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1 ISSN Report on equality between women and men 2007 European Commission

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3 Report on equality between women and men 2007 European Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities Unit G.1 Manuscript completed in February 2007

4 Document drawn up on the basis of COM(2007)49. If you are interested in receiving the electronic newsletter "ESmail" from the European Commission's Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, please send an to The newsletter is published on a regular basis in English, French and German : European Communities 2: dpa/picture-alliance 3: Corbis 4: Corbis Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*): (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to numbers or these calls may be billed. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server ( Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007 ISBN European Communities, 2007 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER

5 FOREWORD FOREWORD This is the fourth European Commission Report on equality between women and men. It concludes the year 2006, which was marked by several key initiatives to promote gender equality. The adoption of a Roadmap for gender equality by the Commission and of a European Pact for gender equality by the Member States, as well as the creation of the European Institute for gender equality all point to the commitment and efforts made by the European Union to achieve equality between women and men in Europe, both by law and in practice. These efforts continue the action taken at Community level over the past 50 years to promote gender equality, during which considerable progress has been achieved. For example, the present report demonstrates the sharp increase in the employment rate for women and points out their improved educational level which is now higher than that of men. Nevertheless, important challenges remain and it is striking to note that women in all the Member States, without exception, are still at a disadvantage compared to men in fields such as their participation in employment, pay levels or the sharing of family and domestic tasks. This is why this Commission Report underlines the importance of eliminating all gaps between women and men on the labour market. It will also be crucial in promoting a better balance between professional and private life, while encouraging a better distribution of responsibilities between men and women. These priorities are also those highlighted in the European Pact for gender equality, and I count on the Member States to fully implement it. The pact constitutes a clear support for gender equality policy and recognises of its contribution to growth and employment. For its part, the European Commission will support the action of the Member States in the fields where better progress is needed, in line with the priorities highlighted in the Roadmap. Vladimír Špidla Member of the European Commission for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities 3

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7 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction Main developments Policies and legislation Gender gaps Challenges and policy orientations Eliminating gender gaps on the labour market Encouraging a better balance of private and family responsibilitiesbetween women and men Ensuring that policies on gender equality have the full support of cohesion and rural development policies Ensuring effective implementation of the legislative framework Conclusions ANNEX

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9 INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction The Spring European Council of March 2003 asked the Commission to report annually on developments towards gender equality and orientations for gender mainstreaming of policy areas. This report is the fourth to comply with that request saw two major events with a bearing on gender equality in the EU: the adoption by the Commission of the Roadmap for equality between women and men for the period , and the adoption by the European Council of the Pact for Gender Equality. These two key initiatives testify to the EU s continued commitment to achieving genuine equality between women and men. The European Union, which has now been enlarged to 27 Member States, is about to celebrate the 50th anniversary of gender equality policy and the European Year of Equal Opportunities for All. Moreover, equality policy is at the centre of two areas of concern: growth and employment, and demographic change. It will need the full support of the cohesion policy, the new programming period for which begins in

