Index of Individual Freedom Manual

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Index of Individual Freedom Manual"

Transcription

1 Index of Individual Freedom Manual Peter Graeff, Saskia M. Fuchs, Lydia Chebbah

2 Contents 1. Introduction Criteria of index construction Areas and Components Freedom of the Media Freedom of Religion Freedom of Movement Freedom of Association Modern Information Empirical properties Average freedom scores Correlations between subscales Correlations with economic variables References Appendix Freedom Index Frankfurt Freedom Index Frankfurt Acknowledgement The development of this index was financially supported by the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. 2

3 1. Introduction This manual introduces an index for restrictions of liberties compiled from existing crosscountry freedom datasets. Based on the idea of negative freedom, the index measures obstructions of liberties in five areas. The areas correspond to social domains in which individual freedom is challenged every day. Among those are basic types of freedom such as the liberty to move within or to leave a country, or the freedom to assemble which refers to the social need of contacting others and the necessity to coordinating social activities. More elaborated types of freedom apply to the supply and the demand of information. In some countries, the supply of information is intentionally restricted by the government or certain groups in charge. But because of the technical revolution coming from the internet, the censoring of information on the demand side has also become an issue when restrictions of freedom are considered. Individuals in modern societies have grown accustomed to a globalized way of receiving their information from sources such as the World Wide Web. The last area pertains to the freedom of religions which is even in modern societies a major issue as - despite of secular tendencies - religious attitudes and activities leave their mark in social life. As a consequence, restrictions in this area affect individuals severely. In the next chapter, the criteria for constructing the freedom index are presented. As negative freedom is a rather clearly defined topic in literature, criteria for index construction must reflect the core of this underlying theoretical approach especially in contrast to issues which are not considered as liberties. Only by this way of procedure it is possible to [ ] explain the causes behind the emergence of free societies (Doering 2012: 3). The next chapter introduces the five areas of freedom in detail, providing information about the single items and the index subscales. Some of the empirical properties of the index are presented in the following chapter. Since freedoms in the economic area are a research topic referring to its own theoretical approaches and operationalizations, these issues were explicitly excluded from this index. As a consequence, its five areas are constructed to mainly avoiding economic features in its measurements. 3

4 2. Criteria of index construction In order to assure that the index is consistent in itself and also consistently created, it is necessary to choose the items and its content referring to the theoretical rationale. A valid measurement tool would ensure on the one hand that its items and scales actually measure what they should measure. It would also ensure on the other hand, that issues of no interest are left out of the measurement (Neumann & Graeff 2013). Here, only items which a clear reference to negative freedom are used. Items that capture social phenomena which are associated with liberty but are also clearly distinct from it (such as conflicts) are not regarded in the index. Negative freedom means the absence of restrictions on freedom (Berlin 1969, Carter 2004, Palmer 2009). As restrictions count obstacles, barriers, constraints or interference from others (Carter 2012: Chapter 1). The idea of the negative freedom concept corresponds to the observation that the need to assess degrees of freedoms seldom occurs when individuals enjoy liberties. The need occurs particularly when existing liberties are reduced. Since the index compiles data from various freedom datasets and these original datasets typically measure challenges of freedom, the index areas refer to disputed social sections. This leads to two ramifications: a. The quantification of the degree of freedoms in a certain area is done by measuring the restrictions of liberties (Carter 2004). b. Restrictions usually work on different levels. On a general societal level, individuals are intentionally restricted by some laws or prohibiting norms. Beside or in conjunction with normative regulations, individuals might be intentionally restricted also by actions of others. This differentiation resembles the difference between de facto and de jure restrictions which is frequently applied to macro datasets about human rights or democracy (see for example the Manuals of the CIRI Human Rights Data Project 1, the Freedom House s Press Freedom Index 2 or the Institutional Profiles Database 3. As a consequence, the index items are classified as more referring to de facto/actions or more to de jure/rights (see table 1). By this it becomes more transparent for users who apply the index whether the source of restriction is rooted in a country s law or in its societal practice. 1 9/5/ /5/ ; 9/5/13. 4

