IMWA 2010 Sydney, Nova Scotia Mine Water & Innovative Thinking. 3 main divisions : Slide 2 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 2. Context

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1 INERIS 3 main divisions : Since 1990 Budget : 70 M 600 employees Mechanisms of gas migration in flooding post- INERIS mining context Experimental approach and modelling Maîtriser le risque pour un développement durable Nils LE GAL Vincent LAGNEAU Arnaud CHARMOILLE Accidental Risks Division Chronic Risks Division Ground and underground Risks Division Slide 2 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 2 Flooded zone European project FLOMINET Support mission to state services: abandoned coal mines of France Thesis objectives To characterize mine gas migration (CH 4 ) Flooding impact on gas sorption/release Slide 3 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 3 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 4 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 5 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 6 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 1

2 CASPER : objectives (sorption capacity under high hydrostatic pressure during rock flooding) To reproduce flooding conditions To measure released gas from coal for given hydrostatic pressure Laboratory experiment CH 4 saturated coal Slide 5 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 7 Slide 6 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 8 CASPER : objectives (sorption capacity under high hydrostatic pressure during rock flooding) To reproduce flooding conditions To measure released gas from coal for given hydrostatic pressure To determine which pressure stops gas release P H2O CASPER: initial system Water pressure: stop gas release, H 2 O/CH 4 competition on sites? Hypotheses: Presence of water decreases CH 4 sorption (e.g. Joubert et al., 1973 ; Crosdale et al., 2008 ; Charrière, 2009) Released CH 4 enters aqueous phase, no gas in the cell First result (quick and dirty) Experiment released amount : mol (water degassing) Validation with solubility model of Duan and Mao (2006) Gas molar fraction Chemical potential Fugacity coefficient CH 4 cations anions interactions Slide 6 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 9 release Molality Soluble amount in the cell : mol Slide 7 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 10 CASPER CASPER: sampling/analysis system Autoclave cell Cell Gas chromatograph Water with aqueous gas sampling: ROLSI TM (Rapid On Line Sampling Injector) Analysis : gas chromatograph monitoring Micro-sampler Slide 8 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 11 Piston Heating transfer line Slide 9 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 12 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 2

3 Experimental result fit Reproduction of experimental conditions Defined mineral species coal Sorption sites CoalSite + CH(aq) 4 CoalSite-CH 4 Adsorption constant K [ CoalSite CH 4] [ NTOT sites] [ CH aq)] K = = [ CoalSite][ CH aq)] [ CH aq)]² Log (K) = 1.87 (P = 25.5 bar, T = 26 C) Sorption equilibrium at P=25.5 bar Modelling Slide 10 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 13 Slide 11 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 14 (Hydrological Transport coupled with Equilibrium Chemistry) Reactive transport Current code Flow, advection, diffusion, dispersion Mobile and immobile phases Chemical reactions : CHESS CHESS (Chemical Equilibrium of Species and Surfaces) Speciation Adsorption Chemical equilibrium Kinetics migration/adsorption plume migration Gallery K = 10-1 m/s (white) Fractured coalbed K = 10-4 m/s (blue) Fresh rock K = 10-6 m/s (green) Head gradient Δh = 0.01 Impact of fracture Fracture K = 10-4 m/s (blue) Slide 12 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 15 Slide 13 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 16 migration/adsorption plume migration Free migration/adsorption plume migration Free Adsorbed Adsorbed Slide 14 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 17 Slide 14 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 18 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 3

4 in the coal Bound : filling sorption sites migration Impact gallery/fracture connection Free : porous medium penetration Remontée progressive dans la fracture Content (mol/l) Diffusion dans le milieu poreux depuis la fracture Free sorption sites Approche de l influence d une fracture Time (months) Slide 15 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 19 Slide 16 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 20 Wrapping up & prospects Wrapping up Several phenomena to take into account CASPER First result consistent with bibliography New protocol operational end of summer 2010 : faster, better quality Sorption equilibrium constant migration in different structures Prospects Flooding modelling in development (unsaturated flow) Two-phase flow : end of the year 2010 Development of tools for gas risks management in flooded mines Slide 17 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 21 Slide 18 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 22 Thank you for attention (Hydrological Transport coupled with Equilibrium Chemistry) Finite volumes Voronoï mesh Discretization : one-step time centered t= t i Hydrodynamic flow field Hydrodynamic transport Bio-geochemical reactions Porosity effect Transport model update Convergence? Yes Diverging Not yet t = t i + Δt Reduction of Δt Source: van der Lee et al., 2003, modified Slide 19 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 23 Slide 20 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 24 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 4

5 Exploitation Flooding Water pressure m (water) Empty gallery Saturated porous medium Exploitation, pumping : 4 months Depression cone Medium desaturation above gallery Flooding : 2 months Flow inversion Medium saturation Rising flow No flow Descendant flow Slide 21 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 25 DCO - 08/09/ titre - 5

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