IAwind.org years ago we had Steve Jobs, Bob Hope and Johnny Cash - Now we have no Jobs, no Cash and no Hope

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1 Renewable Energy towards Energy Independence and a Brighter Future/ Enerjide Kendimize Yetmemiz, Daha Parlak ve Saglikli bir Gelecek icin: Yenilenebilir Enerji Recayi Reg Pecen, Ph.D. Professor & Program Coordinator Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Technology 10 years ago we had Steve Jobs, Bob Hope and Johnny Cash - Now we have no Jobs, no Cash and no Hope UNI & Iowa hakkinda UNI: 13,500 students One of the three state universities Iowa Nufusu: 3 Million (3,046,355) Corn, Soybean, Pork/Cow main income, Ag Manufacturing (John Deere Tractors) Wind Energy Picking Baskanlik Secimlerinin ilk oylandigi Eyalet (Iowa Caucus) IAwind.org 1

2 Konusma Plani Problem Tanimi: Sera Etkisi ve Sera Gazlarinin Hizla Artmasi (Increased GHGs & Climate Change) Petrol ve Komure Dayali Enerji Uretiminin Kuresel Isinma ve Iklim Degisikligine Etkisi Saglik Problemleri - Recent UC Davis Study It is NOT late to act on alternative energy with reduced or no emissions Her alanda Enerji Sarfiyatinin Azaltilmasi ve Verimin Artirilmasi : Residential-Commercial- Industrial-Public & Private Herkese Dusen Gorevler - Major Responsibilities on Sustainability Education at Universities! (Every major student must take at least one 3-credit hours on energy efficiency & sustainability ) Committees, Task Forces, & Community, Industrial Action Groups Ruzgar Gulleri, Gunes ve H-Yakit Pillerinin Temel Calisma Prensipleri Ruzgar Enerjisi Gelisimindeki Zorluklar ve Problemler Universite Kampusu ve Park/Bahcelerde Tamamlanan bazi ornek Temiz Enerji Projeleri Ruzgar Enerjisinde Turkiye nin Onemi ve Hizla Gelismesi Endustride Enerji Verimliligi Artirimi Universitelerin Ruzgar Enerjisi R & D e Ne gibi Katkisi Olabilir? Buyuk ve Kucuk Sanayide Temiz Enerji Uretim Olanaklari (Large and Small Business Opportunities in Renewable Energy : BIPV & Small Wind Turbines in Communities) Sorular Coal-fired power plant Enerji Uretim-Nakil-Dagitim Sistemi Conventional (Central) vs. Distributed Generation 2010-Gunumuze Smart Grid &Energy Internet Gecmis Gunumuz-Gelecek s

3 Dr. R. Pecen University of Northern Iowa Source: Office of Science and Technology Policy, Oct 97 dtech/eiet Dr. R. Pecen University of Northern Iowa dtech/eiet Source: Office of Science and Technology Policy, Oct 97 NY Times, Dec 16, 2006 by Mark Landler: Two new studies one that says the Alps are the warmest they have been in 1,250 years. Climatologists, say the warming trend will become dramatic by The new studies are alarming, suggesting that the Alps & Himalayas are warming twice as fast as the average in the rest of the world. In 1980, 75 % of Alpine glaciers were advancing; now, 90 % are retreating. An 1870 postcard view of the Rhone glacier in Gletsch, Switzerland, contrasted dramatically with the shrinking 21st-century version of it. This year was a terrible year for the glaciers, said Max Maisch, an expert on the topic at the University of Zurich. July was very hot, though August was cool; but September was the warmest in 140 years. Many glaciers are collapsing on the edges. The New York Times October 24,

