Algorithm and Introduction to JPEG Standard Basc Image Compresson Algorthm and Introducton to JPEG Standard Pao-Yen Ln E-mal: r97942117@ntu.edu.tw Graduate Insttute of Communcaton Engneerng atonal Tawan Unversty, Tape, Tawan, ROC Abstract Because

More information

8.5 UNITARY AND HERMITIAN MATRICES. The conjugate transpose of a complex matrix A, denoted by A*, is given by

8.5 UNITARY AND HERMITIAN MATRICES. The conjugate transpose of a complex matrix A, denoted by A*, is given by 6 CHAPTER 8 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES 5. Fnd the kernel of the lnear transformaton gven n Exercse 5. In Exercses 55 and 56, fnd the mage of v, for the ndcated composton, where and are gven by the followng

More information

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304-C) Lecture 12

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304-C) Lecture 12 14 The Ch-squared dstrbuton PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304-C) Lecture 1 If a normal varable X, havng mean µ and varance σ, s standardsed, the new varable Z has a mean 0 and varance 1. When ths standardsed

More information

) of the Cell class is created containing information about events associated with the cell. Events are added to the Cell instance

) of the Cell class is created containing information about events associated with the cell. Events are added to the Cell instance Calbraton Method Instances of the Cell class (one nstance for each FMS cell) contan ADC raw data and methods assocated wth each partcular FMS cell. The calbraton method ncludes event selecton (Class Cell

More information

What is Candidate Sampling

What is Candidate Sampling What s Canddate Samplng Say we have a multclass or mult label problem where each tranng example ( x, T ) conssts of a context x a small (mult)set of target classes T out of a large unverse L of possble

More information

Vision Mouse. Saurabh Sarkar a* University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION

Vision Mouse. Saurabh Sarkar a* University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION Vson Mouse Saurabh Sarkar a* a Unversty of Cncnnat, Cncnnat, USA ABSTRACT The report dscusses a vson based approach towards trackng of eyes and fngers. The report descrbes the process of locatng the possble

More information

Enabling P2P One-view Multi-party Video Conferencing

Enabling P2P One-view Multi-party Video Conferencing Enablng P2P One-vew Mult-party Vdeo Conferencng Yongxang Zhao, Yong Lu, Changja Chen, and JanYn Zhang Abstract Mult-Party Vdeo Conferencng (MPVC) facltates realtme group nteracton between users. Whle P2P

More information

Luby s Alg. for Maximal Independent Sets using Pairwise Independence

Luby s Alg. for Maximal Independent Sets using Pairwise Independence Lecture Notes for Randomzed Algorthms Luby s Alg. for Maxmal Independent Sets usng Parwse Independence Last Updated by Erc Vgoda on February, 006 8. Maxmal Independent Sets For a graph G = (V, E), an ndependent

More information

1. Fundamentals of probability theory 2. Emergence of communication traffic 3. Stochastic & Markovian Processes (SP & MP)

1. Fundamentals of probability theory 2. Emergence of communication traffic 3. Stochastic & Markovian Processes (SP & MP) 6.3 / -- Communcaton Networks II (Görg) SS20 -- www.comnets.un-bremen.de Communcaton Networks II Contents. Fundamentals of probablty theory 2. Emergence of communcaton traffc 3. Stochastc & Markovan Processes

More information

ADAPTIVE WIENER-TURBO SYSTEM AND ADAPTIVE WIENER-TURBO SYSTEMS WITH JPEG & BIT PLANE COMPRESSIONS

ADAPTIVE WIENER-TURBO SYSTEM AND ADAPTIVE WIENER-TURBO SYSTEMS WITH JPEG & BIT PLANE COMPRESSIONS ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING YEAR VOLUME NUMBER : 2007 : 7 : 1 (257-276) ADAPTIVE WIENER-TURBO SYSTEM AND ADAPTIVE WIENER-TURBO SYSTEMS WITH JPEG & BIT PLANE COMPRESSIONS

More information

Loop Parallelization

Loop Parallelization - - Loop Parallelzaton C-52 Complaton steps: nested loops operatng on arrays, sequentell executon of teraton space DECLARE B[..,..+] FOR I :=.. FOR J :=.. I B[I,J] := B[I-,J]+B[I-,J-] ED FOR ED FOR analyze

More information

CS 2750 Machine Learning. Lecture 17a. Clustering. CS 2750 Machine Learning. Clustering

CS 2750 Machine Learning. Lecture 17a. Clustering. CS 2750 Machine Learning. Clustering Lecture 7a Clusterng Mlos Hauskrecht mlos@cs.ptt.edu 539 Sennott Square Clusterng Groups together smlar nstances n the data sample Basc clusterng problem: dstrbute data nto k dfferent groups such that