5 In order to operationalize the theoretical propositions of negative freedom, the restrictions must meet the criterion that there is a responsible agent, who obstructs liberties by external (action or law etc.), or internal (regulation or manipulation etc.) obstacles (Carter 2012: Chapter 5). If the agent is not claimed to be responsible, restrictions of freedom are not determined. This is in line with theoretical propositions because natural causes, genetic handicap, a virus or climatic conditions cannot be considered as restricting freedom (Carter 2012: Chapter 5). Property rights can be considered as precondition of freedom. As such, they belong to the core elements in theories about economic freedom and are also left out of the index. For index construction, the intention was realized to measuring freedom or its restrictions but not preconditions or ramifications of certain liberties. The freedom index consists of five scales: freedom of the media, freedom of the religion, freedom of association, freedom of movement and freedom of modern information. Applying the concept of negative freedom meant in practice to arrive at a compromise between available items and theoretical fit. Moreover, the selection of these five scales was done with reference to the importance of each dimension for the daily life of people. In the next chapter the special role of each scale is discussed in more detail. To construct the freedom index two item selection criteria were applied. The most important selection criterion was the theoretical reference of item content. Another aim was to including different data sources in order to enable index validity (see for example Bowman et al. 2005: 939, Skaaning 2006: 22). For macro data, the application of different data sources or different research methods for investigating the same phenomenon can improve measurement validity (Neumann & Graeff 2010). During index construction, two statistical criteria were applied to assure a valid and reliable measurement tool (Graeff 2012). Index consistency was warranted by computing item-rest correlations which test whether the items and their scale measure less restriction by higher scores. In order to produce unidimensional scales only which rule out measuring more than one theoretical concept at the same time, canonical correlation analysis was applied. 5

6 3. Areas and Components In this section, the index components are presented and discussed. Since the ranges from the original data sources were different, these had to be transformed in order to warrant item and scale comparability. All components of this index possess the same range from 0 (no freedom) to 10 (maximum freedom). Table 1 provides an overview over the scales and items. The items content from the original sources refers to either more de jure liberties or their restrictions (such as the right to move ) or the actual freedoms or their restrictions (such as harassment of religious groups ). In table 1, the items are also classified with reference to human rights which are considered as the most fundamental rights for human beings and are, therefore, closely related to values and ideas about human existence (McMahon 2012, Doering 2012). Table 1: Scales and items of the index de jure/rights or Human rights de facto/actions 1. Media 1.1. Press freedom both no 1.2. State control both no 1.3. Laws and regulations both no 1.4. Political pressure and control both no 2. Religion 2.1. Religious liberty de facto yes 2.2. Harassment of religious groups de facto no 2.3. Force towards religious groups de facto no 2.4. Domination of public life de facto no 2.5. Hostility over proselytizing de facto no 2.6. Hostility over conversions de facto no 3. Movement 3.1. Movement of nationals both no 3.2. Movement of foreigners both no 3.3. Foreign movement de facto yes 3.4. Visa restrictions de facto no 4. Association 4.1. Association (formal & informal) both no 4.2. Assembly and demonstration both no 4.3. Assembly and association de facto yes 4.4. Operating autonomy: Educational, sports and cultural organizations both no 5. Modern Information 5.1. Internet Access both no 6

7 5.2. Access to foreign press both no 5.3. State control over the internet both no 5.4. Internet censorship both no The index covers the years 2009 to For the years another index version was compiled. Several items and country data were not available for the earlier years. Items for the Modern Information scale were generally missing so this scale could not be computed. Comparisons across time are limited to scales with the same item configuration. 1. Freedom of the Media A main justification for press freedom is that free media will act as a watchdog over the government. (Whitten-Woodring 2009: 595). Freedom of the media is a fundamental national feature because it ensures the generation of unbiased information. As such it possesses a particular function. Only a free press brings about transparency and raises accountability of the entities in power government and businesses alike, and curb rent seeking behavior (Dutta & Roy 2012: 2). This benefit only exists if there is an adequate access to information so that unbiased information reaches every section of the population In this vein, media institutions play a crucial role in modern societies as they are closely linked to the functioning and operations of other institutions. The degree by which media institutions act freely and self-determined determines their efficiency to fulfill their aims. Free media are associated with high standards of governmental institutions and low fraud or corruption levels. For corruption, Dutta & Roy (2012: 2) posit that independence (free press) and access to information through internet, mobile and television, have a joint significant impact on corruption level of a country. While for countries, with lower press freedom, greater access to information may not mitigate corruption, there is a beneficial impact for high press freedom countries. Other studies come up with similar results (see for example Freille, Haque and Kneller 2007; Chowdhury 2004). The independence of free media institutions pertains particularly its relationship to the government. A negative example is the political domination of the media in Italy where the former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and several members of his family controlled a good deal of the national media institutions. When governmental and media interests are intertwined, 7

