Study. The local dimension of the migration-developmen nexus The case of France Sénégal

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1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Study The local dimension of the migration-developmen nexus The case of France Sénégal If migration, in its diversity, is considered at territorial level, it can form a central part of local development processes. Consequently, one of the challenges for local authorities is to integrate them more effectively into territorial issues and throughout the definition and implementation of their local development strategies. It is on the basis of such observations that AFD, in consultation with the team of the Programme d Appui aux Initiatives de Solidarité pour le Développement (PAISD, a programme financed by France and Senegal), has commissioned a study on the France-Senegal corridor. This study, conducted by GRDR in partnership with the Ifan Cheikh Anta Diop, aims to answer two questions: 1. How to integrate the mobility 1 factor into local development strategies? 2. How to optimise migrants contributions to the local governance and economic development of their origin (and host) area? The results presented here are the outcome of research conducted between March and August 2014 based on three phases: (i) a literature review to assess the current state of international, European and African debates on the place given to the local level in texts concerning the migrationdevelopment nexus; (ii) a more detailed institutional analysis of the legislative context in Senegal, the mechanisms implemented in the country and the actors involved; and (iii) surveys conducted in the Senegal River Valley, the historical centre of Senegalese migration, and in Dakar, an area of convergence for the different forms of migration, as well as in France, where a mirror study was conducted with the aim of comparing the opinions of migrants and their decentralised cooperation partners with the information and testimonies gathered in the homeland areas. The subject is complex. It involves both succeeding in integrating mobilities understood as flows of national and international emigration, but also immigration as a specific factor of development and managing to identify their ins and outs both in terms of added value and negative points in relation to territorial issues and the role and place of migrants in local development projects. It appears that the local dimension of the migration-development nexus provides technical and political keys for understanding that are interesting to analyse and link up with the broader scales. The main difficulty encountered, as it is recurrent in space and time, is the lack of reliable data (statistical, qualitative ) on the territories studied, both in terms of the number and profile of migrants (emigrants/immigrants) and the impacts of a number of socioeconomic investments identified to which they have contributed. This report comprises three documents: - An overall analysis report in three sections (75 p.): analysis of the local dimension of the migrationdevelopment nexus; detailed study in Senegal; methodological manual. - Two illustrated monographs of territories: the Senegal River Valley and Dakar (63 and 45 pp.), with tables, analysis diagrams, maps - An annex report compiling the reference documents (schedule, resource persons, fact sheets on migration and development mechanisms, data tables, press articles, survey questionnaires, multiactor activity tools, etc.). 1 The term migration(s) is generally associated with the displacement of nationals who leave a country to settle in another. For several years, the term mobility has been used in reflection on migration management, in such a way that there has been a change in its conception, which aims more to consider the temporary nature of the movement of human capital. In the context of this study, the aim of the use of the term mobility(ies) is to consider the migrationdevelopment nexus in a holistic manner: it involves understanding both external and internal migration, and grasping the material and immaterial flows (see Competencies Radar, part III) generated by these mobilities.

2 It is now recognised that mobility constitutes a sustainable development opportunity The global approach to migration adopted by the European Union in 2005 and, since 2007, the declarations of the High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, have led to a recognition of the value of the positive impact of migration on development, first of all in the countries of origin, but, and in an increasingly explicit manner, also in the transit and destination countries. The High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development in 2013 called for the linkages between migration and development to be optimised. There is also considerable advocacy support for the recognition of the role of migration in the post-2015 development agenda. In the example of Senegal, the research conducted shows that internal and international migration, which initially result from family strategies, often provide significant added value in the development of both host territories and territories of origin, and in both rural and urban areas. In Dakar, the capital city where the many different forms of mobility are particularly visible, internal migration and emigration and immigration dynamics contribute at different levels to the transformation of urban landscapes in certain neighbourhoods and, consequently, to the need to develop territorial planning strategies: - Rural migrants settle in the city for varying durations, firstly in the hope of making a place for themselves (find a job, accommodation ): these mobility strategies, which are still not well understood, are important variables of settlement dynamics and clearly have an impact on the organisation of the host society. They can constitute a specific issue in itself: How are they received? How to guarantee access to basic services? How to promote social cohesion? Some of these internal migrants maintain close links with their area of origin, where they are involved in the implementation of local development projects; - The vast majority of international emigrants decide to invest in Dakar, particularly in property, and consequently in the development of the local economy. The aim is to secure and build their savings made in the host countries; - International immigrants, who contribute to the cosmopolitanism of a capital city and are an element of its identity, invest in specific segments of the economy, while establishing links with their countries of origin. This holds potential for territorial cooperation that needs to be explored. In the Senegal River Valley, a historical bastion of Senegalese emigration towards other African countries and towards Europe and particularly France, but also a major area of rural exodus, the individual and/or community investments of migrant associations, the remittances of all kinds, whether material or immaterial, and the capitalisation on the knowledge acquired during the different migration experiences are all indicators of the role of development actors claimed by migrants. In a number of villages of the Senegal River Valley, internal migrants and cross-border migrants also play a significant role in introducing new know-how and activities with immediate professional opportunities. but the local dimension of the Migration-Development nexus remains unexplored and unexploited The commitment made by countries of origin to promote the contribution that migration make to their development has been subject to a number of initiatives for several years. However, in the vast majority of cases they proceed from the central level at the national level. For example, Senegal, a country shaped by mobilities and a beneficiary of migrant remittances more than 10% of GDP, has for 30 years shown a strong commitment to promoting the link between migration and development. With support from technical and financial partners, it has established specific mechanisms for action targeting international migrants (e.g.: BAOS, FAISE). It has also defined a national crosscutting policy in order to have an appropriate intervention strategy towards the Senegalese Abroad (Lettre de politique sectorielle of the Ministry for Senegalese Abroad, 2006) coordinated with the main strategic development programmes and finally, more recently, sectoral policies that identify migrants as being development actors.