10 Report on equality between women and men Main developments 2.1 Policies and legislation With the adoption of the Roadmap for equality between women and men 1 on 1 March 2006, the Commission defined its priorities and its framework of action for promoting equality in the period to 2010, thus continuing its task of promoting gender equality and ensuring that all its policies contribute to that objective. The Roadmap represents the Commission s commitment to continuing and intensifying its actions in this area. Detailed follow-up reports will be compiled annually. At the European Council of 23 and 24 March 2006, the Member States approved a European Pact for Gender Equality. 2 The Pact demonstrates the Member States determination to implement policies aimed at promoting the employment of women and guaranteeing a better balance between professional and private life in order to meet the challenges of demographic change. In this context, it would appear essential to develop childcare services in order to achieve the Barcelona objectives. 3 The ageing of the population, combined with declining birth rates, raises considerable challenges for our societies, as demonstrated in the Communication on the demographic future of Europe, 4 which was adopted by the Commission on 12 October It is clear that policies on gender equality will contribute significantly to meeting those challenges: on the one hand, by stimulating the employment of women, thus compensating for the forecast decline in the working population; and, on the other, by supporting the individual choices of women and men, including decisions on the number of children they wish to have. At the same time, the Commission launched a formal consultation among the social partners 5 on the possible thrust of Community action regarding the reconciliation of professional, private and family life, including the promotion of flexible working arrangements, the development of crèche and care services and the possible revision of existing provisions regarding maternity leave and parental leave. 6 The legislative framework for gender equality improved considerably with the adoption in June 2006 of a Directive 7 which simplifies and updates existing Community legislation on the equal treatment of women and men as regards employment. The greater clarity of the legal texts should facilitate better application of the law, thus contributing to the objective of better regulation. The Member States must ensure that the Directive is transposed in their national legislation by August As regards transposition of the Directive of 2002 on equal treatment, 8 procedures for failure to fulfil an obligation were initiated against nine Member States, four of which were still open as at the end of The Regulation creating a European Institute for Gender Equality was adopted in December The Institute is required to provide significant technical support for the development of policies on equality between women and men saw the adoption of the new regulation of the Structural Funds 10 and of the Community strategic guidelines on cohesion 11 for the period , which foresee both specific measures and the integration of the gender perspective in all actions. 12 Their implementation will primarily be the task of the Member States, in the form of National strategic reference frameworks and operational programmes. The remit of the European Rural Development Fund also includes the principle of equality between men and women 13 in rural development support policy. In addition, the Community s PROGRESS programme 14 contains a section dedicated to gender equality which will support the implementation of Community policy on equality between women and men in the areas of employment and social solidarity. 1 COM (2006) 92 final. 2 Conclusions of the Presidency, 7775/1/06/Rev 1. 3 Providing childcare services for 33% of children up to the age of three and 90% of children aged between three and the compulsory schooling age by COM (2006) 571 final. 5 SEC (2006) Directives 92/85/EEC and 96/34/EC. 7 Directive 2006/54/EC. 8 Directive 2002/73/EC. 9 Regulation (EC) No 1922/ In particular, Regulations (EC) 1081/2006 and 1083/ Council Decision 2006/702/EC. 12 Article 16 of Regulation (EC) 1083/ Article 8 of Regulation (EC) 1698/ Council Decision No. 1672/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October

11 MAIN DEVELOPMENTS Poverty often affects women, particularly the elderly and single-parent households. Moreover, health and social welfare systems are not always attuned to the different needs of women and men. This is why the promotion of equality between women and men is among the overarching objectives of the new framework for the open coordination of social protection and inclusion policies adopted by the European Council in March Its implementation should help to implement policies aimed at reducing the disparities between women and men in these fields. As regards violence and human trafficking, in a Communication of August 2006, the Commission put forward a strategy to measure crime (including human trafficking, violence against women and domestic violence) and criminal justice. 16 It will help to improve appreciably our understanding of these evils, the principal victims of which are women. Gender equality is also recognised as a factor in economic development in the framework of the EU s External Affairs. By the beginning of 2007, the Commission will prepare a Communication on the integration of gender equality in development cooperation. In addition, a five-year Action Plan designed to strengthen the role of women in Mediterranean societies was adopted in November 2006 as part of the Euromed partnership. This Plan provides a framework in which the EU and Mediterranean countries can cooperate in strengthening the role of women in the social, political, economic and cultural spheres. 2.2 Gender gaps The employment of women, including older women, has continued to make solid advances in recent years. That should not obscure the clearly unfavourable situation of women on the labour market in relation to men. Major gaps remain, and they are always to women s disadvantage. Labour market segregation and inequalities in working arrangements are proving to be persistent, and this is reflected in a significant and stable gender pay gap. The female labour force continues to be the engine of employment growth in Europe. Since the launch of the Lisbon Strategy in 2000, 6 of the 8 million jobs created in the EU have been taken by women. In 2005, the rate of female employment rose for the 12 th consecutive year, to stand at 56.3%, i.e. 2.7 points above its 2000 level, compared with a 0.1 point rise in the rate of male employment. If this favourable trend continues, 17 the Lisbon objective of 60% female employment by 2010 will be attained. Similarly, the rise in the rate of employment of women over the age of 55 has been significantly faster than that of men, and now stands at 33.7%, i.e. almost seven points more than in Accordingly, the gap in employment rates between women and men was reduced to 15 points in 2005, i.e. by 2.6 points over five years. It should be pointed out that the gap varies widely between age groups: it is only 5.9 points among young people (15-24 years of age), 16.7 points for workers aged between 25 and 54, and no less than 18.1 points for those above 55. The positive trend in the employment of women is also reflected in the proportionally faster decline in their unemployment rate, the gender gap having declined from 2.8 in 2000 to 2 in Despite this positive trend, the increased difficulty which women are facing in reconciling their professional and private lives, and the unequal division of domestic and family responsibilities, remain very marked. It is striking that the rate of employment of women between the ages of 20 and 49 falls by 15 points when they have a child, while that of men increases by six points. Moreover, increasing demands for labour flexibility are having a disproportionately large impact on women. Almost one-third of women work part-time (32.9% in 2006), compared with just 7.7% of men; 14.8% of female employees had a fixed-term contract, i.e. one point more than their male counterparts. The extent to which use is made of flexible arrangements for working time can reflect personal preferences, but the marked difference between the sexes underlines the imbalance between men and women in the use of time. In addition, the labour market remains largely partitioned. Occupational and sectoral segregation indices by sex show no sign of a significant decline. It would therefore appear that the increase in female employment is being achieved mainly in sectors of activity and in professions which are already dominated by women. Nearly four women 15 On the basis of Council Document 6801/06 of COM (2006) 437 final. 17 According to projections by the European Commission, the rate of female employment will continue to increase, reaching 65% in 2025, at which point it will stabilise. See 9