8 several negative ramifications occur. Leeson (2008: 155) puts it this way: where government owns a larger share of media outlets and infrastructure, regulates the media industry more, and does more to control the content of news, citizens are more politically ignorant and apathetic. The freedom of the media scale consists of four items. Two are drawn from the Institutional Profiles Database (IPD). Two items are taken from Freedom House s Press Freedom Index. These indicators focus on the proportion of the media under state control and also incorporate issues such as the legal environment or restricting political context Unlike IPD, Freedom House 4 is explicit about the rating criteria. The rating bases on check list questions measuring aspects of freedom restrictions. Freedom House sums up the key points like this: We assess the positive impact of legal and constitutional guarantees for freedom of expression; the potentially negative aspects of security legislation, the penal code, and other criminal statutes; penalties for libel and defamation; the existence of and ability to use freedom of information legislation; the independence of the judiciary and of official media regulatory bodies; registration requirements for both media outlets and journalists; and the ability of journalists groups to operate freely. The political environment category encompasses an examination of the degree of political control over the content of news media. Issues include the editorial independence of both stateowned and privately owned media; access to information and sources; official censorship and self-censorship. Moreover the vibrancy of the media and the diversity of news available within each country; the ability of both foreign and local reporters to cover the news freely and without harassment; and the intimidation of journalists by the state or other actors, including arbitrary detention and imprisonment, violent assaults, and other threats are measured 5. The scale freedom of the media consists of the following items: 1.1. Freedom of the press (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 0 to 4 0 indicates no rights guaranteeing freedoms or their respect 1 indicates little freedom of press (if there are rights) 4 indicates substantial freedom (if there are rights) 4 5/9/ /9/13. 8

9 Recoded by 10*(Variable/4) 1.2. State control of content of information (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Scored 1 to 4 1 indicates that information is tightly controlled by the State 4 indicates little or no control of information by the State Recoded by 10*(Variable-1/3) 1.3. Laws and regulations that influence media content (Freedom House) Original Score Ranked 0 to 30 0 indicates no restrictions 30 indicates restrictions Recoded by 10-(10*(Variable)/(30)) 1.4. Political pressures and controls on media content (Freedom House) Original Score Ranked 0 to 40 0 indicates no restrictions 40 indicates restrictions Recoded by 10-(10*(Variable)/(40)) 2. Freedom of Religion Freedom of religion is a core feature of liberty as religious belief is essentially a personal and private matter over which the individual should exercise control and choice (Trenerry and Webster 2011: 3). But does religion still matter today, particularly in industrial nations where secularization seems to gain ground more and more? Norris and Inglehart (2011: 5) posit two different trends: 1. The publics of virtually all advanced industrial societies have been moving toward more secular orientations during the past fifty years. Nevertheless, 2. The world as a whole now has more people with traditional religious views than ever before and they constitute a growing proportion of the world s population. 9

10 Given this societal importance, restrictions of religious freedom lead to a lot of negative ramifications (Klocker, Trenerry & Webster 2011: 3): Religious discrimination may also be associated with a range of other negative social and economic impacts including reduced social cohesion and social connection, and reduced morale and productivity in the workplace and education. The scale Freedom of Religion in this index consists of six indicators. One item is taken from the CIRI Human Rights Data Project (CIRI). Two PEW items were taken from the Government Restriction Index (GRI) and three from the Social Hostility Index (SHI). While the PEW items measure one restricting feature of religious freedom, CIRI items are multidimensional. They mix different issues up in one item such as the freedom of religious practices and the freedom of proselytizing. The Freedom of Religion scale consists of the following items: 2.1. Religious liberty (CIRI Human Rights Data Project) Original Score Ranked 0 to 2 0 indicates that government restrictions on religious practices are severe and widespread 1 indicates such practices are moderate 2 indicates such practices are practically absent Recoded by 10*(Variable/2) 2.2. Harassment of religious groups (Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life) Original Score Ranked 0 to 1 0 indicates no intimidation 0.5 indicates yes there was limited intimidation 1 indicates yes there was intimidation Recoded by 10-10*Variable 2.3. Force toward religious groups (Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life) Original Score Ranked 0 to 1 (Scale 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) 10