More information

8 Algorithm for Binary Searching in Trees

8 Algorithm for Binary Searching in Trees 8 Algorthm for Bnary Searchng n Trees In ths secton we present our algorthm for bnary searchng n trees. A crucal observaton employed by the algorthm s that ths problem can be effcently solved when the

More information

Forecasting the Direction and Strength of Stock Market Movement

Forecasting the Direction and Strength of Stock Market Movement Forecastng the Drecton and Strength of Stock Market Movement Jngwe Chen Mng Chen Nan Ye cjngwe@stanford.edu mchen5@stanford.edu nanye@stanford.edu Abstract - Stock market s one of the most complcated systems

More information

1 Approximation Algorithms

1 Approximation Algorithms CME 305: Dscrete Mathematcs and Algorthms 1 Approxmaton Algorthms In lght of the apparent ntractablty of the problems we beleve not to le n P, t makes sense to pursue deas other than complete solutons

More information

Recurrence. 1 Definitions and main statements

Recurrence. 1 Definitions and main statements Recurrence 1 Defntons and man statements Let X n, n = 0, 1, 2,... be a MC wth the state space S = (1, 2,...), transton probabltes p j = P {X n+1 = j X n = }, and the transton matrx P = (p j ),j S def.

More information

INVESTIGATION OF VEHICULAR USERS FAIRNESS IN CDMA-HDR NETWORKS

INVESTIGATION OF VEHICULAR USERS FAIRNESS IN CDMA-HDR NETWORKS 21 22 September 2007, BULGARIA 119 Proceedngs of the Internatonal Conference on Informaton Technologes (InfoTech-2007) 21 st 22 nd September 2007, Bulgara vol. 2 INVESTIGATION OF VEHICULAR USERS FAIRNESS

More information

Image Compression of MRI Image using Planar Coding

Image Compression of MRI Image using Planar Coding (IJACSA) Internatonal Journal of Advanced Computer Scence and Applcatons, Image Compresson of MRI Image usng Planar Codng Laltha Y. S Department of Electroncs & Communcaton Engg. Appa Insttute of Engneerng

More information

Face Verification Problem. Face Recognition Problem. Application: Access Control. Biometric Authentication. Face Verification (1:1 matching)

Face Verification Problem. Face Recognition Problem. Application: Access Control. Biometric Authentication. Face Verification (1:1 matching) Face Recognton Problem Face Verfcaton Problem Face Verfcaton (1:1 matchng) Querymage face query Face Recognton (1:N matchng) database Applcaton: Access Control www.vsage.com www.vsoncs.com Bometrc Authentcaton

More information

On the Optimal Control of a Cascade of Hydro-Electric Power Stations

On the Optimal Control of a Cascade of Hydro-Electric Power Stations On the Optmal Control of a Cascade of Hydro-Electrc Power Statons M.C.M. Guedes a, A.F. Rbero a, G.V. Smrnov b and S. Vlela c a Department of Mathematcs, School of Scences, Unversty of Porto, Portugal;

More information

VoIP Playout Buffer Adjustment using Adaptive Estimation of Network Delays

VoIP Playout Buffer Adjustment using Adaptive Estimation of Network Delays VoIP Playout Buffer Adjustment usng Adaptve Estmaton of Network Delays Mroslaw Narbutt and Lam Murphy* Department of Computer Scence Unversty College Dubln, Belfeld, Dubln, IRELAND Abstract The poor qualty

More information

BERNSTEIN POLYNOMIALS

BERNSTEIN POLYNOMIALS On-Lne Geometrc Modelng Notes BERNSTEIN POLYNOMIALS Kenneth I. Joy Vsualzaton and Graphcs Research Group Department of Computer Scence Unversty of Calforna, Davs Overvew Polynomals are ncredbly useful

More information

v a 1 b 1 i, a 2 b 2 i,..., a n b n i.

v a 1 b 1 i, a 2 b 2 i,..., a n b n i. SECTION 8.4 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES AND INNER PRODUCTS 455 8.4 COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES AND INNER PRODUCTS All the vector spaces we have studed thus far n the text are real vector spaces snce the scalars are

More information

Calculating the high frequency transmission line parameters of power cables

Calculating the high frequency transmission line parameters of power cables < ' Calculatng the hgh frequency transmsson lne parameters of power cables Authors: Dr. John Dcknson, Laboratory Servces Manager, N 0 RW E B Communcatons Mr. Peter J. Ncholson, Project Assgnment Manager,

