International Financial Reporting Standard 3 Business Combinations

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1 International Financial Reporting Standard 3 Business Combinations Objective 1 The objective of this IFRS is to improve the relevance, reliability and comparability of the information that a reporting entity provides in its financial statements about a business combination and its effects. To accomplish that, this IFRS establishes principles and requirements for how the acquirer: recognises and measures in its financial statements the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree; recognises and measures the goodwill acquired in the business combination or a gain from a bargain purchase; and determines what information to disclose to enable users of the financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business combination. Scope 2 This IFRS applies to a transaction or other event that meets the definition of a business combination. This IFRS does not apply to: the formation of a joint venture. the acquisition of an asset or a group of assets that does not constitute a business. In such cases the acquirer shall identify and recognise the individual identifiable assets acquired (including those assets that meet the definition of, and recognition criteria for, intangible assets in IAS 38 Intangible Assets) and liabilities assumed. The cost of the group shall be allocated to the individual identifiable assets and liabilities on the basis of their relative fair values at the date of purchase. Such a transaction or event does not give rise to goodwill. a combination of entities or businesses under common control (paragraphs B1 B4 provide related application guidance). Identifying a business combination 3 An entity shall determine whether a transaction or other event is a business combination by applying the definition in this IFRS, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed constitute a business. If the assets acquired are not a business, the reporting entity shall account for the transaction or other event as an asset acquisition. Paragraphs B5 B12 provide guidance on identifying a business combination and the definition of a business. The acquisition method 4 An entity shall account for each business combination by applying the acquisition method. 5 Applying the acquisition method requires: identifying the acquirer; determining the acquisition date; 1

2 (d) recognising and measuring the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquiree; and recognising and measuring goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase. Identifying the acquirer 6 For each business combination, one of the combining entities shall be identified as the acquirer. 7 The guidance in IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements shall be used to identify the acquirer the entity that obtains control of the acquiree. If a business combination has occurred but applying the guidance in IAS 27 does not clearly indicate which of the combining entities is the acquirer, the factors in paragraphs B14 B18 shall be considered in making that determination. Determining the acquisition date 8 The acquirer shall identify the acquisition date, which is the date on which it obtains control of the acquiree. 9 The date on which the acquirer obtains control of the acquiree is generally the date on which the acquirer legally transfers the consideration, acquires the assets and assumes the liabilities of the acquiree the closing date. However, the acquirer might obtain control on a date that is either earlier or later than the closing date. For example, the acquisition date precedes the closing date if a written agreement provides that the acquirer obtains control of the acquiree on a date before the closing date. An acquirer shall consider all pertinent facts and circumstances in identifying the acquisition date. Recognising and measuring the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree Recognition principle 10 As of the acquisition date, the acquirer shall recognise, separately from goodwill, the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree. Recognition of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed is subject to the conditions specified in paragraphs 11 and 12. Recognition conditions 11 To qualify for recognition as part of applying the acquisition method, the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed must meet the definitions of assets and liabilities in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements at the acquisition date. For example, costs the acquirer expects but is not obliged to incur in the future to effect its plan to exit an activity of an acquiree or to terminate the employment of or relocate an acquiree s employees are not liabilities at the acquisition date. Therefore, the acquirer does not recognise those costs as part of applying the acquisition method. Instead, the acquirer recognises those costs in its post-combination financial statements in accordance with other IFRSs. 12 In addition, to qualify for recognition as part of applying the acquisition method, the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed must be part of what the acquirer and the acquiree (or its former owners) exchanged in the business combination transaction rather than the result of separate transactions. The acquirer shall apply the guidance in paragraphs to determine which assets acquired or liabilities assumed are part of the exchange for the acquiree and which, if any, are the result of separate transactions to be accounted for in accordance with their nature and the applicable IFRSs. 13 The acquirer s application of the recognition principle and conditions may result in recognising some assets and liabilities that the acquiree had not previously recognised as assets and liabilities in its financial statements. For example, the acquirer recognises the acquired identifiable intangible assets, such as a brand 2

3 name, a patent or a customer relationship, that the acquiree did not recognise as assets in its financial statements because it developed them internally and charged the related costs to expense. 14 Paragraphs B28 B40 provide guidance on recognising operating leases and intangible assets. Paragraphs specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this IFRS provides limited exceptions to the recognition principle and conditions. Classifying or designating identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination 15 At the acquisition date, the acquirer shall classify or designate the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed as necessary to apply other IFRSs subsequently. The acquirer shall make those classifications or designations on the basis of the contractual terms, economic conditions, its operating or accounting policies and other pertinent conditions as they exist at the acquisition date. 16 In some situations, IFRSs provide for different accounting depending on how an entity classifies or designates a particular asset or liability. Examples of classifications or designations that the acquirer shall make on the basis of the pertinent conditions as they exist at the acquisition date include but are not limited to: classification of particular financial assets and liabilities as a financial asset or liability at fair value through profit or loss, or as a financial asset available for sale or held to maturity, in accordance with IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement; designation of a derivative instrument as a hedging instrument in accordance with IAS 39; and assessment of whether an embedded derivative should be separated from the host contract in accordance with IAS 39 (which is a matter of classification as this IFRS uses that term). 17 This IFRS provides two exceptions to the principle in paragraph 15: classification of a lease contract as either an operating lease or a finance lease in accordance with IAS 17 Leases; and classification of a contract as an insurance contract in accordance with IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts. The acquirer shall classify those contracts on the basis of the contractual terms and other factors at the inception of the contract (or, if the terms of the contract have been modified in a manner that would change its classification, at the date of that modification, which might be the acquisition date). THE ACQUISITION METHOD Measurement principle 18 The acquirer shall measure the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition-date fair values. 19 For each business combination, the acquirer shall measure at the acquisition date components of noncontrolling interests in the acquiree that are present ownership interests and entitle their holders to a proportionate share of the entity's net assets in the event of liquidation at either; fair value; or the present ownership instruments' proportionate share in the recognised amounts of the acquiree's identifiable net assets. All other components of non-controlling interests shall be measured at their acquisition-date fair values, unless another measurement basis is required by IFRSs. 3