12 Report on equality between women and men 2007 salary earners in ten work in the civil service, education, health or social work, and nearly half are clerical workers, sales persons, or unskilled or low-skilled workers. Moreover, there continues to be an imbalance between women and men in decision-making positions, both political and economic. Fewer than one-third of managers are women, and the management boards of the 50 biggest listed European companies had only one woman for every ten men in In national Parliaments, the average proportion of women is only 24%. It is 33% in the European Parliament. Segregation is a factor in education. Although women now represent the majority of new higher education graduates (59%), their fields of study remain strongly stereotyped. Teaching, the social sciences, the arts and health account for nearly half of all female graduates but less than one-quarter of their male counterparts. Conversely, technical studies attract only one female graduate in ten, compared with four male graduates in ten. One of the consequences of the differences and inequalities which women face on the labour market is the persistent gender pay gap. Women earn an average of 15% less than men for every hour worked. 18 At the social level, women, especially elderly women and single mothers, are at greater risk of exclusion and poverty. The risk of poverty among women over the age of 65 is 20%, i.e. five points more than for men, while that among single-parent households 19 is 34%. In addition, long-term unemployment affects 4.5% of women, i.e. one point more than men. Women also constitute the majority of the economically inactive and are therefore particularly vulnerable to poverty. 18 Relative difference in average gross hourly remuneration between men and women. 19 The vast majority of single parents being women. 10

13 CHALLENGES AND POLICY ORIENTATIONS 3. Challenges and policy orientations The Spring European Council of 2006 stressed that policies on gender equality are essential instruments for economic growth, prosperity and competitiveness. The European strategy for growth and employment also recognises the contribution of gender equality to meeting the Lisbon objectives. In order fully to exploit the potential of European workforce productivity, it is essential to promote women s long-term participation in the labour market and to eliminate the disparities between men and women right across the board. To meet these challenges, equality policies will need the active support of cohesion policy and effective implementation of legislation on equal treatment. The Commission will support the Member States actions in a number of key areas where significant progress has yet to be achieved, in line with the priorities set out in the Roadmap for gender equality. 3.1 Eliminating gender gaps on the labour market Access to high-quality paid employment is the guarantor of the economic independence of both women and men. Nevertheless, some very major disparities persist between the sexes, in particular regarding arrangements for working time (part-time work, temporary contracts) and sectors and professions. It is essential to analyse and tackle the factors underlying these disparities. The causes of labour market segregation, which essentially originates in stereotype choices of education, training and careers, should be actively combated; Efforts aimed at eliminating obstacles to women s access to decision-making and managerial positions need to be intensified; The efforts which have been made to reduce the gender pay gap should be continued, in cooperation with all concerned. Particular attention should be given to the low level of wages in professions and sectors which tend to be dominated by women and to the reasons which lead to reduced earnings in professions and sectors in which women become more prominent; The development, implementation and monitoring of flexicurity policies 20 should take account of their different impacts on women and men and should avoid stressing the flexibility aspect for women and the security aspect for men; Policies and measures aimed at increasing employment among specific target groups, such as the young, older workers, the long-term unemployed, ethnic minorities, migrant workers or the disabled, should take account of the particular circumstances of men and women in each of these groups and the specific obstacles with which they are confronted. 3.2 Encouraging a better balance of private and family responsibilities between women and men Numerous constraints restrict the free choice of individuals to reconcile their professional and private lives, for example, the lack of childcare services, financial factors, career setbacks, the risk of losing one s skills, the difficulties of returning to employment and the pressure to conform to stereotypes. Arrangements for leave should be reviewed in order to contribute to a better distribution of private and family responsibilities between men and women, thereby enhancing children s quality of life and well-being. It is important to ensure that parental leave is targeted at both men and women and is, in particular, individual (non-transferable) and financially attractive, that it can be taken over several periods, and that its duration is not a barrier to returning to work; Given the EU s ageing population, it is crucial to continue the development of accessible and affordable care services for dependants. Consideration could also be given to creating filial leave, encouraging both men and women to care for elderly parents; It is opportune to promote paternity leave which makes it possible to involve fathers in domestic and family responsibilities from the day their children are born; 20 Policies aimed both at making the labour market more flexible and at strengthening job security. 11