More information

A frequency decomposition time domain model of broadband frequency-dependent absorption: Model II

A frequency decomposition time domain model of broadband frequency-dependent absorption: Model II A frequenc decomposton tme doman model of broadband frequenc-dependent absorpton: Model II W. Chen Smula Research Laborator, P. O. Box. 134, 135 Lsaker, Norwa (1 Aprl ) (Proect collaborators: A. Bounam,

More information

The Greedy Method. Introduction. 0/1 Knapsack Problem

The Greedy Method. Introduction. 0/1 Knapsack Problem The Greedy Method Introducton We have completed data structures. We now are gong to look at algorthm desgn methods. Often we are lookng at optmzaton problems whose performance s exponental. For an optmzaton

More information

RESEARCH ON DUAL-SHAKER SINE VIBRATION CONTROL. Yaoqi FENG 1, Hanping QIU 1. China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) yaoqi.feng@yahoo.

RESEARCH ON DUAL-SHAKER SINE VIBRATION CONTROL. Yaoqi FENG 1, Hanping QIU 1. China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) yaoqi.feng@yahoo. ICSV4 Carns Australa 9- July, 007 RESEARCH ON DUAL-SHAKER SINE VIBRATION CONTROL Yaoq FENG, Hanpng QIU Dynamc Test Laboratory, BISEE Chna Academy of Space Technology (CAST) yaoq.feng@yahoo.com Abstract

More information

Passive Filters. References: Barbow (pp 265-275), Hayes & Horowitz (pp 32-60), Rizzoni (Chap. 6)

Passive Filters. References: Barbow (pp 265-275), Hayes & Horowitz (pp 32-60), Rizzoni (Chap. 6) Passve Flters eferences: Barbow (pp 6575), Hayes & Horowtz (pp 360), zzon (Chap. 6) Frequencyselectve or flter crcuts pass to the output only those nput sgnals that are n a desred range of frequences (called

More information

CHOLESTEROL REFERENCE METHOD LABORATORY NETWORK. Sample Stability Protocol

CHOLESTEROL REFERENCE METHOD LABORATORY NETWORK. Sample Stability Protocol CHOLESTEROL REFERENCE METHOD LABORATORY NETWORK Sample Stablty Protocol Background The Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) developed certfcaton protocols for total cholesterol, HDL

More information

Time Domain simulation of PD Propagation in XLPE Cables Considering Frequency Dependent Parameters

Time Domain simulation of PD Propagation in XLPE Cables Considering Frequency Dependent Parameters Internatonal Journal of Smart Grd and Clean Energy Tme Doman smulaton of PD Propagaton n XLPE Cables Consderng Frequency Dependent Parameters We Zhang a, Jan He b, Ln Tan b, Xuejun Lv b, Hong-Je L a *

More information

Traffic State Estimation in the Traffic Management Center of Berlin

Traffic State Estimation in the Traffic Management Center of Berlin Traffc State Estmaton n the Traffc Management Center of Berln Authors: Peter Vortsch, PTV AG, Stumpfstrasse, D-763 Karlsruhe, Germany phone ++49/72/965/35, emal peter.vortsch@ptv.de Peter Möhl, PTV AG,

More information

Logical Development Of Vogel s Approximation Method (LD-VAM): An Approach To Find Basic Feasible Solution Of Transportation Problem

Logical Development Of Vogel s Approximation Method (LD-VAM): An Approach To Find Basic Feasible Solution Of Transportation Problem INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME, ISSUE, FEBRUARY ISSN 77-866 Logcal Development Of Vogel s Approxmaton Method (LD- An Approach To Fnd Basc Feasble Soluton Of Transportaton

More information

APPLICATION OF PROBE DATA COLLECTED VIA INFRARED BEACONS TO TRAFFIC MANEGEMENT

APPLICATION OF PROBE DATA COLLECTED VIA INFRARED BEACONS TO TRAFFIC MANEGEMENT APPLICATION OF PROBE DATA COLLECTED VIA INFRARED BEACONS TO TRAFFIC MANEGEMENT Toshhko Oda (1), Kochro Iwaoka (2) (1), (2) Infrastructure Systems Busness Unt, Panasonc System Networks Co., Ltd. Saedo-cho

More information

Quantization Effects in Digital Filters

Quantization Effects in Digital Filters Quantzaton Effects n Dgtal Flters Dstrbuton of Truncaton Errors In two's complement representaton an exact number would have nfntely many bts (n general). When we lmt the number of bts to some fnte value