4 20 Paragraphs B41 B45 provide guidance on measuring the fair value of particular identifiable assets and a non-controlling interest in an acquiree. Paragraphs specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this IFRS provides limited exceptions to the measurement principle. Exceptions to the recognition or measurement principles 21 This IFRS provides limited exceptions to its recognition and measurement principles. Paragraphs specify both the particular items for which exceptions are provided and the nature of those exceptions. The acquirer shall account for those items by applying the requirements in paragraphs 22 31, which will result in some items being: recognised either by applying recognition conditions in addition to those in paragraphs 11 and 12 or by applying the requirements of other IFRSs, with results that differ from applying the recognition principle and conditions. measured at an amount other than their acquisition-date fair values. Exception to the recognition principle Contingent liabilities 22 IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets defines a contingent liability as: a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity; or a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognised because: it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability. 23 The requirements in IAS 37 do not apply in determining which contingent liabilities to recognise as of the acquisition date. Instead, the acquirer shall recognise as of the acquisition date a contingent liability assumed in a business combination if it is a present obligation that arises from past events and its fair value can be measured reliably. Therefore, contrary to IAS 37, the acquirer recognises a contingent liability assumed in a business combination at the acquisition date even if it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Paragraph 56 provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for contingent liabilities. Exceptions to both the recognition and measurement principles Income taxes 24 The acquirer shall recognise and measure a deferred tax asset or liability arising from the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination in accordance with IAS 12 Income Taxes. 25 The acquirer shall account for the potential tax effects of temporary differences and carryforwards of an acquiree that exist at the acquisition date or arise as a result of the acquisition in accordance with IAS 12. Employee benefits 26 The acquirer shall recognise and measure a liability (or asset, if any) related to the acquiree s employee benefit arrangements in accordance with IAS 19 Employee Benefits. Indemnification assets 27 The seller in a business combination may contractually indemnify the acquirer for the outcome of a contingency or uncertainty related to all or part of a specific asset or liability. For example, the seller may 4

5 indemnify the acquirer against losses above a specified amount on a liability arising from a particular contingency; in other words, the seller will guarantee that the acquirer s liability will not exceed a specified amount. As a result, the acquirer obtains an indemnification asset. The acquirer shall recognise an indemnification asset at the same time that it recognises the indemnified item measured on the same basis as the indemnified item, subject to the need for a valuation allowance for uncollectible amounts. Therefore, if the indemnification relates to an asset or a liability that is recognised at the acquisition date and measured at its acquisition-date fair value, the acquirer shall recognise the indemnification asset at the acquisition date measured at its acquisition-date fair value. For an indemnification asset measured at fair value, the effects of uncertainty about future cash flows because of collectibility considerations are included in the fair value measure and a separate valuation allowance is not necessary (paragraph B41 provides related application guidance). 28 In some circumstances, the indemnification may relate to an asset or a liability that is an exception to the recognition or measurement principles. For example, an indemnification may relate to a contingent liability that is not recognised at the acquisition date because its fair value is not reliably measurable at that date. Alternatively, an indemnification may relate to an asset or a liability, for example, one that results from an employee benefit, that is measured on a basis other than acquisition-date fair value. In those circumstances, the indemnification asset shall be recognised and measured using assumptions consistent with those used to measure the indemnified item, subject to management s assessment of the collectibility of the indemnification asset and any contractual limitations on the indemnified amount. Paragraph 57 provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for an indemnification asset. Exceptions to the recognition or measurement principles Exceptions to the measurement principle Reacquired rights 29 The acquirer shall measure the value of a reacquired right recognised as an intangible asset on the basis of the remaining contractual term of the related contract regardless of whether market participants would consider potential contractual renewals in determining its fair value. Paragraphs B35 and B36 provide related application guidance. Share-based payment awards 30 The acquirer shall measure a liability or an equity instrument related to share-based payment transactions of the acquiree or the replacement of an acquiree s share-based payment transactions with share-based payment transactions of the acquirer in accordance with the method in IFRS 2 Share-based Payment at the acquisition date. (This IFRS refers to the result of that method as the market-based measure of the sharebased payment transaction.) Assets held for sale 31 The acquirer shall measure an acquired non-current asset (or disposal group) that is classified as held for sale at the acquisition date in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations at fair value less costs to sell in accordance with paragraphs of that IFRS. Recognising and measuring goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase 32 The acquirer shall recognise goodwill as of the acquisition date measured as the excess of over below: the aggregate of: the consideration transferred measured in accordance with this IFRS, which generally requires acquisition-date fair value (see paragraph 37); the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree measured in accordance with this IFRS; and 5