11 Recoded by 10-10*Variable 2.4. Domination of public life (Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life) Original Score Ranked 0 to 1 0 indicates no 0.33 indicates yes, at the local level 0.67 indicates yes, at the region level 1 indicates yes, at the national level Recoded by 10-10*Variable 2.5. Hostility over proselytizing (Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life) Original Score Ranked 0 to 1 0 indicates no 0.5 indicates yes, but they felt short on physical violence 1 indicates yes Recoded by 10-10*Variable 2.6. Hostility over conversions (Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life) Original Score Ranked 0 to 1 0 indicates no 0.5 indicates yes, but they felt short on physical violence, 1 indicates yes Recoded by 10-10*Variable 3. Freedom of Movement Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. (Art. 13, UDHR (1948)) 11

12 In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the key statements of freedom of movement consider the right of every citizen to move freely within their own country and/or to travel in and out of their country. So [ ] freedom of movement combines a right of exit, a right of entry, and a right to stay (Bauböck 2009: 9). Freedom of movement is a fundamental form of liberty and its restriction is usually considered as severe punishment. Putting people into prison or restricting their space of movement belongs to the typical sanctions for deviant behavior. If people s movement is restricted, they can t enjoy the benefits of living and moving freely in an area of freedom, security and justice (Carrera 2005: 702). Without the right to move freely a person may also be prevented from following their own aims, e.g. by practicing their religion or exercising their profession. Ideally a state has to guarantee the right of free movement at any time to secure peoples individual autonomy (Bauböck 2009). Despite its individual value, freedom of movement always refers to a political dimension. A wellknown example for this case is the situation of the Nobel Peace Prize winner Liu Xiaobo and his wife Liu Xia 6. While he is arrested for his alleged delicts, Liu Xia isn t allowed to leave her apartment. Restrictions of the freedom of movement are a frequent form of political repression. These and similar aspects of movement restrictions are picked up in the Scale Freedom of Movement. The scale consists of indicators which refer to the conditions of moving into/from or through countries. The opportunity to move freely is a basic element of personal freedom and it is a preposition for general personal decisions such as where to live or where to work. In this vein, the nationality of a person becomes important because of different political and social conditions in national states which regulate the liberties of living and working. According the Schengen agreement are EU citizens able to travel in the European Union with less restriction (visa-free) compared to a non-citizen. Since the permission of the destination state for entering is usually needed, restrictions of movement across borders can be quantified by assessing the difficulties to get a visa. The indicator visa restrictions measures exactly this feature and is, therefore, integrated as a part of the Freedom of Movement subscale. 6 Besuch-bei-Liu-Xia, 4/16/

13 The scale freedom of movement consists of the following items: 3.1. Freedom of movement of nationals (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 1 to 4 1 indicates no freedom 2 indicates restricted freedom with very strict conditions 3 indicates freedom restricted to certain nationalities 4 indicates total freedom of movement Recoded by 10*(Variable-1/3) 3.2. Freedom of movement of foreigners (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 1 to 4 1 indicates no freedom 2 indicates restricted freedom with very strict conditions 3 indicates freedom restricted to certain nationalities 4 indicates total freedom of movement Recoded by 10*(Variable-1/3) 3.3. Freedom of foreign movement (CIRI Human Rights Data Project) Original Score Ranked 0 to 2 0 indicates that this freedom was severely restricted 1 indicates the freedom was somewhat restricted 2 indicates unrestricted freedom of foreign movement Recoded by 10*(Variable/2) 3.4. Visa Restrictions (Henley and Partners Visa Restrictions Index) Original Score Ranked 0 to