4 Glaciers in the Himalayas are retreating at a rate of 33 to 49 feet each year Billions of people in China and the Indian subcontinent rely on South Asia's Himalayan glaciers - the world's largest store of fresh water outside the polar ice caps. The massive ice floes feed seven of the world's greatest Asian rivers in one of the world's most densely populated regions. Scientists say the glaciers in the Himalayas are retreating at a rate of about 33 to 49 feet each year - faster than in any other part of the world. In the Himalayas, the Gangotri Glacier, which forms a mass of ice about 18 miles long, is retreating at a rate of more than 100 feet a year. Jan 16, 2007 Warming of Greenland: Greenland melts QUICKLY! Greenland is covered by 630,000 cubic miles of ice, enough water to raise global sea levels by 23 feet (7 meters). Carl Egede Boggild, a prof. of snow-and-ice physics at the Univ. Center of Svalbard, said Greenland could be losing more than 80 cubic miles of ice per year. A peninsula long thought to be part of Greenland's mainland turned out to be an island when a glacier retreated. We are already in a new era of geography, said the Arctic explorer Will Steger. This phenomenon of an island all of a sudden appearing out of nowhere and the ice melting around it is a real common phenomenon now. Climate Change vs Polar Bears A lone polar bear drifts at the entrance to the Arctic's Northwest Passage. Sea Ice in Retreat Summer 2007 saw a record-breaking loss of Arctic sea ice. October 1, _ARCTIC_GRAPHIC.html?th&emc=th# inhabitat.com Dr. R. Pecen University of Northern Iowa dtech/eiet 4

5 The Maldives is situated in the South West of Sri Lanka, on the equator. A total of 1,190 coral reef islands to disappear slowly! Arctic ice is melting so fast that, for the first time in human history, you can sail straight through the Arctic! Imagine the sea rising around you as your country literally disappears beneath your feet, where the food you grow and the water you drink is being destroyed by salt, and your last chance is to seek refuge in other lands where climate refugees have no official status. This is not a dream, it's the fearful reality for millions of people who live on islands around the world, from the Maldives to Papua New Guinea. Coal Combustion! Today 52% of the capacity for generating electricity in the US is fueled by coal (57 % in IA) Coal combustion produces CO 2 and other greenhouse gases that are suspected to cause climatic warming, and it is a source of sulfur oxides (SO 2 ) & (NO 2 ), which are harmful to human health & may be largely responsible for acid rain. Although not as well known, releases from coal combustion coal ashes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials uranium & thorium. 52% of the capacity for generating electrical power in the US is fueled by coal. Skin Lesions caused by exposure to Arsenic caused by coal combustion in China. Coal ash is composed primarily of oxides of silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, titanium, sodium, potassium, arsenic, mercury, and sulfur plus small quantities of uranium & thorium. Radiation Doses due to Coal Combustion! US & world release of Uranium & Thorium from coal combustion risen since early 20 th century. Americans living near coal-fired power plants are exposed to higher radiation doses than those living near nuclear power plants that meet government regulations! Large quantities of uranium, thorium & other radioactive species in coal ash are not being treated as radioactive waste. 5

6 Radioactivity from Coal Combustion! According to National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurement, the ave radioactivity per ton of coal is 4.27 microcuries/ton. Population exposure from operation of 1000MW 490-rem/year for coal plants 4.8 -rem/year for nuclear plants: Sonuc: Komurle calisan santrallerin, nukleer enerji ile calisan santraller gore insanlara yaptigi radyasyon etkisi 100 kat daha fazla! Dr. R. Pecen University of Northern Iowa dtech/eiet Elektrik Uretimi Hydro Power Plant 3,000 kg komur = 14,000 varil petrol = 1 kg U ,400 MWh electrical energy Ortalama bir Amerikali ailenin aylik elektrik tuketimi: 900 kwh (1,260 lbs or 572 kg CO 2 emissions) What is your footprint? 6