More information

QUANTIZATION. Outlines. Joseph RONSIN. Definition Scalar quantization. Vector quantization. Definition Distortion Non uniform quantization

QUANTIZATION. Outlines. Joseph RONSIN. Definition Scalar quantization. Vector quantization. Definition Distortion Non uniform quantization QUANTIZATION by Joseph RONSIN Outlnes Scalar quantzaton Dstorton Non unform quantzaton Vector quantzaton Quantzaton 3 : Dscretsaton of color space One value for a set of values on an nterval Defnng number

More information

Fast Fuzzy Clustering of Web Page Collections

Fast Fuzzy Clustering of Web Page Collections Fast Fuzzy Clusterng of Web Page Collectons Chrstan Borgelt and Andreas Nürnberger Dept. of Knowledge Processng and Language Engneerng Otto-von-Guercke-Unversty of Magdeburg Unverstätsplatz, D-396 Magdeburg,

More information

Audio coding: 3-dimensional stereo and presence

Audio coding: 3-dimensional stereo and presence Audo codng: 3-dmensonal stereo and presence Audo codng cheme: CIN / TI / M.Eng. Verson: 1.0 Last update: January 2002 Date: January 2002 Lecturer: Davd Robnson Unversty of Essex 2002-15 - Audo Codng, 3-D

More information

Calculation of Sampling Weights

Calculation of Sampling Weights Perre Foy Statstcs Canada 4 Calculaton of Samplng Weghts 4.1 OVERVIEW The basc sample desgn used n TIMSS Populatons 1 and 2 was a two-stage stratfed cluster desgn. 1 The frst stage conssted of a sample

More information

Gender Classification for Real-Time Audience Analysis System

Gender Classification for Real-Time Audience Analysis System Gender Classfcaton for Real-Tme Audence Analyss System Vladmr Khryashchev, Lev Shmaglt, Andrey Shemyakov, Anton Lebedev Yaroslavl State Unversty Yaroslavl, Russa vhr@yandex.ru, shmaglt_lev@yahoo.com, andrey.shemakov@gmal.com,

More information

+ + + - - This circuit than can be reduced to a planar circuit

+ + + - - This circuit than can be reduced to a planar circuit MeshCurrent Method The meshcurrent s analog of the nodeoltage method. We sole for a new set of arables, mesh currents, that automatcally satsfy KCLs. As such, meshcurrent method reduces crcut soluton to

More information

Conversion between the vector and raster data structures using Fuzzy Geographical Entities

Conversion between the vector and raster data structures using Fuzzy Geographical Entities Converson between the vector and raster data structures usng Fuzzy Geographcal Enttes Cdála Fonte Department of Mathematcs Faculty of Scences and Technology Unversty of Combra, Apartado 38, 3 454 Combra,

More information

INSTITUT FÜR INFORMATIK

INSTITUT FÜR INFORMATIK INSTITUT FÜR INFORMATIK Schedulng jobs on unform processors revsted Klaus Jansen Chrstna Robene Bercht Nr. 1109 November 2011 ISSN 2192-6247 CHRISTIAN-ALBRECHTS-UNIVERSITÄT ZU KIEL Insttut für Informat

More information

Abstract. Clustering ensembles have emerged as a powerful method for improving both the

Abstract. Clustering ensembles have emerged as a powerful method for improving both the Clusterng Ensembles: {topchyal, Models jan, of punch}@cse.msu.edu Consensus and Weak Parttons * Alexander Topchy, Anl K. Jan, and Wllam Punch Department of Computer Scence and Engneerng, Mchgan State Unversty

More information

Efficient Striping Techniques for Variable Bit Rate Continuous Media File Servers æ

Efficient Striping Techniques for Variable Bit Rate Continuous Media File Servers æ Effcent Strpng Technques for Varable Bt Rate Contnuous Meda Fle Servers æ Prashant J. Shenoy Harrck M. Vn Department of Computer Scence, Department of Computer Scences, Unversty of Massachusetts at Amherst

More information

An Alternative Way to Measure Private Equity Performance

An Alternative Way to Measure Private Equity Performance An Alternatve Way to Measure Prvate Equty Performance Peter Todd Parlux Investment Technology LLC Summary Internal Rate of Return (IRR) s probably the most common way to measure the performance of prvate

More information

1 Example 1: Axis-aligned rectangles

1 Example 1: Axis-aligned rectangles COS 511: Theoretcal Machne Learnng Lecturer: Rob Schapre Lecture # 6 Scrbe: Aaron Schld February 21, 2013 Last class, we dscussed an analogue for Occam s Razor for nfnte hypothess spaces that, n conjuncton

More information

OBJECTIVE QUALITY MEASURES FOR COMPRESSED IMAGES

OBJECTIVE QUALITY MEASURES FOR COMPRESSED IMAGES Nat.Lab. Unclassfed Report UR 000/818 Date of ssue: 08/00 Unclassfed Report OBJECTIVE QUALITY MEASURES FOR COMPRESSED IMAGES Grégory HAMON Konnkljke Phlps Electroncs N.V. 000 Contact: rene.van.der.vleuten@phlps.com.