6 (iii) in a business combination achieved in stages (see paragraphs 41 and 42), the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer s previously held equity interest in the acquiree. the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed measured in accordance with this IFRS. 33 In a business combination in which the acquirer and the acquiree (or its former owners) exchange only equity interests, the acquisition-date fair value of the acquiree s equity interests may be more reliably measurable than the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer s equity interests. If so, the acquirer shall determine the amount of goodwill by using the acquisition-date fair value of the acquiree s equity interests instead of the acquisition-date fair value of the equity interests transferred. To determine the amount of goodwill in a business combination in which no consideration is transferred, the acquirer shall use the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer s interest in the acquiree determined using a valuation technique in place of the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred (paragraph 32). Paragraphs B46 B49 provide related application guidance. Bargain purchases 34 Occasionally, an acquirer will make a bargain purchase, which is a business combination in which the amount in paragraph 32 exceeds the aggregate of the amounts specified in paragraph 32. If that excess remains after applying the requirements in paragraph 36, the acquirer shall recognise the resulting gain in profit or loss on the acquisition date. The gain shall be attributed to the acquirer. 35 A bargain purchase might happen, for example, in a business combination that is a forced sale in which the seller is acting under compulsion. However, the recognition or measurement exceptions for particular items discussed in paragraphs may also result in recognising a gain (or change the amount of a recognised gain) on a bargain purchase. 36 Before recognising a gain on a bargain purchase, the acquirer shall reassess whether it has correctly identified all of the assets acquired and all of the liabilities assumed and shall recognise any additional assets or liabilities that are identified in that review. The acquirer shall then review the procedures used to measure the amounts this IFRS requires to be recognised at the acquisition date for all of the following: (d) the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed; the non-controlling interest in the acquiree, if any; for a business combination achieved in stages, the acquirer s previously held equity interest in the acquiree; and the consideration transferred. The objective of the review is to ensure that the measurements appropriately reflect consideration of all available information as of the acquisition date. Consideration transferred 37 The consideration transferred in a business combination shall be measured at fair value, which shall be calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the acquirer, the liabilities incurred by the acquirer to former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the acquirer. (However, any portion of the acquirer s share-based payment awards exchanged for awards held by the acquiree s employees that is included in consideration transferred in the business combination shall be measured in accordance with paragraph 30 rather than at fair value.) Examples of potential forms of consideration include cash, other assets, a business or a subsidiary of the acquirer, contingent consideration, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants and member interests of mutual entities. 38 The consideration transferred may include assets or liabilities of the acquirer that have carrying amounts that differ from their fair values at the acquisition date (for example, non-monetary assets or a business of the acquirer). If so, the acquirer shall remeasure the transferred assets or liabilities to their fair values as of the acquisition date and recognise the resulting gains or losses, if any, in profit or loss. However, sometimes the transferred assets or liabilities remain within the combined entity after the business combination (for 6

7 example, because the assets or liabilities were transferred to the acquiree rather than to its former owners), and the acquirer therefore retains control of them. In that situation, the acquirer shall measure those assets and liabilities at their carrying amounts immediately before the acquisition date and shall not recognise a gain or loss in profit or loss on assets or liabilities it controls both before and after the business combination. Contingent consideration 39 The consideration the acquirer transfers in exchange for the acquiree includes any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement (see paragraph 37). The acquirer shall recognise the acquisition-date fair value of contingent consideration as part of the consideration transferred in exchange for the acquiree. 40 The acquirer shall classify an obligation to pay contingent consideration as a liability or as equity on the basis of the definitions of an equity instrument and a financial liability in paragraph 11 of IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation, or other applicable IFRSs. The acquirer shall classify as an asset a right to the return of previously transferred consideration if specified conditions are met. Paragraph 58 provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for contingent consideration. Additional guidance for applying the acquisition method to particular types of business combinations A business combination achieved in stages 41 An acquirer sometimes obtains control of an acquiree in which it held an equity interest immediately before the acquisition date. For example, on 31 December 20X1, Entity A holds a 35 per cent non-controlling equity interest in Entity B. On that date, Entity A purchases an additional 40 per cent interest in Entity B, which gives it control of Entity B. This IFRS refers to such a transaction as a business combination achieved in stages, sometimes also referred to as a step acquisition. 42 In a business combination achieved in stages, the acquirer shall remeasure its previously held equity interest in the acquiree at its acquisition-date fair value and recognise the resulting gain or loss, if any, in profit or loss. In prior reporting periods, the acquirer may have recognised changes in the value of its equity interest in the acquiree in other comprehensive income (for example, because the investment was classified as available for sale). If so, the amount that was recognised in other comprehensive income shall be recognised on the same basis as would be required if the acquirer had disposed directly of the previously held equity interest. A business combination achieved without the transfer of consideration 43 An acquirer sometimes obtains control of an acquiree without transferring consideration. The acquisition method of accounting for a business combination applies to those combinations. Such circumstances include: The acquiree repurchases a sufficient number of its own shares for an existing investor (the acquirer) to obtain control. Minority veto rights lapse that previously kept the acquirer from controlling an acquiree in which the acquirer held the majority voting rights. The acquirer and acquiree agree to combine their businesses by contract alone. The acquirer transfers no consideration in exchange for control of an acquiree and holds no equity interests in the acquiree, either on the acquisition date or previously. Examples of business combinations achieved by contract alone include bringing two businesses together in a stapling arrangement or forming a dual listed corporation. 44 In a business combination achieved by contract alone, the acquirer shall attribute to the owners of the acquiree the amount of the acquiree s net assets recognised in accordance with this IFRS. In other words, the equity interests in the acquiree held by parties other than the acquirer are a non-controlling interest in the 7