7 Coal-fired Power Plant Nuke-Power Plant Nuclear Power Plant KENNETH J. STIER, Published: May 22, 2005, Insanoglu isterse cok temiz enerji santralleride yapabilir! Dirty Secret: Coal Plants Could Be Much Cleaner: IGCC Power Plants One of the most advanced - and cleanest - coal power plants in the world is Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station in Florida. Rather than burning coal, it turns coal into a gas that can be cleaned of almost all pollutants. Tampa Electric's (10% more efficient) Polk Station, where coal is turned into a relatively clean gas to burn for electricity. Because regulators require utilities to use the lowest-cost alternatives, this more expensive plant is the only one of its kind. Finite supply of fossil fuels Lack of substitutes Environmental concerns and clean air issues Foreign oil and energy independency Good for economy, new job opportunities on manufacturing, operation, management areas. Incredible fresh water savings if the same power would be obtained from coal fired power plants Neden Ruzgar Gulleri? 7

8 Annual Average Wind Resource Estimates in the US ND 35% of entire USA energy demand Iowa US Wind Energy Goal: 20% of our entire energy generated by wind by 2030 Iowa s Current Wind Energy Production: 20% as of by the American Wind Energy Association. May be freely distributed provided Dr. R. this Pecen notice is included. University of All other Northern rights Iowa reserved. dtech/eiet Power Class Wind Power (W/m 2 ) Speed (m/s) Iowa Iowa >800 >8.8 Wind Power Enhancement & Economical Impact The Answer Is Blowing in Iowa by Yuliya Chernova The state is No. 2 in the country in terms of wind power and its policies may be a model for other states, as well as for the feds. "Iowa shows that concentrated and consistent leadership from governors and consistent support from the state regulatory commission can get a lot done," says Hans Detweiler, director of state policy at the American Wind Energy Association. Iowa's wind now powers about 20 % of the state's electricity consumption, which represents a lofty goal for many other states. 9,000 MW 4,000 MW 2.5 MW Clipper WT ¼ acre footprint $3,000-4,000 annual cash income for Iowa farmer 4,000-5,000 in Europe 8

9 Ruzgar Enerjisi Uretiminin Temeli Electric Enerji Uretimi ruzgar hizinin kubu ile dogru orantili. P = 0.5 A C p v 3 g b = k v 3 Ruzgar Gulleri ile Ekonomiye Eklenen Yeni Is/Sirket Kollari Site Selection Land Agreements Wind Assessment Environmental Review Economic Modeling Interconnection Studies Permitting Sales Agreements Financing Construction Contracting Operations & Maintenance Animated Wind Power Capacity Growth in United States 1981: ABD deki ilk buyuk ruzgar gulleri Major Wind Farm Altamont Pass, California Since 1981, over 20 manufacturers have installed over 7,300 wind turbines at Altamont Pass in CA. These turbines have produced more than 6 billion kwh of electricity, enough to meet the needs of about 800,000 CA homes for about a year. 9

10 Stand alone vs. Grid-Tied Wind Power Systems Renewable Energy Consumption by Major Source (U.S. EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administ. / Annual Energy Review 2010 (Released: October 19, 2011) Wind Power is the fastest growing renewable energy technology! U.S. Energy Consumption Estimates by Sector Sources: U.S. Energy Information Admin. /Annual Energy Review 2010, released Oct 19, 2011 Bugun Ruzgar Enerjisi Uretimi DUNYA da en hizli buyuyen yenilenebilir enerji kaynagi 10

11 4000 World net wind-powered electricity generation from central producers by region and country 3500 Billion kwh OECD Europe Total World Central and South America India China B i l i o n Non-OECD Total OECD OECD Europe United States k W h United States 165 B kwh 500 Years Sources: History: Derived from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Statistics d atabase (as of March 2011), web site International Energy Outlook 2011 Net wind-powered electricity generation TOTAL WORLD Release Date: September 19, 2011 Report Number: DOE/EIA-0484(2011) Do not want to import WTs! All parts and material must be made in USA, needs tons of casting, WT parts and tower manufacturing! How to synchronize RES & Infrastructure Development Administrative /Legal Work Must have reliable forecast tools Data Acquisition/ Instrumentation Challenges of Small scale, Utility Scale, Large Wind Turbines (Farms) Synchronization to Power Grid Urgent Approval Procedures for new EHV Transmission Lines AC & HVDC, Overhead, Underground Cables Our Goal to generate min 20% wind power based RES by 2030! Grid access Political Climate Harmonics Nature Protection/Public Acceptance NIMBY wind power, oh yes, but somewhere else Electrical and Information Engineering Technology Dr. R. Pecen Ensure availability of sufficient back-up and balancing power due to variability Wind blows where it wants Distributed wind interconnection challenges for utility scale wind: 1-10 MW wind farm at 34.5 kv or lower Vs may face challenges such as V- rise, V-flicker, Thermal overloading, and SC current level changes 11