14 Recoded by The higher the score the less a person has restrictions of travel freedom. 10*(Variable/max. value) 166 = max. value (2010) = max. value (Average score 2006, 2008) 4. Freedom of Association Abraham Lincoln once called 'the right of the people peaceably to assemble' part of 'the Constitutional substitute for revolution'. (Inazu 2009: 565). Similar to the freedom to move is the freedom of association a basic liberty in every society. It is also a basic element of social networks which are relevant for the societal economic, political and cultural activities. Swire (2012) highlights the key feature of social networks to foster political association at the grassroots level. Two most recent examples jump to the mind: the 2011 Arab Spring in Egypt with the Facebook Revolution which led to the resignation of President Mubarak. And the 2008 Obama campaign, whose outreach and mobilization was led by a co-founder of Facebook (Swire 2012: 102). When looking up the existing data data on freedom of association, one can determine that these are incomplete and flawed, partly because they focus almost exclusively on whether the rights exist, without regard to practice (Kuruvilla, Hossain & Berger 2010: 2). As a result, the freedom of association scale in this index includes four indicators which all try to measure the freedom of association by rights and in practice. Freedom of association is a capacious liberty (Alexander 2008: 1) because it refers to several different points: Freedom of association, as I understand it, refers to the liberty a person possesses to enter into relationships with others for any and all purposes, for a momentary or long-term duration, by contract, consent, or acquiescence. It likewise refers to the liberty to refuse to enter into such relationships or to terminate them when not otherwise compelled by one's voluntary assumption of an obligation to maintain the relationship. Freedom of associate on thus is a quite capacious liberty. 14

15 The four items of the freedom of association scale are taken from two different sources: the CIRI Human Rights Data Project (CIRI) and the Institutional Profiles Database (IPD). Two of these indicators refer to the freedom of association in a more general context (e.g. assembly or demonstration) and two focus on a special issue (e.g. freedom of association in NGOs or operating autonomy of organizations). The scale of association consists of the following items: 4.1. Freedom of association (formal and informal NGOs) (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 0 to 4 0 indicates no rights guaranteeing freedoms or their respect 1 indicates little freedom of association (if there are rights) 4 indicates substantial freedom (if there are rights) Recoded by 10*(Variable/4) 4.2. Freedom of assembly and demonstration (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 0 to 4 0 indicates no rights guaranteeing freedoms or their respect 1 indicates little freedom of assembly and demonstration (if there are rights) 4 indicates substantial freedom (if there are rights) Recoded by 10*(Variable/4) 4.3. Freedom of assembly & association (CIRI Human Rights Data Project) Original Score Ranked 0 to 2 15

16 Recoded by 0 indicates that freedom of assembly or association were severely restricted or denied completely to all citizens 1 indicates that these rights were limited for all citizens or severely restricted or denied for select groups 2 indicates that these rights were virtually unrestricted and freely enjoyed by practically all citizens 10*(Variable/2) 4.4. Operating autonomy of organizations (only educational, sports and cultural organizations) (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 1 to 4 1 indicates no operating autonomy in practice 4 indicates total autonomy Recoded by 10*(Variable-1/3) 5. Modern Information We are living in an information society, where the distribution of information rather than the distribution of goods has become increasingly important (Mohan 2012: 1) While the Freedom of the media scale provides quantifications about restrictions of information supply, the Modern Information scale refers to data about restrictions of information demand. As such, this scale highlights a fundamental aspect of modern Information Societies in which information becomes a crucial element in all social domains (Mansell 2004). In an increasingly globalizing world, it becomes necessary for people to be informed about national and international issues activities, and events. For this, the access to national and international broadcasting and press media is significant. This traditional way of getting information is still the most important one when serious and reliable information are demanded. But also the internet as a new source of information gains more and more relevance. Getting information by web-based sources is easy and cheap. As a result, the restriction to access the 16