8 acquirer s post-combination financial statements even if the result is that all of the equity interests in the acquiree are attributed to the non-controlling interest. Measurement period 45 If the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the combination occurs, the acquirer shall report in its financial statements provisional amounts for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. During the measurement period, the acquirer shall retrospectively adjust the provisional amounts recognised at the acquisition date to reflect new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date and, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognised as of that date. During the measurement period, the acquirer shall also recognise additional assets or liabilities if new information is obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date and, if known, would have resulted in the recognition of those assets and liabilities as of that date. The measurement period ends as soon as the acquirer receives the information it was seeking about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date or learns that more information is not obtainable. However, the measurement period shall not exceed one year from the acquisition date. 46 The measurement period is the period after the acquisition date during which the acquirer may adjust the provisional amounts recognised for a business combination. The measurement period provides the acquirer with a reasonable time to obtain the information necessary to identify and measure the following as of the acquisition date in accordance with the requirements of this IFRS: (d) the identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree; the consideration transferred for the acquiree (or the other amount used in measuring goodwill); in a business combination achieved in stages, the equity interest in the acquiree previously held by the acquirer; and the resulting goodwill or gain on a bargain purchase. 47 The acquirer shall consider all pertinent factors in determining whether information obtained after the acquisition date should result in an adjustment to the provisional amounts recognised or whether that information results from events that occurred after the acquisition date. Pertinent factors include the date when additional information is obtained and whether the acquirer can identify a reason for a change to provisional amounts. Information that is obtained shortly after the acquisition date is more likely to reflect circumstances that existed at the acquisition date than is information obtained several months later. For example, unless an intervening event that changed its fair value can be identified, the sale of an asset to a third party shortly after the acquisition date for an amount that differs significantly from its provisional fair value determined at that date is likely to indicate an error in the provisional amount. 48 The acquirer recognises an increase (decrease) in the provisional amount recognised for an identifiable asset (liability) by means of a decrease (increase) in goodwill. However, new information obtained during the measurement period may sometimes result in an adjustment to the provisional amount of more than one asset or liability. For example, the acquirer might have assumed a liability to pay damages related to an accident in one of the acquiree s facilities, part or all of which are covered by the acquiree s liability insurance policy. If the acquirer obtains new information during the measurement period about the acquisition-date fair value of that liability, the adjustment to goodwill resulting from a change to the provisional amount recognised for the liability would be offset (in whole or in part) by a corresponding adjustment to goodwill resulting from a change to the provisional amount recognised for the claim receivable from the insurer. 49 During the measurement period, the acquirer shall recognise adjustments to the provisional amounts as if the accounting for the business combination had been completed at the acquisition date. Thus, the acquirer shall revise comparative information for prior periods presented in financial statements as needed, including making any change in depreciation, amortisation or other income effects recognised in completing the initial accounting. 50 After the measurement period ends, the acquirer shall revise the accounting for a business combination only to correct an error in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors. 8

9 Determining what is part of the business combination transaction 51 The acquirer and the acquiree may have a pre-existing relationship or other arrangement before negotiations for the business combination began, or they may enter into an arrangement during the negotiations that is separate from the business combination. In either situation, the acquirer shall identify any amounts that are not part of what the acquirer and the acquiree (or its former owners) exchanged in the business combination, ie amounts that are not part of the exchange for the acquiree. The acquirer shall recognise as part of applying the acquisition method only the consideration transferred for the acquiree and the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the exchange for the acquiree. Separate transactions shall be accounted for in accordance with the relevant IFRSs. 52 A transaction entered into by or on behalf of the acquirer or primarily for the benefit of the acquirer or the combined entity, rather than primarily for the benefit of the acquiree (or its former owners) before the combination, is likely to be a separate transaction. The following are examples of separate transactions that are not to be included in applying the acquisition method: a transaction that in effect settles pre-existing relationships between the acquirer and acquiree; a transaction that remunerates employees or former owners of the acquiree for future services; and a transaction that reimburses the acquiree or its former owners for paying the acquirer s acquisition-related costs. Paragraphs B50 B62 provide related application guidance. Acquisition-related costs 53 Acquisition-related costs are costs the acquirer incurs to effect a business combination. Those costs include finder s fees; advisory, legal, accounting, valuation and other professional or consulting fees; general administrative costs, including the costs of maintaining an internal acquisitions department; and costs of registering and issuing debt and equity securities. The acquirer shall account for acquisition-related costs as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred and the services are received, with one exception. The costs to issue debt or equity securities shall be recognised in accordance with IAS 32 and IAS 39. Subsequent measurement and accounting 54 In general, an acquirer shall subsequently measure and account for assets acquired, liabilities assumed or incurred and equity instruments issued in a business combination in accordance with other applicable IFRSs for those items, depending on their nature. However, this IFRS provides guidance on subsequently measuring and accounting for the following assets acquired, liabilities assumed or incurred and equity instruments issued in a business combination: (d) reacquired rights; contingent liabilities recognised as of the acquisition date; indemnification assets; and contingent consideration. Paragraph B63 provides related application guidance. Reacquired rights 55 A reacquired right recognised as an intangible asset shall be amortised over the remaining contractual period of the contract in which the right was granted. An acquirer that subsequently sells a reacquired right to a third party shall include the carrying amount of the intangible asset in determining the gain or loss on the sale. 9