12 Issues. (Sources: IEA Wind Task25; Holtinnen (2007) Electrical Power generated through Solar Cells/Modules Very similar to classical p-n junction diode; when light (ext. force!) is absorbed by junction, energy of the absorbed photons is transferred to electron system of the material, resulting forming of separated charge carriers PV Arrays and Systems Photovoltaic (PV) & Solar Power Generation PV cells, known commonly as solar cells, convert the energy from sunlight into DC electricity, which can be used as is or converted into AC. No noise and require practically min maintenance. 12

13 Several PV CELLS make a MODULE and several modules make an ARRAY Passive Solar This sample greenhouse (Chicago center for Green Tech) located behind the building, is a passive solar greenhouse. The back wall of the greenhouse is made from cinder blocks that absorb and store heat. Most greenhouses need an additional source of heat to maintain the warm temperature at night. 13

14 November 2002 The U.S. Navy installed the largest (750kW) federal solar power system in 2002 Naval Base Coronado, in San Diego. 750-kW system generates enough electricity during the day to power 935 homes. PV panels also form a half-mile-long covered parking in the naval base's parking lot, also providing shading for more than 400 vehicles. Actual peak capacity of 924 kw, but the system connecting PVs to the grid produces only 750 kw. System converts the DC from the PVs into 3-phase, 12kV power that is fed into the Navy's AC power system. Large PV Projects on University Campuses are becoming common Feb 20, 2003 Cal State Northridge completed installation of 3,000 PV panels To save the university $50,000 a year in electricity costs, and is thought to be one of the largest at an American public university generating 225kW. Peak production achieved precisely when it is needed most in Southern CA - between one 1-5 pm on hot summer afternoons. The power is fed directly into the AC grid serving the 353-acre campus, located in LA s San Fernando Valley, CO 2 emissions by an amount equal to that emitted by 36 average passenger cars driving 20,000 miles per year. Baby boomers are retiring in many power engineering areas Promoting STEM has been challenging! Urgent needs on qualified technical stuff on wind and other renewable energy areas! ISU, UI, UNI and Iowa Community Colleges are now offering programs, certificate programs and classes on wind energy: UNI class on wind energy https://sites.google.com/a/uni.ed u/windpower/ Iowa Alliance on Wind Innovation and Novel Development Education & Qualified Workforce Needs DSIRE is a comprehensive source of information on state, local, utility & federal incentives and policies that promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. Develop and promote ZERO EMISSION ecofriendly boats for Iowa lakes & rivers! Solid Works Model of the 2006 UNI eboat with three PV modules Smoothing and finishing Sponson 14

15 1.5 kw small-scale UNI-Ind Tech Dept Solar/Wind Hybrid Power Station (since 2000) Motor mount with 3 PM motors and pulleys by Solid Works & the actual motor mount manufactured A sample engineering technology application: From Computer modeling to an actual motor frame manufacturing. Pro-E Models of 2007 Hull June 2007 and June 2008 : UNI ranked; 4 th in overall, 2007: 3 rd in Qualifications, 3 rd in engineering design of visual display. 2008: Outstanding Solar Power System Design, Fourth Overall, Best Engineering Visual Design Award Dr. Reg Pecen September 17, 2009 To Host Solar-Electric Boat Competition "The will be the host of the world championship of intercollegiate solarelectric boating for three years beginning in 2011." 15