More information

An Interest-Oriented Network Evolution Mechanism for Online Communities

An Interest-Oriented Network Evolution Mechanism for Online Communities An Interest-Orented Network Evoluton Mechansm for Onlne Communtes Cahong Sun and Xaopng Yang School of Informaton, Renmn Unversty of Chna, Bejng 100872, P.R. Chna {chsun,yang}@ruc.edu.cn Abstract. Onlne

More information

THE DISTRIBUTION OF LOAN PORTFOLIO VALUE * Oldrich Alfons Vasicek

THE DISTRIBUTION OF LOAN PORTFOLIO VALUE * Oldrich Alfons Vasicek HE DISRIBUION OF LOAN PORFOLIO VALUE * Oldrch Alfons Vascek he amount of captal necessary to support a portfolo of debt securtes depends on the probablty dstrbuton of the portfolo loss. Consder a portfolo

More information

Risk-based Fatigue Estimate of Deep Water Risers -- Course Project for EM388F: Fracture Mechanics, Spring 2008

Risk-based Fatigue Estimate of Deep Water Risers -- Course Project for EM388F: Fracture Mechanics, Spring 2008 Rsk-based Fatgue Estmate of Deep Water Rsers -- Course Project for EM388F: Fracture Mechancs, Sprng 2008 Chen Sh Department of Cvl, Archtectural, and Envronmental Engneerng The Unversty of Texas at Austn

More information

Single and multiple stage classifiers implementing logistic discrimination

Single and multiple stage classifiers implementing logistic discrimination Sngle and multple stage classfers mplementng logstc dscrmnaton Hélo Radke Bttencourt 1 Dens Alter de Olvera Moraes 2 Vctor Haertel 2 1 Pontfíca Unversdade Católca do Ro Grande do Sul - PUCRS Av. Ipranga,

More information

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, August 5-9, 2001

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, August 5-9, 2001 Proceedngs of the Annual Meetng of the Amercan Statstcal Assocaton, August 5-9, 2001 LIST-ASSISTED SAMPLING: THE EFFECT OF TELEPHONE SYSTEM CHANGES ON DESIGN 1 Clyde Tucker, Bureau of Labor Statstcs James

More information

Realistic Image Synthesis

Realistic Image Synthesis Realstc Image Synthess - Combned Samplng and Path Tracng - Phlpp Slusallek Karol Myszkowsk Vncent Pegoraro Overvew: Today Combned Samplng (Multple Importance Samplng) Renderng and Measurng Equaton Random

More information

Forecasting the Demand of Emergency Supplies: Based on the CBR Theory and BP Neural Network

Forecasting the Demand of Emergency Supplies: Based on the CBR Theory and BP Neural Network 700 Proceedngs of the 8th Internatonal Conference on Innovaton & Management Forecastng the Demand of Emergency Supples: Based on the CBR Theory and BP Neural Network Fu Deqang, Lu Yun, L Changbng School

More information

Parallel Numerical Simulation of Visual Neurons for Analysis of Optical Illusion

Parallel Numerical Simulation of Visual Neurons for Analysis of Optical Illusion 212 Thrd Internatonal Conference on Networkng and Computng Parallel Numercal Smulaton of Vsual Neurons for Analyss of Optcal Illuson Akra Egashra, Shunj Satoh, Hdetsugu Ire and Tsutomu Yoshnaga Graduate

More information

Dynamic Pricing for Smart Grid with Reinforcement Learning

Dynamic Pricing for Smart Grid with Reinforcement Learning Dynamc Prcng for Smart Grd wth Renforcement Learnng Byung-Gook Km, Yu Zhang, Mhaela van der Schaar, and Jang-Won Lee Samsung Electroncs, Suwon, Korea Department of Electrcal Engneerng, UCLA, Los Angeles,

More information

Linear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits

Linear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits Lnear Crcuts Analyss. Superposton, Theenn /Norton Equalent crcuts So far we hae explored tmendependent (resste) elements that are also lnear. A tmendependent elements s one for whch we can plot an / cure.