14 Report on equality between women and men 2007 The fight against stereotypes should be intensified at all levels by all parties involved and should be aimed, in particular, at men and companies; It is important to maintain the employability of employees who take on parental leave by means of support measures during and after their leave. This includes measures to ensure that employees maintain their skills and have access to training and a guarantee of continued career advancement; Companies, particularly SMEs, should be given help in making it easier for their employees to reconcile their professional, private and family lives. 3.3 Ensuring that policies on gender equality have the full support of cohesion and rural development policies 2007 is the first year of the new programming period for cohesion and rural development policies. The policies have been redesigned so as to contribute more fully to the Lisbon objectives and thus promote economic growth, productivity, and job creation. The Funds potential as a catalyst for policies on equality between women and men needs to be exploited to the full. Member States should ensure the promotion of equality between women and men, and integration of the gender aspect at each stage of the use of the Funds, particularly by means of partnerships with bodies responsible for promoting equality between women and men; 21 The programming documents of the Funds should promote and implement the twin-track approach to equality policy by means of specific measures aimed at promoting equality and by taking careful account of how other projects and the management of the Funds may affect men and women; 22 Funds should contribute to improving access to employment, increasing women s participation in employment and career advancement, supporting the attainment of the objectives on childcare and other care structures and facilitating access to them. 23 Funds should also support female entrepreneurship, inter alia by means of services to businesses and access to finance; 24 Actions to disseminate and exchange good practices, and public awareness campaigns on gender equality should be promoted, and the dialogue between stakeholders should be strengthened Ensuring effective implementation of the legislative framework The acquis communautaire relating to gender equality has made a significant contribution to the progress achieved over the last 50 years and continues to be developed and updated in order to make it clearer and more effective. It is nevertheless important to guarantee effective implementation of the legislation which goes beyond mere transposition of the acquis. It is the task of the national actors to actively support full implementation of this legislation. It is important to take measures aimed at increasing the capacities of those involved in the legal system, particularly judges and lawyers, in terms of gender equality, in order that they have the training and technical assistance necessary to deal with gender equality issues in their work; The Member States and the social partners should actively support effective implementation of the legislation on the equal treatment of women and men and create the conditions which facilitate its enforcement; Organisations involved in the promotion of equality provided for in Directive 2002/73 26 can play an active role in the implementation of legislation. They should be supported by guaranteeing them the necessary financial and human resources and by ensuring that they possess the competences listed in the Directive. 21 Articles 11 and 16 of Council Regulation (EC) 1083/2006 and Articles 6 and 8 of Council Regulation (EC) 1698/ Point 1 of the Community strategic guidelines. 23 Point of the Community strategic guidelines. 24 Point of the Community strategic guidelines. 25 Point of the Community strategic guidelines. 26 Article 8a of Directive 76/207/EEC, as amended by Directive 2002/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 September