16 2009 Design for May Competition, Fayetteville, Arkansas Dr. R. Pecen Picture: Mr. Doug Bechthold, (Former UNI Solar Boat Member) currently Factory Automation Engineer, John Deere Waterloo Works, Westfield Avenue Site UNI Solar Panthers at YouTube: player_embedded# May 2009 : UNI ranked; 3rd in overall, 3rd in Solar Slalom, 3rd place in engineering design visual display, and OUTSTANDING electrical system design awards in the 16th World Championship of Intercollegiate Solar Boating hosted by University of Arkansas, College of Engineering, Fayetteville, AR Some of teams ranked after UNI are College of New Jersey, UA, Kansas State, Geneva College, Univ. of Southampton (UK), SUNY - Stony Brook, University of North Florida, Carnegie Mellon, Washington State University, Middle Tennessee State, Elizabethtown College, Tecnológico de Monterrey Monterrey, Mexico World Championship on Intercollegiate Solar Electric Boating 2010-Fayetteville, AR 3 rd overall behind Univ of New Orleans, College of Naval Eng. (1 st ) and Univ of South Hampton (UK) College of Eng. (2 nd ). Outstanding Solar System Design 3rd in Championship Sprint Race 4 th in Tech Report Writing 16

17 Eco-Friendly Lawn Mower UNIMow John Gregorich & R. Pecen EET Senior Design project Operating a gas mower for 1 hr produces the same pollution as driving a car 1300 miles. Each weekend, about 54 M Americans mow their lawns, using 800 M gallons of gas per year. An EPA study found that ~ 9 % of some types of air pollutants nationwide come from lawn & garden equipment small engines. In 1 hr mowing, 26 different pollutants were found in the exhaust of the mowers. Does solar power help to mow? Engine is composed of a motor, battery and PV Panels Sponsored by CNS SOAR Grant Ind Tech Dept EET UNIMow John Gregorich Dr. Reg Pecen Dr. Reg Pecen Test Drive: Saturday, April 21, Earth Day (April 22) Celebration in Waterworks Park, Des Moines UNI Wind-Solar Hybrid Power & Instrumentation Station (since 2000) 1.5 kw Generates 4,380 kwh electricity per year. Saves 6,351 pounds of CO 2 per year. Min 423 trees would be required to offset these yearly emissions. An excellent testbed to renewable energy education at UNI. Sponsors: CEEE, CNS SOAR Grants, Industrial Tech. Dept. Dr. Reg Pecen Dr. Reg Pecen 17

18 Wind Speed (mph) UNI Solar Powered Digital Outdoor Signage/Display (since 2002) UNI Solar Powered Wheel Chair A collaboration among Manufacturing Tech, Construction Mang. & EET Students Good for Shading also! Sponsor: CNS SOAR Grants Ind Tech Dept Sponsors: CNS SOAR Grants, BC & T Bunn, Inc. Ind. Tech. Dept. Dr. Reg Pecen Dr. Reg Pecen UNI-Starr Hydro-Wind-Solar Project in Hickory Hills Park, Iowa: Design and Implementation of 5 kw Ren Energy Station using Wind, Solar, & Hydro resources at Hickory Hills Park in La Porte City, Iowa. UNI-Starr Hydro-Wind-Solar Project in Hickory Hills Park, La Porte City, Iowa 5-Day Wind Data Recorded on March Mar 7-Mar 8-Mar 9-Mar 10-Mar Day Series1 18