More information

Scalar and Vector Quantization

Scalar and Vector Quantization Scalar and Vector Quantzaton Máro A. T. Fgueredo, Departamento de Engenhara Electrotécnca e de Computadores, Insttuto Superor Técnco, Lsboa, Portugal maro.fgueredo@st.utl.pt November 2008 Quantzaton s

More information

Minimal Coding Network With Combinatorial Structure For Instantaneous Recovery From Edge Failures

Minimal Coding Network With Combinatorial Structure For Instantaneous Recovery From Edge Failures Mnmal Codng Network Wth Combnatoral Structure For Instantaneous Recovery From Edge Falures Ashly Joseph 1, Mr.M.Sadsh Sendl 2, Dr.S.Karthk 3 1 Fnal Year ME CSE Student Department of Computer Scence Engneerng

More information

A DYNAMIC CRASHING METHOD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT USING SIMULATION-BASED OPTIMIZATION. Michael E. Kuhl Radhamés A. Tolentino-Peña

A DYNAMIC CRASHING METHOD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT USING SIMULATION-BASED OPTIMIZATION. Michael E. Kuhl Radhamés A. Tolentino-Peña Proceedngs of the 2008 Wnter Smulaton Conference S. J. Mason, R. R. Hll, L. Mönch, O. Rose, T. Jefferson, J. W. Fowler eds. A DYNAMIC CRASHING METHOD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT USING SIMULATION-BASED OPTIMIZATION

More information

INTERACTING BANKS OF BAYESIAN MATCHED FILTERS

INTERACTING BANKS OF BAYESIAN MATCHED FILTERS SPIE Proceedngs: Sgnal and Data Processng of Small Targets, Vol. 4048, Orlando, FL, 2000. INTERACTING BANKS OF BAYESIAN MATCHED FILTERS B. L. Rozovsk, A. Petrov, and R. B. Blažek. Center for Appled Mathematcal

More information

A DATA MINING APPLICATION IN A STUDENT DATABASE

A DATA MINING APPLICATION IN A STUDENT DATABASE JOURNAL OF AERONAUTICS AND SPACE TECHNOLOGIES JULY 005 VOLUME NUMBER (53-57) A DATA MINING APPLICATION IN A STUDENT DATABASE Şenol Zafer ERDOĞAN Maltepe Ünversty Faculty of Engneerng Büyükbakkalköy-Istanbul

More information

A Multi-mode Image Tracking System Based on Distributed Fusion

A Multi-mode Image Tracking System Based on Distributed Fusion A Mult-mode Image Tracng System Based on Dstrbuted Fuson Ln zheng Chongzhao Han Dongguang Zuo Hongsen Yan School of Electroncs & nformaton engneerng, X an Jaotong Unversty X an, Shaanx, Chna Lnzheng@malst.xjtu.edu.cn

More information

PAS: A Packet Accounting System to Limit the Effects of DoS & DDoS. Debish Fesehaye & Klara Naherstedt University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign

PAS: A Packet Accounting System to Limit the Effects of DoS & DDoS. Debish Fesehaye & Klara Naherstedt University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign PAS: A Packet Accountng System to Lmt the Effects of DoS & DDoS Debsh Fesehaye & Klara Naherstedt Unversty of Illnos-Urbana Champagn DoS and DDoS DDoS attacks are ncreasng threats to our dgtal world. Exstng

More information

Joint Resource Allocation and Base-Station. Assignment for the Downlink in CDMA Networks

Joint Resource Allocation and Base-Station. Assignment for the Downlink in CDMA Networks Jont Resource Allocaton and Base-Staton 1 Assgnment for the Downlnk n CDMA Networks Jang Won Lee, Rav R. Mazumdar, and Ness B. Shroff School of Electrcal and Computer Engneerng Purdue Unversty West Lafayette,

More information

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput.

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. J. Parallel Dstrb. Comput. 71 (2011) 62 76 Contents lsts avalable at ScenceDrect J. Parallel Dstrb. Comput. journal homepage: www.elsever.com/locate/jpdc Optmzng server placement n dstrbuted systems n

More information

An Introduction to 3G Monte-Carlo simulations within ProMan

An Introduction to 3G Monte-Carlo simulations within ProMan An Introducton to 3G Monte-Carlo smulatons wthn ProMan responsble edtor: Hermann Buddendck AWE Communcatons GmbH Otto-Llenthal-Str. 36 D-71034 Böblngen Phone: +49 70 31 71 49 7-16 Fax: +49 70 31 71 49

More information

greatest common divisor

greatest common divisor 4. GCD 1 The greatest common dvsor of two ntegers a and b (not both zero) s the largest nteger whch s a common factor of both a and b. We denote ths number by gcd(a, b), or smply (a, b) when there s no