15 CONCLUSIONS 4. Conclusions Building on this report and in line with the priorities set out in the Roadmap and the European Pact for equality between women and men, the European Council is invited to urge the Member States to urgently take up the challenges described above, in cooperation with the various stakeholders. Particular emphasis will need to be placed on: taking all possible steps to eliminate the gender pay gap; strengthening gender mainstreaming in the implementation of employment policies; continuing the efforts aimed at allowing men and women to reconcile their professional, private and family lives, and supporting the social partners in implementing measures in that area; adopting an approach to issues of demographic change which takes account of and supports gender equality; making full use of the potential offered by the Cohesion and Rural Development Policy to support the promotion of equality between women and men through programmes cofinanced by the Funds; acting promptly to transpose Directives 2006/54/EC on the equal treatment of men and women (recast) and 2004/113/EC on the equal treatment of women and men in the access to and supply of goods and services. 13

16 Report on equality between women and men 2007 ANNEX This statistical annex provides an overview of the situation of women and men in the EU, its evolution over time and remaining gender gaps in different fields such as the labour market, education, presence in decision-making positions and social inclusion. Indicators have been chosen according to their relevance in covering aspects of the lives of women and men and the availability of comparable and reliable data. These indicators were already presented in the previous reports in order to facilitate the follow-up from one year to another. Employment rates Over the last few years, progress has been achieved towards the Lisbon target of reaching an employment rate for women of 60% by Female employment rate has risen from 53.6% in 2000 to 56.3% in 2005 whereas over the same period male employment rate has remained stable (from 71.2% to 71.3%). As a result, the gap between women s and men s employment rates decreased from 17.6 percentage points (p.p.) in 2000 to 15 p.p. in At national level, significant differences exist across the EU, with an employment rate gap below 10 p.p. in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, the Baltic countries, Bulgaria and Slovenia but exceeding 20 p.p. in Cyprus, Spain, Italy, Greece and Malta. The gap between female and male employment rates remains much higher amongst older workers (55 to 64 years) at 18.1 p.p. in 2005, down from 20 p.p. in This reduction was due to a strong rise in the employment rate of older female workers, from 26.9% in 2000 to 33.7% in Unemployment rates The positive evolution of female employment was reflected in unemployment figures, as the gap between women s and men s unemployment rates narrowed from 2.8 p.p. in 2000 to 2.0 p.p. in This decrease occurred notably in countries where the gap was the highest in 2000 (Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Germany, France and Poland). Nevertheless women were still more likely to be unemployed than men as the unemployment rate was 9.9% among women in 2005 whereas it was 7.9% among men. Part-time work Women s participation in the labour market is still largely characterised by a high share of part-time work. In 2006, the share of women employees working part-time was 32.9% in the EU while the corresponding figure for men was 7.7%. The share of female part-timers exceeded 30% in France, Denmark and Luxembourg, 40% in Sweden, Austria, Belgium, United Kingdom and Germany and even reached 75% in the Netherlands. Conversely, the share of part-timers among female workers was very low in Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Latvia. Reconciliation of professional, private and family life Women s participation to employment is affected by their predominant role in the care of children and other dependant persons, such as elderly or disabled persons. The difficulties faced by women in reconciling their professional and private life are evidenced by the strong impact of parenthood on employment rates. Participation in employment and the amount of time worked by women between 20 and 49 years are closely linked to the number and age of their children, which is less the case for men. In 2005, the employment rate for women aged was 61.1% when they had children under 12, compared with 76% when they did not. For men with children under 12, however, the employment rate was higher (91.5%) than for those without children (85.6%). Education and research In most Member States, more women than men reach a high level of education. However, once graduated, the presence of women clearly decreases at each step of the typical academic career. Indeed, women are more numerous and more successful than men at first degree level (59% of ISCED 5a graduates), but their share decreases amongst PhDs (43% of ISCED 6 graduates), and reaches a minimum amongst full professors (15% of Grade A full professors). Moreover, study fields continue to be greatly segmented with a low presence of women in engineering or science and technology and a high one in health, education or the humanities. 14