3 In the early 2000s, in the context of strategic reflection on a possible global governance of migration and the signing of concerted bilateral agreements between countries of origin and destination, including substantial means to provide technical and financial assistance to projects led by migrants, new mechanisms were introduced with the aim of promoting the contribution made by Senegalese migrants to local development (e.g.: PAISD, PLASEPRI). The study report develops a tool for 15 of them to measure the performance of the links between migration and local development. The analyses conducted show that despite the positive results obtained by certain mechanisms, the multiplication and spreading too thinly of the latter has resulted in a lack of effectiveness, visibility and coherence of operations (see 2IEC Study on the involvement of Senegalese Abroad in economic and social development, 2013). This observation has led to reflection on possibly grouping these mechanisms together. The lack of means and/or methodological tools may also have made it difficult to establish projects at local level and provide local support which are, however, essential. Furthermore, these mechanisms, which are intended exclusively for Senegalese nationals residing in Europe, reflect a restrictive view that considers the Migration-Development relationship from the angle of the contribution that migrants residing in the North make to territories of origin in the South. Yet in order to understand the diversity of mobilities, these types of mechanism must be able to open up and adapt to the challenges and issues of internal and sub-regional migration, including immigration. In reality, in Senegal, as elsewhere in the world, while the Migration-Development nexus is recognised, it continues to be tentatively considered in its entirety and in its local dimension as a key factor that must be taken into account in planning strategies and processes for territorial development. Addressing the Migration-(Local) Development nexus in the light of territorial development constitutes a relevant avenue for reflection and actions The two monographic studies confirm the substantial contribution made by migrants, in their diversity (particularly international migrants, in France/Europe, but not only), individually or organised in associations, firstly at family level but also at community level, to the development of their areas of origin. Although these projects are not yet systematically evaluated and capitalised on, it can be seen and is recognised that for 50 years, migrants have been playing an important role in improving living conditions for their families and villages by building housing and public, social, economic and religious facilities. In this regard, it is unanimously acknowledged that migrants are the first actors to have developed, relying on their own efforts, Migration-Development practices at local level. However, for almost 20 years now, the implementation of decentralisation laws in Senegal, combined with a generational transition in the diaspora, have reversed the dynamic that benefits the initiatives of actors who are in the territories of local authorities (elected officials, traditional authorities, technical service staff, civil society organisations, private operators ). The main sectoral competences transferred to local elected officials (health, education, training, culture, housing ) correspond to the intervention sectors which had until now been given priority by national residents (living in the capital) and nationals living abroad (village associations), which initially generated mistrust, frustration and sometimes power struggles between these two categories of actors. While it is commonly recognised that mobility strategies open up potential for valuable resources for development, local actors and emigrants/immigrants (internal and international) often have intrinsically imbalanced relations, in particular due to a difference between the presumed competences and the actual means. More generally, the perception of migration issues remains limited: while the local authorities interviewed are aware of the financial power of emigrants, they would appear not to take account of either the other possible contributions or the more general issues related to mobilities. Taking better account of and integrating the mobility factor as a key to understanding local development issues would allow them to promote synergies between sectors, maximise the added value (material and immaterial transfers ) and minimise the negative points (difficulty to identify a rationale for anticipation, integration, land pressure, societal cohesion, competence management ).