10 Contingent liabilities 56 After initial recognition and until the liability is settled, cancelled or expires, the acquirer shall measure a contingent liability recognised in a business combination at the higher of: the amount that would be recognised in accordance with IAS 37; and the amount initially recognised less, if appropriate, cumulative amortisation recognised in accordance with IAS 18 Revenue. This requirement does not apply to contracts accounted for in accordance with IAS 39. Indemnification assets 57 At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the acquirer shall measure an indemnification asset that was recognised at the acquisition date on the same basis as the indemnified liability or asset, subject to any contractual limitations on its amount and, for an indemnification asset that is not subsequently measured at its fair value, management s assessment of the collectibility of the indemnification asset. The acquirer shall derecognise the indemnification asset only when it collects the asset, sells it or otherwise loses the right to it. Contingent consideration 58 Some changes in the fair value of contingent consideration that the acquirer recognises after the acquisition date may be the result of additional information that the acquirer obtained after that date about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date. Such changes are measurement period adjustments in accordance with paragraphs However, changes resulting from events after the acquisition date, such as meeting an earnings target, reaching a specified share price or reaching a milestone on a research and development project, are not measurement period adjustments. The acquirer shall account for changes in the fair value of contingent consideration that are not measurement period adjustments as follows: Contingent consideration classified as equity shall not be remeasured and its subsequent settlement shall be accounted for within equity. Contingent consideration classified as an asset or a liability that: is a financial instrument and is within the scope of IAS 39 shall be measured at fair value, with any resulting gain or loss recognised either in profit or loss or in other comprehensive income in accordance with that IFRS. is not within the scope of IAS 39 shall be accounted for in accordance with IAS 37 or other IFRSs as appropriate. Disclosures 59 The acquirer shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effect of a business combination that occurs either: during the current reporting period; or after the end of the reporting period but before the financial statements are authorised for issue. 60 To meet the objective in paragraph 59, the acquirer shall disclose the information specified in paragraphs B64 B The acquirer shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the financial effects of adjustments recognised in the current reporting period that relate to business combinations that occurred in the period or previous reporting periods. 10

11 62 To meet the objective in paragraph 61, the acquirer shall disclose the information specified in paragraph B If the specific disclosures required by this and other IFRSs do not meet the objectives set out in paragraphs 59 and 61, the acquirer shall disclose whatever additional information is necessary to meet those objectives. Effective date and transition Effective date 64 This IFRS shall be applied prospectively to business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 July Earlier application is permitted. However, this IFRS shall be applied only at the beginning of an annual reporting period that begins on or after 30 June If an entity applies this IFRS before 1 July 2009, it shall disclose that fact and apply IAS 27 (as amended by the International Accounting Standards Board in 2008) at the same time. 64B 64C Improvements to IFRSs issued in May 2010 amended paragraphs 19, 30 and B56 and added paragraphs B62A and B62B. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact. Application should be prospective from the date when the entity first applied this IFRS. Paragraphs 65A 65E were added by Improvements to IFRSs issued in May An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 July Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact. The amendments shall be applied to contingent consideration balances arising from business combinations with an acquisition date prior to the application of this IFRS, as issued in Transition 65 Assets and liabilities that arose from business combinations whose acquisition dates preceded the application of this IFRS shall not be adjusted upon application of this IFRS. 65A 65B 65C 65D 65E Contingent consideration balances arising from business combinations whose acquisition dates preceded the date when an entity first applied this IFRS as issued in 2008 shall not be adjusted upon first application of this IFRS. Paragraphs 65B 65E shall be applied in the subsequent accounting for those balances. Paragraphs 65B 65E shall not apply to the accounting for contingent consideration balances arising from business combinations with acquisition dates on or after the date when the entity first applied this IFRS as issued in In paragraphs 65B 65E business combination refers exclusively to business combinations whose acquisition date preceded the application of this IFRS as issued in If a business combination agreement provides for an adjustment to the cost of the combination contingent on future events, the acquirer shall include the amount of that adjustment in the cost of the combination at the acquisition date if the adjustment is probable and can be measured reliably. A business combination agreement may allow for adjustments to the cost of the combination that are contingent on one or more future events. The adjustment might, for example, be contingent on a specified level of profit being maintained or achieved in future periods, or on the market price of the instruments issued being maintained. It is usually possible to estimate the amount of any such adjustment at the time of initially accounting for the combination without impairing the reliability of the information, even though some uncertainty exists. If the future events do not occur or the estimate needs to be revised, the cost of the business combination shall be adjusted accordingly. However, when a business combination agreement provides for such an adjustment, that adjustment is not included in the cost of the combination at the time of initially accounting for the combination if it either is not probable or cannot be measured reliably. If that adjustment subsequently becomes probable and can be measured reliably, the additional consideration shall be treated as an adjustment to the cost of the combination. In some circumstances, the acquirer may be required to make a subsequent payment to the seller as compensation for a reduction in the value of the assets given, equity instruments issued or liabilities incurred or assumed by the acquirer in exchange for control of the acquiree. This is the case, for example, when the acquirer guarantees the market price of equity or debt instruments issued as part of the cost of the business combination and is required to issue additional equity or debt instruments to restore the originally determined 11

12 cost. In such cases, no increase in the cost of the business combination is recognised. In the case of equity instruments, the fair value of the additional payment is offset by an equal reduction in the value attributed to the instruments initially issued. In the case of debt instruments, the additional payment is regarded as a reduction in the premium or an increase in the discount on the initial issue. 66 An entity, such as a mutual entity, that has not yet applied IFRS 3 and had one or more business combinations that were accounted for using the purchase method shall apply the transition provisions in paragraphs B68 and B69. Income taxes 67 For business combinations in which the acquisition date was before this IFRS is applied, the acquirer shall apply the requirements of paragraph 68 of IAS 12, as amended by this IFRS, prospectively. That is to say, the acquirer shall not adjust the accounting for prior business combinations for previously recognised changes in recognised deferred tax assets. However, from the date when this IFRS is applied, the acquirer shall recognise, as an adjustment to profit or loss (or, if IAS 12 requires, outside profit or loss), changes in recognised deferred tax assets. Withdrawal of IFRS 3 (2004) 68 This IFRS supersedes IFRS 3 Business Combinations (as issued in 2004). 12