17 ANNEX Segregation The choice of study fields certainly impacts on the gender segregation of the labour markets evidenced both for occupations and economic sectors. Estonia, Cyprus, Slovakia, Finland and Hungary face high segregation in occupations whilst sectoral segregation is the highest in Estonia, Slovakia, Lithuania, Ireland, Finland and Sweden. In consequence of segregated labour markets there is an under-representation of women in sectors crucial for economic development and usually well remunerated. For example, only 29% of scientists and engineers in the EU are women. Decision-making The average number of female members of national parliaments (single/lower houses) was 24% in 2006, just one p.p. above the 2004 level. This share exceeds 30% in Germany, Austria, Spain and Belgium and 40% in Finland, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. However, it was below 15% in Greece, France, Slovenia, Ireland and Romania and did not exceed 10% in Malta and Hungary. Regarding decision-making in the economic sphere, women s share among managers in enterprises and administrations was 32% in 2005, just one p.p. above the 2000 level. This share exceeded 35% in Baltic countries and France while it was lower than 15% in Malta and Cyprus. At risk of poverty rate for older people The consequence of the disadvantaged position of women on the labour market was visible in the gender gap in poverty risk, especially among older persons (aged 65 and over). The share of people being at risk of poverty (having an income below the threshold set at 60% of the national median income) is significantly higher for women than for men in the EU (20% vs. 15%) in almost all Member States. The gap exceeds 10 p.p. in five countries: Romania, Bulgaria, Ireland, Slovenia and Estonia. Average age of women at first child The average age of women at child bearing is still increasing, reaching 28.3 years in It is under 25 years for Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic countries but was the highest in Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. 15

18 Report on equality between women and men Employment rates (women and men aged 15-64) in EU Member States Women Men Lisbon target for total employment rate in 2010 percent Lisbon target for women's employment rate in DK SE FI NL UK EE AT PT SI DE LT LV CY IE FR EU- 25 CZ BE LU BG RO ES HU SK PL EL IT MT Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages Absolute gender gap in employment rates (women and men aged 15-64) in EU Member States 2000 and 2005 (Difference between men's and women's employment rates) percentage points FI SE EE LT DK LV BG SI FR DE UK PT HU PL RO AT NL SK BE EU- 25 Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. NB: A positive gap indicates higher employment rates for men in comparison with women, while the opposite is true for a negative gap. CZ IE LU CY ES IT EL MT 16

19 ANNEX 3 Annual growth of women's and men's employment, in EU-25, Women Men 2.0 percent Source: Eurostat, National accounts, annual averages. Gender breakdown is derived from Labour Force Survey. 4 Employment rates of older workers (women and men aged 55-64) in EU Member States Women Men 70 percent Lisbon target for aged workers employment rate in SE EE DK FI UK LV PT LT DE IE FR NL EU- 25 RO CY CZ ES HU EL BG LU AT BE IT PL SI SK MT Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. 17

20 Report on equality between women and men Absolute gender gap in unemployment rates (women and men aged 15 years and over) in EU Member States 2000 and 2005 (Difference between women's and men's unemployment rates) percentage points EE UK IE BG RO LV SE LT HU FI AT NL DK SI DE SK BE PT EU- 25 FR CY LU MT PL CZ IT ES EL -4-6 Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. Notes: A positive gap indicates higher unemployment rates for women in comparison with men, while the opposite is true for a negative gap. SE: for 2005: provisionnal value 6 Share of part-time workers in total employment, in EU Member States Women Men percent BG SK HU CZ LV RO EL EE LT SI CY PL PT FI MT ES IT FR EU- 25 DK LU SE AT BE UK DE NL Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), Spring results. IE: no data. 18

21 ANNEX 7 Pay gap between women and men in unadjusted form in EU Member States 2005 (1) (Difference between men's and women's average gross hourly earnings as a percentage of men's average gross hourly earnings) percent MT PT BE IT SI EL PL HU IE FR ES RO LU EU- LT SE BG DK LV AT NL CZ FI UK DE EE SK CY 25 Source: Eurostat. Administrative data are used for LU, Labour Force Survey for FR and MT. Provisional results of EU-SILC (Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) are used for BE, EL, ES, IE, IT, AT, PT, and UK. All other sources are national surveys. SI: Provisional results. Exception to the reference year : (1) 2004: BE, DK, EE, FI, IE, IT, PT NB: EU-25 estimates are population weighted averages of the latest available values. 8 Educational attainment (at least upper secondary school) of women and men aged 20-24, in EU Member States Women Men percent PL SI SK LT CZ CY IE SE EL EE AT FI BE LV FR HU DK EU- 25 NL UK IT BG RO LU DE ES PT MT Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. NB: IE: Provisional value. Students living abroad for one year or more and conscripts on compulsory military service are not covered by the EU Labour Force Survey, which may imply lower rates than those available at national level. This is especially relevant for CY. 19

