Peranan manusia dalam pemuliharaan alam sekitar

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1 Peranan manusia dalam pemuliharaan alam sekitar ZAINI UJANG Institut Pengurusan Alam Sekitar & Sumber Air (IPASA) UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA Website:

2 Islam dan Alam Sekitar Buku terbitan Institut Kajian Dasar (1993) 2

3 Presentation menu Why religion matters? Islam Hadhari Pemuliharaan alam sekitar Individu Komuniti Institusi Sistem Minda lestari Some examples 3

4 Eco-assessment 1 What is your preference? A conventional farming products at the price of $5 per kg, or An organic farming products at the price of $7 per kg? Result 4

5 The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis Prof. Lynn White, Jr. (1967) Science, vol. 155, no. 3767, pp our ecologic crisis is the product of an emerging, entirely novel, democratic culture Human ecology is deeply conditioned by beliefs about our nature and destiny that is, by religion Formerly man had been part of nature; now he was the exploiter of nature it is rooted in, and is defensible apart from, Judeo- Christian theology More science and more technology are not going to get us out of the present ecologic crisis until we find a new religion, or rethink our old one 6

6 Islam Hadhari An approach that emphasizes development, consistent with the tenets of Islam and focused on enhancing the quality of life and could be achieved by: Mastery of knowledge and the development of the individual and the nation Implementation of dynamic economic, trading and financial system Integrated and balanced development that creates a knowledgeable and pious people who hold values and honesty, trustworthy and prepared to take on global challengers 7

7 Environmental conservation ( environmental preservation) Individual Community Institutional Systemic 8

8 Environmental conservation Individual responsibility Faculties Mind Spiritual Emotional Physical Fulfillment, actualization Reading, thinking, learning, discourse etc. God conscious, ibadah, hajj etc. Society, parents, empathy, amal ma ruf, nahi munkar, beauty, appreciation, etc. Food, environment, sex, sport, etc. 9

9 Environmental conservation Minda lestari The state of mind and spiritual development when environmental consciousness reaches the highest level; when emotional intelligence is fully developed with environmental sensitivity; and when habit are in accordance with environmental friendly practices 10

10 Environmental crisis is a result of the nature of development approach and delivery system 11

11 Environmental crisis should be viewed and solved by inculcating religious approach on top of technical and governance initiatives 12

12 8 Eco-principles for Minda Lestari Pro-and Eco-active Clear objective Priority setting Win/Win and Eco/Business Synergy Action oriented Sustainability Eco-profit Private victory Public victory Greatness, excellence 13

13 Eco-Quadrant for Minda Lestari Philosophy QUADRANT 1 Action based on external drive QUADRANT 2 Action based on external (>60%) and internal drive QUADRANT 3 Action based on internal (>60%) and external drive QUADRANT 4 Action based on internal drive 14

14 Eco-Quadrant for Minda Lestari Philosophy QUADRANT 1 Law, guidelines, profit margins QUADRANT 3 Social obligation and branding QUADRANT 2 Law and reputation QUADRANT 4 Overall quality and greatness 15

15 Eco-Quadrant for Minda Lestari Pollution QUADRANT 1 Pollution is OK, unless control is legally required. But technology is expensive QUADRANT 3 Waste is a resource and should be recovered and reused QUADRANT 2 Pollution is control, as required by law. Expenses should be part of production cost QUADRANT 4 Every single components are valuable and should be optimized 16

16 Eco-Quadrant for Minda Lestari Thinking QUADRANT 1 Waste is problematic and should be considered after we make big profit QUADRANT 3 Waste can be valuable by adopting cleaner production approach QUADRANT 2 Waste requires end-ofpipe treatment. Costly, but we will spend money on it QUADRANT 4 Waste is resource. I need more resources to make more innovations and contributions 17

17 Priority setting for Minda Lestari Urgent QUADRANT 1 Visit by authority on pollution sources QUADRANT 3 Brand development and advertisement Important QUADRANT 2 Design and upgrade waste management system QUADRANT 4 Long term commitment and greater market Urgent Important 18

18 MOST action plan quadrant Mission Where and what is the direction? Strategy How to achieve it with less resources? Objectives What to achieve? How many? Tasking / Time Frame Who is responsible? When can be it be achieved? 19

19 Habit is nurtured 20

20 21

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24 25

25 Five cancerous behaviors Criticizing (without understanding the reality) Complaining (without considering the problems) Comparing (without knowing the parameters) Competing (without leveling the grounds) Contending (without setting the goals) 27

26 Typical reactions Whose fault? Siapa salah? Siapa yang patut dipertanggungkjawabkan? Apa Kerajaan buat? Political will? Dulu Menteri ada umumkan untuk buat, sampai sekarang belum. etc. 28

27 Reactive Model RM500,000? 10 yr jail? License frozen STIMULUS Force to choose Response Freedom to choose Limited market ACTION Awareness Knowledge Habit Commitment Proactive Model 29

28 Eco-assessment 2 Did you recycle your solid waste? Newspapers, magazines? Bottles, tins, etc.? Result If yes, did you recycle solid waste in your office, factory, workplace? Office wastes (papers, bottles, etc.) Industrial wastes? Result 30

29 Urban metabolism Urban like human body Rivers are blood vessels Trees are cloth Land is skeleton Activities are inter-related Industrial ecology 31