19 RPM 32 Under vehicle hood before engine removal. Under vehicle hood before engine removal Under vehicle hood after engine removal. Under vehicle hood before engine removal Engine and transmission after removal. Rear frame before notching. Rear frame after notching. Rear frame during notching process Design And Implementation Of An Educational Axial Flux Wind Turbine/Generator: Francis Praska, Ashraf Alqassab, R. Pecen E PAC 500 W Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Power System and LabView Based Data Acquisition & Interface System to monitor V, I, P, H, & Overall Efficiency V 40 Sponsored by Alliant Energy, UNI Graduate School, CNS Dean s Office Dr. Reg Pecen Dr. Reg Pecen Design & Conversion for an Electric Plug-In Vehicle of Department Industrial Technology Goal: Parts to Remove: To create an alternative fueled vehicle that Electrical and Information Engineering Technology Engine will be comparable or less expensive to Transmission drive than my internal combustion engine Gas Tank (ICE) powered vehicle that I currently drive. Rear Suspension The vehicle must be reliable, handle my Interior (Temporary) average daily commute, and be a cleaner source of transportation than an ICE Parts to Modify: powered vehicle. Instrumentation / Data Acquisition Notch Rear Frame New Rear Suspension Mount Points Plug-In Vehicle Expenses: Driveshaft Tunnel Conversion Cost: $7,000 to $10,000 Motor Controller: $2,065 Wiring Harness Electricity (Fuel) : Car Chassis: $850 Café Electric Zilla 1K Brake System $0.02 to $0.05 Per Mile 1991 Dodge Stealth R/T Power Steering Transpack (12 Batteries): $3,000 Battery Costs: Interior Optima Yellow Top AGM D31T Lasts 4000 charge/discharge cycles: 20 miles / charge approx. 80,000 miles Parts to Add: $3,000 / 80,000 miles ~ $0.04 / Mile On-Board Charger Electric Motor Total Cost to Drive Per Mile: Motor Controller $ $0.04 = $0.09 Per Mile Battery Pack Tray Savings Per Mile with Alternative Vehicle Circuit Breaker Save $0.16 per Mile Semiconductor Fuses Vehicle Costs Payback Period in Miles Welding Cable $10,000 / $0.16 = 62,500 Transpack (12 Batteries) Transmission Brake Vacuum Pump: $290 Transmission to Motor Adapter Plate Cost Comparison Per Mile: Independent Rear Suspension: $150 SSBC Brake Vacuum Pump Kit Brake Vacuum Pump 1994 GMC Yukon: Plug-In Electric From 1997 Mercury Cougar XR7 Electric Motor: $1,755 Transmission: $50 On-Board Charger Warfield Electric Co. Warp 9 motor Total Cost to Drive Per Total Cost to Drive Per Independent Rear Suspension 1986 Chevrolet S10 Mile: Mile: Wheel Adapters Price Per Electricity: Instrumentation / Data Acquisition Gallon: $0.05 $ Battery: Adapter Plate Savings Positives for Converting Per Miles Mile Per with Plug-In Vehicle $0.04 Decreased carbon footprint Gallon: $ $0.09 = $0.19 Per Mile Total Per Initial Investment Zero vehicle emissions Total Payback Period Mile : $0.09 Emissions are controlled at the power Per $10,000 Mile: / $0.19 = 52,631 Miles plant instead of each vehicle $0.28 Low noise Carbon Footprint: CO2 Emissions Cheaper per mile to drive 1 Gallon of Gas = 20 lbs of CO 2 emission Fuel savings can offset/pay for initial 1 kwh of Electricity = lbs of CO 2 emission investment 10,000 Miles Annual Work Commute Conflict of Interest vs. Humanity Oil lobilerinin gucu ile paranin insanliga Hizmet in onune nasil gectiginin aci bir ornegi My 1994 GMC Yukon: 11 MPG 10,000 / 11 = ~900 Gallons Annually 900 * 20 = ~18,000 lbs Annual CO 2 Emission 1991 Dodge Stealth 16 MPG 10,000 / 16 = ~625 Gallons Annually 625 * 20 = ~12,500 lbs Annual CO 2 Emission Negatives for Converting: High initial investment costs Decreased drive range Currently takes 5-8 hours per charge Battery replacement should be considered in fuel costs Work required to convert a vehicle 1991 Dodge Stealth Plug-In Electric 30HP = ~60 Miles per Hour 30HP = kw kwh = ~60 Miles (10,000 / 60) * = 3,730 kwh Per Year 3,730 * = ~5,000 lbs Annual CO 2 Emission I will decrease my annual carbon (CO 2) emission during my daily work commute by 66% by using the plug-in electric