More information

Automated information technology for ionosphere monitoring of low-orbit navigation satellite signals

Automated information technology for ionosphere monitoring of low-orbit navigation satellite signals Automated nformaton technology for onosphere montorng of low-orbt navgaton satellte sgnals Alexander Romanov, Sergey Trusov and Alexey Romanov Federal State Untary Enterprse Russan Insttute of Space Devce

More information

Techniques for multi-resolution image registration in the presence of occlusions 1

Techniques for multi-resolution image registration in the presence of occlusions 1 Technques for mult-resoluton mage regstraton n the presence of occlusons organ cgure Harold S. Stone morganm@mt.edu, hstone@research.n.nec.com Abstract Ths paper descrbes and compares technques for regsterng

More information

ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN QUALITY, TIME, AND COST IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING

ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN QUALITY, TIME, AND COST IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN QUALITY, TIME, AND COST IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING Matthew J. Lberatore, Department of Management and Operatons, Vllanova Unversty, Vllanova, PA 19085, 610-519-4390,

More information

How Sets of Coherent Probabilities May Serve as Models for Degrees of Incoherence

How Sets of Coherent Probabilities May Serve as Models for Degrees of Incoherence 1 st Internatonal Symposum on Imprecse Probabltes and Ther Applcatons, Ghent, Belgum, 29 June 2 July 1999 How Sets of Coherent Probabltes May Serve as Models for Degrees of Incoherence Mar J. Schervsh

More information

A hybrid global optimization algorithm based on parallel chaos optimization and outlook algorithm

A hybrid global optimization algorithm based on parallel chaos optimization and outlook algorithm Avalable onlne www.ocpr.com Journal of Chemcal and Pharmaceutcal Research, 2014, 6(7):1884-1889 Research Artcle ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 A hybrd global optmzaton algorthm based on parallel

More information

Efficient Project Portfolio as a tool for Enterprise Risk Management

Efficient Project Portfolio as a tool for Enterprise Risk Management Effcent Proect Portfolo as a tool for Enterprse Rsk Management Valentn O. Nkonov Ural State Techncal Unversty Growth Traectory Consultng Company January 5, 27 Effcent Proect Portfolo as a tool for Enterprse

More information

ivoip: an Intelligent Bandwidth Management Scheme for VoIP in WLANs

ivoip: an Intelligent Bandwidth Management Scheme for VoIP in WLANs VoIP: an Intellgent Bandwdth Management Scheme for VoIP n WLANs Zhenhu Yuan and Gabrel-Mro Muntean Abstract Voce over Internet Protocol (VoIP) has been wdely used by many moble consumer devces n IEEE 802.11

More information

Institute of Informatics, Faculty of Business and Management, Brno University of Technology,Czech Republic

Institute of Informatics, Faculty of Business and Management, Brno University of Technology,Czech Republic Lagrange Multplers as Quanttatve Indcators n Economcs Ivan Mezník Insttute of Informatcs, Faculty of Busness and Management, Brno Unversty of TechnologCzech Republc Abstract The quanttatve role of Lagrange

More information

An ILP Formulation for Task Mapping and Scheduling on Multi-core Architectures

An ILP Formulation for Task Mapping and Scheduling on Multi-core Architectures An ILP Formulaton for Task Mappng and Schedulng on Mult-core Archtectures Yng Y, We Han, Xn Zhao, Ahmet T. Erdogan and Tughrul Arslan Unversty of Ednburgh, The Kng's Buldngs, Mayfeld Road, Ednburgh, EH9

More information

Data Broadcast on a Multi-System Heterogeneous Overlayed Wireless Network *

Data Broadcast on a Multi-System Heterogeneous Overlayed Wireless Network * JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 819-840 (2008) Data Broadcast on a Mult-System Heterogeneous Overlayed Wreless Network * Department of Computer Scence Natonal Chao Tung Unversty Hsnchu,

More information

A machine vision approach for detecting and inspecting circular parts

A machine vision approach for detecting and inspecting circular parts A machne vson approach for detectng and nspectng crcular parts Du-Mng Tsa Machne Vson Lab. Department of Industral Engneerng and Management Yuan-Ze Unversty, Chung-L, Tawan, R.O.C. E-mal: edmtsa@saturn.yzu.edu.tw