22 Report on equality between women and men Members of single/lower houses of national parliaments in EU Member States Distribution by sex 2004 and Left bar: 2004 Right bar: 2006 Women Men 90 percent SE DK NL FI BE ES AT DE PT EU- LU LT BG LV SK EE UK PL IT CY CZ EL FR SI IE RO HU MT 25 Source: European Commission, Employment, Social affairs and Equal opportunities DG, Database on Women and Men in Decision-making. NB: The indicator has been developed within the framework of the follow-up of the Beijing Platform for Action in the EU Council of Ministers. Data for 2004 are not available for BG and RO. 10 Managers in EU Member States Distribution by sex 2000 and Left bar: 2000 Right bar: 2005 Women Men 90 percent L V L T F R E E UK BG HU P T BE S I P L E S EU- I T S K RO CZ I E S E F I AT DE E L NL LU DK MT CY 25 Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS). NB: Managers are persons classified in ISCO 12 and 13. For MT and CY: data lack reliability due to small sample size. For IT: Change of data collection method. No data for RO in

23 ANNEX 11 Relative share of women and men in a typical academic career for EU Women Men percent ISCED 5A Students ISCED 5A Graduates ISCED 6 Students ISCED 6 Graduates Grade C Grade B Grade A Source: Eurostat, UOE data collection for ISCED 5a and 6 students and graduates ; DG Research, WiS database for Grades A, B and C. ISCED 5A: tertiary programmes to provide sufficient qualifications to enter into advanced research programmes & professions with high skills requirements. ISCED 6: Tertiary programmes which lead to an advanced research qualifications (PhD). ISCED 6 students: Data unavailable for DE and SI. Grade A: the single highest grade/post at which research is normally conducted with the institutional or corporate system. Grade B: researchers working in positions not as senior as top position but more senior than the newly qualified PhD holders. Grade C: The first grade/post into which a newly qualified PhD (ISCED 6) graduate would normally be recruited within the institutional or corporate system. Grades C, B, A: Exception to the reference year: CY, PT: 2003; AT: 2002; FR: 2001; NL: FTE, SI: Data estimated, FR: Grade C unavailable; Data unavailable for IE and LU. 12 Sex distribution of tertiary education graduates by field of study in EU Women Men percent Education Science Health and welfare Humanities and arts Social sciences, business and law Source: Eurostat. Tertiary education graduates include all graduates of levels ISCED 5 and 6. Agriculture and veterinary Science, mathematics and computing Engineering, manufacturing and construction 21

24 Report on equality between women and men Gender segregation in occupations in EU Member States RO EL IT MT PL PT UK AT BE NL FR LU DE ES DK LV IE LT SE SI BG CZ HU FI SK CY EE Source: Eurostat - LFS - Gender segregation in occupations is calculated as the average national share of employment for women and men applied to each occupation; differences are added up to produce the total amount of gender imbalance expressed as a proportion of total employment (ISCO classification). 14 Gender segregation in economic sectors in EU Member States RO MT EL LU NL FR IT BE DE AT SI UK DK PL CZ BG HU ES PT CY LV SE FI IE LT SK EE Source: Eurostat - LFS - Gender segregation in sectors is calculated as the average national share of employment for women and men applied to each sector; differences are added up to produce the total amount of gender imbalance expressed as a proportion of total employment (NACE classification). 22

25 ANNEX 15 Employment rates of women aged 20-49, depending on whether they have children (under 12) Without children With children percent SI LT PT NL BE FI AT CY FR LV RO LU UK BG EU-25 PL EE ES EL SK DE CZ IT HU MT Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey, annual averages. Notes: No data avaialble for DK, IE and SE. 16 Employment rates of men aged 20-49, depending on whether they have children (under 12) Without children With children percent LU EL CY PT SI NL CZ IT AT MT ES BE FI EU- 25 Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey, annual averages. Notes: No data for DK, IE and SE. EE FR UK LT LV DE SK PL HU RO BG 23