4 Consequently, this study emphasises that while the actors interviewed all consider that the migration-development nexus raises unanimous interest, the methods and tools still need to be devised in order to: - Gain an understanding of mobilities as a determining variable of territorial development: there are few ex post or prospective studies on demographic change that would allow needs to be anticipated in terms of guaranteeing access to rights, basic services (education, health, housing, land ), economic opportunities, but also the potential synergies and contributions of mobilities to territorial development to be optimised (economic, environmental, social, cultural). The causal links between migration/mobilities and local development issues are neither anticipated, nor identified, and are ultimately developed very little; - Broaden the field of competencies to be mobilised and clarify the role and place of migrants in order to optimise the impact of their interventions in engineering for local development projects, including in terms of decentralised cooperation: local elected officials often only perceive the financing capacity of migrants and are still reluctant to involve them whether they be internal or international in all the stages of the territorial development project cycle. The ongoing institutional reforms in Senegal provide an opportunity to implement the Migration- Development nexus at the level of local authorities In the specific case of Senegal, the aim of Act III of Decentralisation (2014) is to territorialise public policies, i.e. to organise Senegal into viable and competitive territories with potential for sustainable development by This reform provides a real opportunity to promote the key role played by local authorities and build up their competencies and responsibilities. These are prerequisites and the sine qua non for optimising the potential of the migration-development linkage at local level. For local actors to be able to integrate mobilities as factors of territorial development and involve migrants (internal and international emigrants and immigrants) in processes to plan and implement territorial projects, the study suggests that they should adopt a territorial approach to the Migration and Development linkage: above all, these actors still lack know-how (tools, data, schedule) and means (technical and financial) in terms of managing decision-making for territorial development. The need to reinforce local development processes is clearly a prerequisite as much as a priority. An approach based on dialogue, consultation and a renewed partnership between local actors and migrants is necessary in order to better exploit mobility While the surveys show that elected officials and all local actors, over here as over there, including migrants (internal and international), are all interested in integrating the mobility factor into local development strategies, here again, they need to be supported and strengthened. The idea of promoting a territorial approach to the Migration-Development linkage in order to better connect the potential of mobilities with the development issues of the home, transit and host territories requires adopting an inclusive approach, which in operational terms must gradually make it possible to: - Produce knowledge on the quantitative and qualitative dimension of migration flows by documenting reliable local information (migration profile, mapping of emigration/immigration= actors, databases ); - Increase action-research and cross-capitalisation work on the experiences of the involvement of different generations of migrants in the construction of territories; - Clearly identify, in a retrospective and prospective manner, the added value (assets, contributions) and negative points (obstacles, risks) of mobilities in the territory; - Promote and support the creation and coordination of exchange platforms (meetings, missions, exchange visits), dialogue and consultation between migrants and local actors; - Identify the sectors the most concerned by migration issues and define a crosscutting strategy for the integration of these issues;

5 - Define the scope of the competencies sought and those available (widest possible radar) at the level of migrants and clarify their roles and responsibilities in projects; - Build the competencies and capacities of migrants in terms of understanding territorial issues (over here and over there), setting up projects, associations, building partnerships and approaches to cooperation, particularly decentralised cooperation, etc. The study proposes, on the basis of illustrated avenues to be explored and recommendations (Part III), an initial outline for responses to those who are interested in the issue, but do not know how to address it or work with migrants (national/international immigrants/emigrants). This methodological manual comprises two summary tables (assumptions and recommendations, obstacles and opportunities), two practical tools and five strategic frameworks 2. It aims to facilitate analysis and action in order to remove the obstacles and limit the risks that are inherent to mobilities (the negative points ) and thereby maximise the positive impacts of these mobilities (the added value ) in local development policies. It is now up to the stakeholders concerned: citizens, including the migrants from regional and local authorities from over here and over there, local elected officials, governments, and development partners to test it and adapt it to local realities and to their needs. Mobilities in the dual space : cooperation only makes sense if there are (at least) two reasons for it The strong conclusions of this research conducted in France and Senegal on how to integrate migration issues into understanding and planning local development would appear to be universally applicable: they thereby open up an original and innovative scope of perspectives to: (i) strengthen local governance systems, (ii) decompartmentalise sectoral approaches, (iii) develop citizen solidarity actions and (iv) renew decentralised cooperation partnerships and local co-development dynamics. Indeed, mobilities are a tremendous source for generating, fostering and/or reviving or sustaining cooperation partnerships. In order to manage to optimise the links between migration and local development in the dual space, it is now advisable to identify joint issues from over here and over there and address common challenges together. In the current context of the definition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), an interpretation framework that will be intended for all regions of the world, the opportunity arises to exploit this potential for cooperation between solidarity-based territories : in the dual space of migration pathways, it corresponds to the final stage of the analysis of interdependencies and is part of this original momentum for sustainable local co-development between home and host territories, set in motion by mobilities, which is sometimes revealed and always embodied by migrants with multiple territorial citizenships. Dual space: Refers to the French concept of Double-espace - Development of the continuum of territories of origin, transit and destination in order to build strong and sustainable economic, social and cultural linkages between actors from over here and over there and to be able to address joint issues and common challenges [extract I-C-2] 2 Table N 1: Potential avenues and recommendations based on 10 recurring cases; Table N 2: The framework of the migration-local development nexus: How to remove the obstacles and benefit from opportunities?; Tool N 1: The territorial development project cycle; Tool N 2: The migrant competencies radar chart; Diagram N 1: Optimise participation in local development?; Diagram N 2: Promote local economies?; Diagram N 3: Support mobilities at each stage of migration trajectory?; Diagram N 4: Renew co-development partnerships?; Diagram N 5: What should an institutional and financial partner do? N.B.: We recommend testing the methodological manual and experimenting with it by putting it into practice in territories over here and over there. The tools and diagrams may thereby be adapted, further developed and improved in order to become methodological tools that are validated in the dual space, able to maximise the advantages of the migration-local development linkage.

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