20 1974 Suzuki RL250 Exacta is converted to a plug-in Electric! Plug-In Electric Motor Cycle Project UNI e-bike: Promoting basics mathematics and science by applied renewable energy projects & energy efficiency concepts. UNI e-bike during 2008 Young Scientists Camp. Students and teacher comments in the camp were excellent in terms of learning basics mathematics and science on electricity and energy efficiency concepts. UNI Young Scientists Camp students run e-bike to learn about basic Mathematics and Science for electricity generation, infrared sensors use for bike speed, and energy efficiency concepts Goodbye 2-stroke motor 16x Thunder Sky 3.2V 40Ah Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePo4) with charger Dr. R. Pecen 12 kw Wind-Solar Power System (2010) 12 kw Wind-Solar Power System (2010) Dr. R. Pecen 20

21 12 kw wind-solar power system Overall System Functional Block Diagram Electrical and Information Engineering Technology et Dr. R. Pecen Dr. R. Pecen Dr. R. Pecen 21

22 12 kw Wind-Solar Hybrid Power Station Metering: 12 kw Wind-Solar Hybrid Power Station https://sites.google.com/a/uni.edu/windpower/ Real-Time Data access: Dr. R. Pecen As of Dec 3, ,000 kwh of green energy (wind and solar) was generated, which is approximately equivalent to 15,400 lbs. of CO 2 emissions saved at UNI campus if the same amount of energy 86 would be produced from a coal-fired power plant. A Proposal: JD PEC Parking Lot Project 100 kw Wind-PV Hybrid Power for JD A Proposal: JD PEC Parking Lot Project 100 kw Wind-PV Hybrid Power for JD 50 kw WT 50 kw PV Arrays REC215 AE-US Manufacturer: REC Solar Voc= 36.3 V P peak =215 W P PTC = 187 W I sc = 8.3 A Dimension: X39.02 x1.7 (1.66mX0.9mX0.43cm) $799 (New) 208 PV Panels, each 215 W Thanks to Thomas Mason and Jordan Kruse, UNI Manufacturing Tech Design Majors for sketches 22

23 Approximate Renewable Energy Generation 100 kw Wind-PV Hybrid Power for JD WIND: Using V ave =7.21 m/s and a capacity factor of ,816 kwh SOLAR: Using IEC s solar calculator for an ambient temperature of 25 o C and a rate of solar radiation incident on the collector of 1000 W/sq.m. PV system sized for kw: 44.72*1476 = 66,006 kwh Total Wind-PV: 256,822 kwh Assuming the cost of electricity at $0.08/kWh $20,545 annual ren energy w/359,551 lbs of CO 2 emissions saved July 2011: Solar Tunnel Belgium's Rail Network Goes Green Antwerp, Belgium July 2011 How about Ankara-Konya Izmir-Antalya Solar Tunnel for future? 16,000 PV Panels installed on the roof of a high-speed rail tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The project, known as the Solar Tunnel, is the first of its kind in Europe as it is the first time railway infrastructure has been used to generate green energy. The solar energy used in the Antwerp North-South junction by the trains and station servicing both conventional and high-speed trains. The installation on the roof of the HSL4 (high-speed line Antwerp - Amsterdam) rail tunnel in Antwerp covers a total surface area of 50,000 square meters, about the size of 8 football pitches. The solar energy is used to power the railway infrastructure (signaling, lighting, heating of railway stations etc.,) and also the trains using the Belgian rail network. The installation generates an estimated 3300 MWh of electricity per year, equivalent to the average annual electricity consumption of nearly 1,000 homes, and Solar tunnels like this one in decrease CO 2 emissions by 2,400 tons per year. Antwerp, Belgium can drive highspeed electric trains with zero emissions. Photo: Enfinity Dr. R. Pecen Matthew Gansen (EET May 2006 Graduate, KCC EET Transfer 2004): From UNI Wellness Rec Center s climbing wall to Clipper Wind Power s 2.5 MW Liberty Wind Turbine/Generator installed in Wyoming. Dr. Reg Pecen 23