26 Report on equality between women and men At-risk-of-poverty rate after social transfers 1 for older people (women and men aged 65 years and over), in EU Member states Women Men percent LU NL PL SK HU LT FR LV DK DE IT SE BG EU- 25 AT FI BE EE SI RO UK EL PT ES IE CY Source: Eurostat. SILC and national sources. NB: 1) At risk of poverty rate for elderly persons: The share of persons aged 65+ with an income below the risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60% of the national median income. Income must be understood as equivalised disposable income (sum from all sources, adjusted for household size and composition). It should be noted that the risk-of-poverty indicator is computed using an income definition which does not yet include imputed rent of owner-occupiers. Gender breakdown is based on assumption of equal sharing of resources within household. It should be noted that the data is drawn from the reference European source (EU-SILC) where available, but that during the transition to data collection under the EU-SILC regulations, ex post harmonised national sources are still used for around half of the countries. In consequence, whilst every effort has been made, for this reason indicators cannot be considered to be fully comparable. EU aggregates are computed as population weighted averages of available national values. Data is presented for income reference year No data is available for CZ or MT for this reference year. NL and SK: provisional values. 18 Average age of women at birth of first child 2000 and (1) age BG RO LV EE LT SK PL HU CZ AT PT CY SI FI EL IE EU- 25 Source: Eurostat, Demography statistics. NB: No data available for BE, IT and MT for both years. UK: Scotland and Northern Ireland not included For DE, LU, UK and BG: birth order of current marriage: the comparability with other countries is limited. Exceptions to the reference years: (1) DE, EE, EL and ES: DK FR SE LU DE NL ES UK 24

27 ANNEX Employment rates (women and men aged 15-64) in EU Member States 2000 and 2005 Women Men Gender gap EU (25 countries) Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Bulgaria Romania Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. 25

28 Report on equality between women and men 2007 Employment rates of older workers (women and men aged 55-64) in EU Member States 2000 and 2005 Women Men Gender gap EU (25 countries) Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Bulgaria Romania Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. 26

29 ANNEX Unemployment rates (women and men aged 15 and over) in EU Member States 2000 and 2005 In this table, the gender gap is calculated as women s unemployment rate minus men s unemployment rate Women Men Gender gap EU (25 countries) Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Bulgaria Romania Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. 27

30 Report on equality between women and men 2007 Share of part-time workers in total employment in EU Member States 2001 and 2006 Women Men EU (25 countries) Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland 31.3 : 6.5 : Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Bulgaria Romania Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS) - Spring results. 28

31 ANNEX Pay gap between women and men in unadjusted form in EU Member States 2005 (Difference between men s and women s average gross hourly earnings as a percentage of men s average gross hourly earnings) 2005 (1) EU (25 countries) 15 Belgium 6 Czech Republic 19 Denmark 17 Germany 22 Estonia 24 Greece 9 Spain 13 France 12 Ireland 11 Italy 7 Cyprus 25 Latvia 17 Lithuania 15 Luxembourg 14 Hungary 11 Malta 4 Netherlands 18 Austria 18 Poland 10 Portugal 5 Slovenia 8 Slovakia 24 Finland 19 Sweden 16 United Kingdom 20 Bulgaria 16 Romania 13 Educational attainment (at least upper secondary school) of women and men aged 20-24, in EU Member States 2005 Women Men EU (25 countries) Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Bulgaria Romania Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), annual averages. NB: IE: Provisional value. Students living abroad for one year or more and conscripts on compulsory military service are not covered by the EU Labour Force Survey, which may imply lower rates than those available at national level. This is especially relevant for CY. Source: Eurostat. Administrative data are used for LU, Labour Force Survey for FR and MT. Provisional results of EU-SILC (Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) are used for BE, EL, ES, IE, IT, AT, PT and UK. All other sources are national surveys. SI: Provisional results. Exception to the reference year: (1) 2004: BE, DK, EE, FI, IE, IT, PT NB: EU-25 estimates are population weighted averages of the latest available values. 29

32 Report on equality between women and men 2007 Members of single/lower houses of national parliaments in EU Member States Distribution by sex 2004 and Women Men Women Men EU (25 countries) Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Bulgaria : : Romania : : Source: European Commission, Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities DG, database on Women and Men in decision-making. NB: The indicator has been developed within the framework of the follow-up of the Beijing Platform for Action in the EU Council of Ministers. Data for 2004 are not available for BG and RO. 30

33 ANNEX Distribution of managers by sex in EU Member States 2000 and Women Men Women Men EU (25 countries) Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Bulgaria Romania : : Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), spring data. NB: Managers are persons classified in ISCO 12 and 13. CY, MT: data lack reliability due to the small sample size. IT: change in data collection method. 31

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