13 Appendix A Defined terms This appendix is an integral part of the IFRS. acquiree acquirer acquisition date business business combination contingent consideration control equity interests fair value goodwill identifiable The business or businesses that the acquirer obtains control of in a business combination. The entity that obtains control of the acquiree. The date on which the acquirer obtains control of the acquiree. An integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing a return in the form of dividends, lower costs or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members or participants. A transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. Transactions sometimes referred to as true mergers or mergers of equals are also business combinations as that term is used in this IFRS. Usually, an obligation of the acquirer to transfer additional assets or equity interests to the former owners of an acquiree as part of the exchange for control of the acquiree if specified future events occur or conditions are met. However, contingent consideration also may give the acquirer the right to the return of previously transferred consideration if specified conditions are met. The power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. For the purposes of this IFRS, equity interests is used broadly to mean ownership interests of investor-owned entities and owner, member or participant interests of mutual entities. The amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm s length transaction. An asset representing the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognised. An asset is identifiable if it either: is separable, ie capable of being separated or divided from the entity and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with a related contract, identifiable asset or liability, regardless of whether the entity intends to do so; or arises from contractual or other legal rights, regardless of whether those rights are transferable or separable from the entity or from other rights and obligations. intangible asset mutual entity non-controlling interest An identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance. An entity, other than an investor-owned entity, that provides dividends, lower costs or other economic benefits directly to its owners, members or participants. For example, a mutual insurance company, a credit union and a co-operative entity are all mutual entities. The equity in a subsidiary not attributable, directly or indirectly, to a parent. 13

14 owners For the purposes of this IFRS, owners is used broadly to include holders of equity interests of investor-owned entities and owners or members of, or participants in, mutual entities. 14

15 Appendix B Application guidance This appendix is an integral part of the IFRS. Business combinations of entities under common control (application of paragraph 2) B1 B2 B3 B4 This IFRS does not apply to a business combination of entities or businesses under common control. A business combination involving entities or businesses under common control is a business combination in which all of the combining entities or businesses are ultimately controlled by the same party or parties both before and after the business combination, and that control is not transitory. A group of individuals shall be regarded as controlling an entity when, as a result of contractual arrangements, they collectively have the power to govern its financial and operating policies so as to obtain benefits from its activities. Therefore, a business combination is outside the scope of this IFRS when the same group of individuals has, as a result of contractual arrangements, ultimate collective power to govern the financial and operating policies of each of the combining entities so as to obtain benefits from their activities, and that ultimate collective power is not transitory. An entity may be controlled by an individual or by a group of individuals acting together under a contractual arrangement, and that individual or group of individuals may not be subject to the financial reporting requirements of IFRSs. Therefore, it is not necessary for combining entities to be included as part of the same consolidated financial statements for a business combination to be regarded as one involving entities under common control. The extent of non-controlling interests in each of the combining entities before and after the business combination is not relevant to determining whether the combination involves entities under common control. Similarly, the fact that one of the combining entities is a subsidiary that has been excluded from the consolidated financial statements is not relevant to determining whether a combination involves entities under common control. Identifying a business combination (application of paragraph 3) B5 This IFRS defines a business combination as a transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. An acquirer might obtain control of an acquiree in a variety of ways, for example: (d) by transferring cash, cash equivalents or other assets (including net assets that constitute a business); by incurring liabilities; by issuing equity interests; by providing more than one type of consideration; or (e) without transferring consideration, including by contract alone (see paragraph 43). B6 A business combination may be structured in a variety of ways for legal, taxation or other reasons, which include but are not limited to: one or more businesses become subsidiaries of an acquirer or the net assets of one or more businesses are legally merged into the acquirer; 15

16 (d) one combining entity transfers its net assets, or its owners transfer their equity interests, to another combining entity or its owners; all of the combining entities transfer their net assets, or the owners of those entities transfer their equity interests, to a newly formed entity (sometimes referred to as a roll-up or put-together transaction); or a group of former owners of one of the combining entities obtains control of the combined entity. Definition of a business (application of paragraph 3) B7 A business consists of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that have the ability to create outputs. Although businesses usually have outputs, outputs are not required for an integrated set to qualify as a business. The three elements of a business are defined as follows: Input: Any economic resource that creates, or has the ability to create, outputs when one or more processes are applied to it. Examples include non-current assets (including intangible assets or rights to use non-current assets), intellectual property, the ability to obtain access to necessary materials or rights and employees. Process: Any system, standard, protocol, convention or rule that when applied to an input or inputs, creates or has the ability to create outputs. Examples include strategic management processes, operational processes and resource management processes. These processes typically are documented, but an organised workforce having the necessary skills and experience following rules and conventions may provide the necessary processes that are capable of being applied to inputs to create outputs. (Accounting, billing, payroll and other administrative systems typically are not processes used to create outputs.) Output: The result of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that provide or have the ability to provide a return in the form of dividends, lower costs or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members or participants. B8 B9 B10 To be capable of being conducted and managed for the purposes defined, an integrated set of activities and assets requires two essential elements inputs and processes applied to those inputs, which together are or will be used to create outputs. However, a business need not include all of the inputs or processes that the seller used in operating that business if market participants are capable of acquiring the business and continuing to produce outputs, for example, by integrating the business with their own inputs and processes. The nature of the elements of a business varies by industry and by the structure of an entity s operations (activities), including the entity s stage of development. Established businesses often have many different types of inputs, processes and outputs, whereas new businesses often have few inputs and processes and sometimes only a single output (product). Nearly all businesses also have liabilities, but a business need not have liabilities. An integrated set of activities and assets in the development stage might not have outputs. If not, the acquirer should consider other factors to determine whether the set is a business. Those factors include, but are not limited to, whether the set: (d) has begun planned principal activities; has employees, intellectual property and other inputs and processes that could be applied to those inputs; is pursuing a plan to produce outputs; and will be able to obtain access to customers that will purchase the outputs. Not all of those factors need to be present for a particular integrated set of activities and assets in the development stage to qualify as a business. B11 Determining whether a particular set of assets and activities is a business should be based on whether the integrated set is capable of being conducted and managed as a business by a market participant. Thus, in 16