24 From U.S. Dept of Commerce Turkiye Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission December 5 9, 2011 Ankara Istanbul Izmir Turkiye s renewable energy investments are expected to exceed $20Billion during next 5 years! Turkiye has large wind energy potential project developments: 10,000 MW by 2015 and 20,000 MW by 2023! Number 2 geothermal energy development potential in Europe and 5 th in the world. Number 2 in Europe in Solar Energy Potential. A new Renewable Energy Law passed on December 12, 2010 and increased guaranteed prices for different renewable energy resources. Additional incentives provided for parts to be manufactured locally. 10 years Power Purchase Guarantee. Energy Efficiency Law in place. Turkish Government is encouraging U.S. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) to cooperate with Turkish ESCOs. U.S. Department of Energy is leading a pilot project to develop 20 Energy Efficiency Projects in Izmir Ataturk Industrial Zone. BIPV: Building Integrated PhotoVoltaic In 2008: The overall electric production of Turkey reached 198,2 billion kwh 49,7 % of the produced electric energy was acquired from natural gas, 16.8% from hydro, 29% from coal, 3.8% from fuel oil. Around 2/3 of energy requirement of Turkey is covered by import which may cause unexpected problems to be confronted in achieving its sustainable development targets It is required to use alternative energy sources to procure the required energy in a way to reduce external dependence. 24

25 The established electric capacity of Turkiye increases in time. Distribution of Turkey s Established Electric Power Production To fuel a rapidly growing economy, the country s electricity consumption is increasing by an average of 8-9% every year. And significant investments are needed in generation, transmission and distribution facilities to balance the power system s supply and demand. TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY Year MW ,329 Source Global Wind Energy Council T.C. AKP Hukumeti nin Ruzgar Gullerine Destegi artarak devam ediyor. In 2010, 528 MW of new wind energy capacity was added in Turkey, bringing the total up to 1,329 MW. (Yillik 66% lik bir buyume!) According to TEIAS (the state-owned transmission company and system operator) it is projected that up to MW of wind projects might be added in Installed wind capacity is expected to grow at between 500-1,000 MW per year reaching more than 5,000 MW by Turkiye hopes to install up to 20,000 MW by 2023, helping the country to source 30% of its electricity generation from renewable sources by that date. In order to reach this target, however, the transmission infrastructure will require substantial upgrades to allow such large scale developments to be connected to the power grid. This issue will need to be addressed in the near future. In order to boost the uptake of renewable energy, in May 2005 the Turkish government enacted its first Renewable Energy Law, which introduced tariff support for electricity produced by renewable sources. In May 2007 a revision of the law increased the tariff slightly to ct/kwh for a period of 10 years, and in a 2010 amendment, this was converted to USD 7.3 cent/kwh. An economic RES investment requires wind speed of at least 7 m/s (Çalışkan, 2010, 11). The Distribution of Average Wind Speed in 50 m. of Elevation Above Ground Source: Mustafa Çalışkan, 2007, Wind Energy Potential of Turkey, EIE, p:11, Ankara. 25

26 Wind Energy Potential in Turkey Above an Average of 100 m. of Elevation Above Ground Distribution of Wind Energy Power Stations in Turkey According to the Regions Source : Mustafa Calıskan, 2007, Wind Energy Potential of Turkey, EIE, Ankara. V>7.5 m/s P>500 W/m 2 Wind Map of Turkey 26

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