More information

Document Clustering Analysis Based on Hybrid PSO+K-means Algorithm

Document Clustering Analysis Based on Hybrid PSO+K-means Algorithm Document Clusterng Analyss Based on Hybrd PSO+K-means Algorthm Xaohu Cu, Thomas E. Potok Appled Software Engneerng Research Group, Computatonal Scences and Engneerng Dvson, Oak Rdge Natonal Laboratory,

More information

A Dynamic Load Balancing for Massive Multiplayer Online Game Server

A Dynamic Load Balancing for Massive Multiplayer Online Game Server A Dynamc Load Balancng for Massve Multplayer Onlne Game Server Jungyoul Lm, Jaeyong Chung, Jnryong Km and Kwanghyun Shm Dgtal Content Research Dvson Electroncs and Telecommuncatons Research Insttute Daejeon,

More information

- 573 A Possible Detector for the Study of Weak Interactions at Fermi Clash R. Singer Argonne National Laboratory

- 573 A Possible Detector for the Study of Weak Interactions at Fermi Clash R. Singer Argonne National Laboratory - 573 A Possble Detector for the Study of Weak nteractons at Ferm Clash R. Snger Argonne Natonal Laboratory The purpose of ths paper s to pont out what weak nteracton phenomena may exst for center-of-mass

More information

Feature selection for intrusion detection. Slobodan Petrović NISlab, Gjøvik University College

Feature selection for intrusion detection. Slobodan Petrović NISlab, Gjøvik University College Feature selecton for ntruson detecton Slobodan Petrovć NISlab, Gjøvk Unversty College Contents The feature selecton problem Intruson detecton Traffc features relevant for IDS The CFS measure The mrmr measure

More information

Comparison of Control Strategies for Shunt Active Power Filter under Different Load Conditions

Comparison of Control Strategies for Shunt Active Power Filter under Different Load Conditions Comparson of Control Strateges for Shunt Actve Power Flter under Dfferent Load Condtons Sanjay C. Patel 1, Tushar A. Patel 2 Lecturer, Electrcal Department, Government Polytechnc, alsad, Gujarat, Inda

More information

Software Alignment for Tracking Detectors

Software Alignment for Tracking Detectors Software Algnment for Trackng Detectors V. Blobel Insttut für Expermentalphysk, Unverstät Hamburg, Germany Abstract Trackng detectors n hgh energy physcs experments requre an accurate determnaton of a

More information

The Analysis of Outliers in Statistical Data

The Analysis of Outliers in Statistical Data THALES Project No. xxxx The Analyss of Outlers n Statstcal Data Research Team Chrysses Caron, Assocate Professor (P.I.) Vaslk Karot, Doctoral canddate Polychrons Economou, Chrstna Perrakou, Postgraduate

More information

Ring structure of splines on triangulations

Ring structure of splines on triangulations www.oeaw.ac.at Rng structure of splnes on trangulatons N. Vllamzar RICAM-Report 2014-48 www.rcam.oeaw.ac.at RING STRUCTURE OF SPLINES ON TRIANGULATIONS NELLY VILLAMIZAR Introducton For a trangulated regon

More information

Multiplication Algorithms for Radix-2 RN-Codings and Two s Complement Numbers

Multiplication Algorithms for Radix-2 RN-Codings and Two s Complement Numbers Multplcaton Algorthms for Radx- RN-Codngs and Two s Complement Numbers Jean-Luc Beuchat Projet Arénare, LIP, ENS Lyon 46, Allée d Itale F 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 jean-luc.beuchat@ens-lyon.fr Jean-Mchel Muller

More information

MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR SPECULAR SURFACE INSPECTION: USE OF SIMULATION PROCESS AS A TOOL FOR DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION

MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR SPECULAR SURFACE INSPECTION: USE OF SIMULATION PROCESS AS A TOOL FOR DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR SPECULAR SURFACE INSPECTION: USE OF SIMULATION PROCESS AS A TOOL FOR DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION R. SEULIN, F. MERIENNE and P. GORRIA Laboratore Le2, CNRS FRE2309, EA 242, Unversté

More information

Project Networks With Mixed-Time Constraints

Project Networks With Mixed-Time Constraints Project Networs Wth Mxed-Tme Constrants L Caccetta and B Wattananon Western Australan Centre of Excellence n Industral Optmsaton (WACEIO) Curtn Unversty of Technology GPO Box U1987 Perth Western Australa

More information

A Study on Secure Data Storage Strategy in Cloud Computing

A Study on Secure Data Storage Strategy in Cloud Computing Journal of Convergence Informaton Technology Volume 5, Number 7, Setember 00 A Study on Secure Data Storage Strategy n Cloud Comutng Danwe Chen, Yanjun He, Frst Author College of Comuter Technology, Nanjng

More information