17 evaluating whether a particular set is a business, it is not relevant whether a seller operated the set as a business or whether the acquirer intends to operate the set as a business. B12 In the absence of evidence to the contrary, a particular set of assets and activities in which goodwill is present shall be presumed to be a business. However, a business need not have goodwill. Identifying the acquirer (application of paragraphs 6 and 7) B13 B14 B15 The guidance in IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements shall be used to identify the acquirer the entity that obtains control of the acquiree. If a business combination has occurred but applying the guidance in IAS 27 does not clearly indicate which of the combining entities is the acquirer, the factors in paragraphs B14 B18 shall be considered in making that determination. In a business combination effected primarily by transferring cash or other assets or by incurring liabilities, the acquirer is usually the entity that transfers the cash or other assets or incurs the liabilities. In a business combination effected primarily by exchanging equity interests, the acquirer is usually the entity that issues its equity interests. However, in some business combinations, commonly called reverse acquisitions, the issuing entity is the acquiree. Paragraphs B19 B27 provide guidance on accounting for reverse acquisitions. Other pertinent facts and circumstances shall also be considered in identifying the acquirer in a business combination effected by exchanging equity interests, including: (d) (e) the relative voting rights in the combined entity after the business combination The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose owners as a group retain or receive the largest portion of the voting rights in the combined entity. In determining which group of owners retains or receives the largest portion of the voting rights, an entity shall consider the existence of any unusual or special voting arrangements and options, warrants or convertible securities. the existence of a large minority voting interest in the combined entity if no other owner or organised group of owners has a significant voting interest The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose single owner or organised group of owners holds the largest minority voting interest in the combined entity. the composition of the governing body of the combined entity The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose owners have the ability to elect or appoint or to remove a majority of the members of the governing body of the combined entity. the composition of the senior management of the combined entity The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose (former) management dominates the management of the combined entity. the terms of the exchange of equity interests The acquirer is usually the combining entity that pays a premium over the pre-combination fair value of the equity interests of the other combining entity or entities. B16 B17 B18 The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose relative size (measured in, for example, assets, revenues or profit) is significantly greater than that of the other combining entity or entities. In a business combination involving more than two entities, determining the acquirer shall include a consideration of, among other things, which of the combining entities initiated the combination, as well as the relative size of the combining entities. A new entity formed to effect a business combination is not necessarily the acquirer. If a new entity is formed to issue equity interests to effect a business combination, one of the combining entities that existed before the business combination shall be identified as the acquirer by applying the guidance in paragraphs B13 B17. In contrast, a new entity that transfers cash or other assets or incurs liabilities as consideration may be the acquirer. 17

18 Reverse acquisitions B19 A reverse acquisition occurs when the entity that issues securities (the legal acquirer) is identified as the acquiree for accounting purposes on the basis of the guidance in paragraphs B13 B18. The entity whose equity interests are acquired (the legal acquiree) must be the acquirer for accounting purposes for the transaction to be considered a reverse acquisition. For example, reverse acquisitions sometimes occur when a private operating entity wants to become a public entity but does not want to register its equity shares. To accomplish that, the private entity will arrange for a public entity to acquire its equity interests in exchange for the equity interests of the public entity. In this example, the public entity is the legal acquirer because it issued its equity interests, and the private entity is the legal acquiree because its equity interests were acquired. However, application of the guidance in paragraphs B13 B18 results in identifying: the public entity as the acquiree for accounting purposes (the accounting acquiree); and the private entity as the acquirer for accounting purposes (the accounting acquirer). The accounting acquiree must meet the definition of a business for the transaction to be accounted for as a reverse acquisition, and all of the recognition and measurement principles in this IFRS, including the requirement to recognise goodwill, apply. Measuring the consideration transferred B20 In a reverse acquisition, the accounting acquirer usually issues no consideration for the acquiree. Instead, the accounting acquiree usually issues its equity shares to the owners of the accounting acquirer. Accordingly, the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred by the accounting acquirer for its interest in the accounting acquiree is based on the number of equity interests the legal subsidiary would have had to issue to give the owners of the legal parent the same percentage equity interest in the combined entity that results from the reverse acquisition. The fair value of the number of equity interests calculated in that way can be used as the fair value of consideration transferred in exchange for the acquiree. Preparation and presentation of consolidated financial statements B21 B22 Consolidated financial statements prepared following a reverse acquisition are issued under the name of the legal parent (accounting acquiree) but described in the notes as a continuation of the financial statements of the legal subsidiary (accounting acquirer), with one adjustment, which is to adjust retroactively the accounting acquirer s legal capital to reflect the legal capital of the accounting acquiree. That adjustment is required to reflect the capital of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree). Comparative information presented in those consolidated financial statements also is retroactively adjusted to reflect the legal capital of the legal parent (accounting acquiree). Because the consolidated financial statements represent the continuation of the financial statements of the legal subsidiary except for its capital structure, the consolidated financial statements reflect: (d) the assets and liabilities of the legal subsidiary (the accounting acquirer) recognised and measured at their pre-combination carrying amounts. the assets and liabilities of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree) recognised and measured in accordance with this IFRS. the retained earnings and other equity balances of the legal subsidiary (accounting acquirer) before the business combination. the amount recognised as issued equity interests in the consolidated financial statements determined by adding the issued equity interest of the legal subsidiary (the accounting acquirer) outstanding immediately before the business combination to the fair value of the legal parent (accounting acquiree) determined in accordance with this IFRS. However, the equity structure (ie the number and type of equity interests issued) reflects the equity structure of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree), including the equity interests the legal parent issued to effect the combination. Accordingly, the equity structure of the legal subsidiary (the accounting acquirer) is 18