30 Systemic change Global convention National policy Local agenda Development thrust Built environment approach 32

31 Actors in environmental governance Tasks Agencies Scope Policy making Cabinets, Parliamentarians Overall Policy holding & Dept. of Environment Water, Air, Scheduled waste implementation Dept. of Sewerage Services Sewerage Policy experts Universities, Consultants Overall Policy watchdog Press, NGOs, individuals Overall Policy beneficiaries Dept. of Irrigation & Drainage Department of Forestry Cleanliness Local Authorities Education Ministry of Education Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovations General public, Political constituencies, Tourists, Industries Rivers, Lakes, Coast Forest Cleanliness Education R&D Overall 33

32 Systemic defect: River pollution causes Untreated sewage Partially treated sewage Untreated industrial wastewater Partially treated wastewater Soil erosion Wrong connection of pipes 34

33 Centralized (and combined) sewer network Non-treated industrial WW Partly treated industrial WW Public sewer Municipal WW Urban runoff Stormwater 35

34 Separate wastewater collection system Non-treated industrial WW Urban runoff Partly treated industrial WW Storm drains, then river Storm water Sewage Public sewer 36

35 Separate wastewater collection system Non-treated industrial WW Urban runoff Partly treated industrial WW Storm drains, then river Storm water Grey water Black water Household wastewater Septic tank 37

36 Target water pollutants, chronologically Era Pollutants Solutions 1800s Pathogenic bacteria Sewer system 1900s BOD, COD Biological wastewater plants 1950s Heavy metals, biodegradable substances Treatment at source 1970s Eutrophication N and P control 1980s Trace substances, carcinogens, flavor, taste Activated carbon, membrane technology 1990s CO 2, NH 4, N 2 O, CFCs, NO x,so x Energy saving, photosyntetic bacteria, biotechnology, MBR 2000s Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), eco-hazard Membrane technology 38

37 39

38 Landfill or landhill? Can we do waste design? 40

39 Shape, materials, style, symbolism 41

40 Shape, materials, style, symbolism 42

41 Shape, materials, style, symbolism 43

42 Shape, materials, style, symbolism 44

43 Six dimensions of eco-efficiency Energy efficiency Materials efficiency Resource conservation Eco-toxicity Waste reduction Use intensity 45

44 Trends for systemic changes Issues Seasons Occasions Festivals etc. 46

45 FIFA WORLD CUP GREEN GOAL PROGRAMME 47

46 Green Goal propels environmental protection to the forefront of a FIFA World Cup for the first time in the history of football. 48

47 Green Goal assigns a central role to protecting the global climate. the event s effect on the climate will be minimised use of renewable energy sources and support for environment-friendly transportation. unavoidable negative effects will be balanced by investment in protective schemes elsewhere ensuring the 2006 FIFA World Cup ends up "climate neutral" 49

48 ... first major sports event with measurable environment protection targets in the key sectors of - refuse - transportation - energy -water 50

49 Water The main way to use clean, drinking water as sparingly as possible is to reduce the volume consumed to the absolute minimum substitute rain and other naturally occurring sources of water where possible allow rainwater to drain naturally minimize drainage waste and pollution. 51

50 52

51 Raw materials Factory A Industrial ecology Waste A = raw material B Product A Waste A = Product E Factory B Product B Product E Waste B = raw material C Waste C = Product B Product D Factory C Waste recycling & reuse in Factory C Product C 53

52 54

53 Amal Yang Berpanjangan Pahalanya Anas r.a. berkata: Ada 7 pahala yang tetap diterima oleh seseorang itu apabila dia mati kelak, iaitu: Orang yg mendirikan masjid dan masjid itu terus digunakan oleh orang ramai sebagai tempat ibadah Orang yg mengalirkan air sungai selagi orang tetap menggunakannya Orang yg menulis mushaf selagi masih ada orang yg membacanya Orang yg mengali perigi selagi ada orang yg memanfaatkannya Orang yg menanam buah-buahan selagi ada yg memakan buahnya sama ada manusia atau binatang Orang yg mengajarkan ilmunya selagi ilmu itu diamalkan oleh mereka yg mempelajarinya Orang yg meninggalkan anak yg soleh dan anak itu sentiasa mendoakan kesejahteraan kedua orang tuanya 55

54 Pernyataan Konsep Pencemaran & Kerosakan Alam Maksud ayat Al-Qur an: Telah nampak kerusakan di daratan dan lautan disebabkan perbuatan tangan manusia, supaya Allah merasakan kepada mereka sebahagian dari akibat perbuatan mereka, agar mereka kembali ke jalan yang benar Ar-Ruum: 41 56

55 Al-Ghasyiyyah: Do they not look at the Chamels, how they are made? And the Sky, how it is raised high? And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm? And at the Earth, how it is spread out? Therefore do thou give admonition for thou art One to admonish, Thou art not one to manage (men s) affairs. But if any turns away and rejects Allah, Allah will punish him with a mighty punishments, for to Us will be their return, then it will be for Us to call them to account 57

56 58

57 Eco-assessment 3 Did you able to follow by lecture? Yes, 100% understood? No, I was sleepy, sorry sir Result If no, would you threw it to rubbish bin, or help me to recycle it? No sir, the landfill is already full! EIA is not yet granted for the site Result 59

58 Thank you for your attention 60

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