19 restated using the exchange ratio established in the acquisition agreement to reflect the number of shares of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree) issued in the reverse acquisition. (e) the non-controlling interest s proportionate share of the legal subsidiary s (accounting acquirer s) pre-combination carrying amounts of retained earnings and other equity interests as discussed in paragraphs B23 and B24. Non-controlling interest B23 B24 In a reverse acquisition, some of the owners of the legal acquiree (the accounting acquirer) might not exchange their equity interests for equity interests of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree). Those owners are treated as a non-controlling interest in the consolidated financial statements after the reverse acquisition. That is because the owners of the legal acquiree that do not exchange their equity interests for equity interests of the legal acquirer have an interest in only the results and net assets of the legal acquiree not in the results and net assets of the combined entity. Conversely, even though the legal acquirer is the acquiree for accounting purposes, the owners of the legal acquirer have an interest in the results and net assets of the combined entity. The assets and liabilities of the legal acquiree are measured and recognised in the consolidated financial statements at their pre-combination carrying amounts (see paragraph B22). Therefore, in a reverse acquisition the non-controlling interest reflects the non-controlling shareholders proportionate interest in the pre-combination carrying amounts of the legal acquiree s net assets even if the non-controlling interests in other acquisitions are measured at their fair value at the acquisition date. Earnings per share B25 B26 As noted in paragraph B22(d), the equity structure in the consolidated financial statements following a reverse acquisition reflects the equity structure of the legal acquirer (the accounting acquiree), including the equity interests issued by the legal acquirer to effect the business combination. In calculating the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding (the denominator of the earnings per share calculation) during the period in which the reverse acquisition occurs: the number of ordinary shares outstanding from the beginning of that period to the acquisition date shall be computed on the basis of the weighted average number of ordinary shares of the legal acquiree (accounting acquirer) outstanding during the period multiplied by the exchange ratio established in the merger agreement; and the number of ordinary shares outstanding from the acquisition date to the end of that period shall be the actual number of ordinary shares of the legal acquirer (the accounting acquiree) outstanding during that period. B27 The basic earnings per share for each comparative period before the acquisition date presented in the consolidated financial statements following a reverse acquisition shall be calculated by dividing: the profit or loss of the legal acquiree attributable to ordinary shareholders in each of those periods by the legal acquiree s historical weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding multiplied by the exchange ratio established in the acquisition agreement. 19

20 Recognising particular assets acquired and liabilities assumed (application of paragraphs 10 13) Operating leases B28 B29 B30 The acquirer shall recognise no assets or liabilities related to an operating lease in which the acquiree is the lessee except as required by paragraphs B29 and B30. The acquirer shall determine whether the terms of each operating lease in which the acquiree is the lessee are favourable or unfavourable. The acquirer shall recognise an intangible asset if the terms of an operating lease are favourable relative to market terms and a liability if the terms are unfavourable relative to market terms. Paragraph B42 provides guidance on measuring the acquisition-date fair value of assets subject to operating leases in which the acquiree is the lessor. An identifiable intangible asset may be associated with an operating lease, which may be evidenced by market participants willingness to pay a price for the lease even if it is at market terms. For example, a lease of gates at an airport or of retail space in a prime shopping area might provide entry into a market or other future economic benefits that qualify as identifiable intangible assets, for example, as a customer relationship. In that situation, the acquirer shall recognise the associated identifiable intangible asset(s) in accordance with paragraph B31. Intangible assets B31 B32 The acquirer shall recognise, separately from goodwill, the identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination. An intangible asset is identifiable if it meets either the separability criterion or the contractual-legal criterion. An intangible asset that meets the contractual-legal criterion is identifiable even if the asset is not transferable or separable from the acquiree or from other rights and obligations. For example: an acquiree leases a manufacturing facility under an operating lease that has terms that are favourable relative to market terms. The lease terms explicitly prohibit transfer of the lease (through either sale or sublease). The amount by which the lease terms are favourable compared with the terms of current market transactions for the same or similar items is an intangible asset that meets the contractual-legal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill, even though the acquirer cannot sell or otherwise transfer the lease contract. an acquiree owns and operates a nuclear power plant. The licence to operate that power plant is an intangible asset that meets the contractual-legal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill, even if the acquirer cannot sell or transfer it separately from the acquired power plant. An acquirer may recognise the fair value of the operating licence and the fair value of the power plant as a single asset for financial reporting purposes if the useful lives of those assets are similar. an acquiree owns a technology patent. It has licensed that patent to others for their exclusive use outside the domestic market, receiving a specified percentage of future foreign revenue in exchange. Both the technology patent and the related licence agreement meet the contractual-legal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill even if selling or exchanging the patent and the related licence agreement separately from one another would not be practical. B33 The separability criterion means that an acquired intangible asset is capable of being separated or divided from the acquiree and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with a related contract, identifiable asset or liability. An intangible asset that the acquirer would be able to sell, license or otherwise exchange for something else of value meets the separability criterion even if the acquirer does not intend to sell, license or otherwise exchange it. An acquired intangible asset meets the separability criterion if there is evidence of exchange transactions for that type of asset or an asset of a similar type, even if those transactions are infrequent and regardless of whether the acquirer is involved in them. For example, customer and subscriber lists are frequently licensed and thus meet the separability criterion. Even if an acquiree believes its customer lists have characteristics different from other customer lists, the fact that customer lists are frequently licensed generally means that the acquired customer list meets the separability criterion. However, a customer list acquired in a business combination would not meet the 20

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