17 internet is a strong reduction of personal freedom. Some governments have found it necessary to intervene and impose restrictions on internet access due to political, religious or ethical reasons. An example for this procedure is Chinas Great Firewall. Censorship is also strongly conducted by states which Reporters Without Borders (2013) call Enemies of the Internet : Syria, Iran, Bahrain, and Vietnam. Even when an open internet tends to be more frequent in European and Anglo-American states, these countries also try to regulate internet access and use. A current example is the attempt to ratify the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). Amnesty International (2012) criticizes that the pact's content, process, and institutional structure impact in a number of ways on human rights especially the rights to due process, privacy, freedom of information, freedom of expression, and access to essential medicines. For Reporters Without Borders (2013), this systematic surveillance is a rising danger. In their view, the internet should be a free place for exchanging information, content and opinions without any form of site blocking and content filtering (cf. RWB 2013). The actions against censorship vary by organization. Some focus mainly on reporting illegitimate government interventions (GetUp!, Reporters Without Borders) while others try to influence government decisions (Global Network Integrity). Governmental intervention does not only restrict freedom of information but also repress internet users (cf. RWB 2009). As a consequence people were obstructed to develop new ways of seeing the world around them (Mansell 2004: 3). In order to integrate these aspects into a scale about Modern Information, a composite item was created by merging data from three different sources OpenNet Initiative, Freedom on the Net and Global Integrity. These organizations investigate and report internet filtering and surveillance practices by nations. Before computing the composite item, the compatibility of the data were tested by reliability analysis. The scale Modern Information was created by combining the composite item with items from the Institutional Profiles Database. Internet censorship is a rather new field of research. As data were not available before 2009, the Modern Information scale is only available for the years

18 The scale of Modern Information consists of the following items: 5.1. Freedom of internet access (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 1 to 4 1 indicates no freedom 4 indicates total freedom of internet access Recoded by 10*(Variable-1/3) 5.2. Freedom of access to foreign press (no seizures, etc.) (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 1 to 4 1 indicates no freedom 4 indicates total freedom of access to foreign press Recoded by 10*(Variable-1/3) 5.3. State control over Internet access (Institutional Profiles Database) Original Score Ranked 1 to 4 1 indicates extremely tight restrictions 4 indicates totally free access Recoded by 10*(Variable-1/3) 5.4. Composite Item Internet censorship 1. In practice, the government does not prevent citizens from accessing content published online (Global Integrity) Original Score Recoded by Ranked 0 to 100 (from Freedom to no Freedom) 10*(Variable/100) 2. In practice, the government does not censor citizens creating content online 18

19 (Global Integrity) Original Score Ranked 0 to 100 (from Freedom to no Freedom) Recoded by 10*(Variable/100) 3. Obstacles to Access - including governmental efforts to block specific applications or technologies; infrastructural and economic barriers to access; and legal and ownership control over internet and mobile-phone access providers (Freedom on the Net) Original Score Ranked 0 to 25 (from Freedom to no Freedom) Recoded by 10-(10*(Variable/25)) 4. Limits on Content - including filtering and blocking of websites; other forms of censorship and self-censorship; manipulation of content; the diversity of online news media; and usage of digital media for social and political activism. (Freedom on the Net) Original Score Ranked 0 to 35 (from Freedom to no Freedom) Recoded by 10-(10*(Variable/35)) 5. Political: This category is focused primarily on Web sites that express views in opposition to those of the current government. Content more broadly related to human rights, freedom of expression, minority rights, and religious movements is also considered here (OpenNet Initiative) Original Score Ranked 0 to 4 0 indicates free/no filtering 1 indicates suspected filtering 2 indicates selective filtering 3 indicates substantial filtering 4 indicates unfree/pervasive filtering Recoded by 10-(10*(Variable/4)) 19

20 6. Internet tools: Web sites that provide , Internet hosting, search, translation, Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone service, and circumvention methods are (OpenNet Initiative) Original Score Recoded by Ranked 0 to 4 (from no filtering to pervasive filtering; see above) 10-(10*(Variable/4)) 7. Conflict/security: Content related to armed conflicts, border disputes, separatist movements, and militant groups is included in this category (OpenNet Initiative) Original Score Recoded by Ranked 0 to 4 (from no filtering to pervasive filtering; see above) 10-(10*(Variable/4)) 20

Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals

Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals No. All fees in US $ 1. Afghanistan 5.00 5.00 10.00 2. Albania 2.00 2.00 3.00 3. Algeria 1.00 1.00 2.00 4. Angola 11.00 11.00 22.00 5. Argentina 21.00 21.00 42.00

More information

FDI performance and potential rankings. Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD

FDI performance and potential rankings. Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD FDI performance and potential rankings Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD FDI perfomance index The Inward FDI Performance Index ranks countries by the FDI they receive relative

More information

Consolidated International Banking Statistics in Japan

Consolidated International Banking Statistics in Japan Total (Transfer Consolidated cross-border claims in all currencies and local claims in non-local currencies Up to and including one year Maturities Over one year up to two years Over two years Public Sector

More information

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Below please find the complete rankings of all 75 markets considered in the analysis. Rankings are broken into overall rankings and subsector rankings. Overall Renewable

More information

Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016. International UN Volunteers (12 months)

Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016. International UN Volunteers (12 months) Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016 Country Of Assignment International UN Volunteers (12 months) International UN Youth Volunteers (12 months) University Volunteers

More information

GLOBAL. 2014 Country Well-Being Rankings. D Social (% thriving) E Financial (% thriving) F Community (% thriving) G Physical (% thriving)

GLOBAL. 2014 Country Well-Being Rankings. D Social (% thriving) E Financial (% thriving) F Community (% thriving) G Physical (% thriving) 0 0 GLOBAL 0 Country Rankings 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : >0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.0% A Country s global rank B in three or more elements of well-being C (% thriving) D (% thriving) E

More information

International Mains Voltages Edition 01/97

International Mains Voltages Edition 01/97 International Mains Voltages Edition 01/97 0921 271X / 0197 The international low voltages used in industry, business and domestically. Listed in continents and countries. Status April 1996 The following

More information

HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40

HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40 BLOOMBERG RANKINGS THE WORLD'S HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40 1 Singapore 89.45% 92.52% 3.07% 2 Italy 89.07 94.61 5.54 3 Australia 88.33 93.19 4.86 4 Switzerland 88.29 93.47 5.17 5 Japan

More information

Status of ratification of the United Nations Convention against Corruption as at 30 September 2011

Status of ratification of the United Nations Convention against Corruption as at 30 September 2011 3 October 2011 English only Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption Fourth session Marrakech, Morocco, 24-28 October 2011 Agenda item 2 of the provisional agenda

More information

Contact Centers Worldwide

Contact Centers Worldwide A Contact Centers Worldwide Country Tel.no. Supported lang. Contact Center Albania Algeria 852 665 00 +46 10 71 66160 Angola 89900 +34 91 339 2121 (Port) and Portuguese +34 913394044 +34 913394023 (Por)

More information

One billion digital TV households

One billion digital TV households One billion digital TV households About 455 million digital homes were added around the world between end-2010 and end-2014, according to a new report from Digital TV Research. This took the digital TV

More information

Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details

Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details White Paper Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details What You Will Learn The Cisco Global Cloud Index is an ongoing effort to forecast the growth of global data center and

More information

The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective

The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2389480/ The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective Description: This report

More information

List of countries by income equality - Wikipedia, the free encyc...

List of countries by income equality - Wikipedia, the free encyc... List of countries by income equality From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients, according to the United

More information

World Consumer Income and Expenditure Patterns

World Consumer Income and Expenditure Patterns World Consumer Income and Expenditure Patterns 2014 14th edi tion Euromonitor International Ltd. 60-61 Britton Street, EC1M 5UX TableTypeID: 30010; ITtableID: 22914 Income Algeria Income Algeria Income

More information

Mineral Industry Surveys

Mineral Industry Surveys 4 Mineral Industry Surveys For information contact: Robert L. Virta, Asbestos Commodity Specialist U.S. Geological Survey 989 National Center Reston, VA 20192 Telephone: 703-648-7726, Fax: (703) 648-7757

More information

Waterpark Lines World Report

Waterpark Lines World Report Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1837057/ Waterpark Lines World Report Description: This report provides Market Consumption/Products/Services for 100 countries by

More information

Shell Global Helpline - Telephone Numbers

Shell Global Helpline - Telephone Numbers Shell Global Helpline - Telephone Numbers The Shell Global Helpline allows reports to be submitted by either a web-based form at https://shell.alertline.eu or by utilising one of a number of telephone

More information

89% 96% 94% 100% 54% Williams 93% financial aid at Williams. completion statistics $44,753 76% class of 2013 average four-year debt: $12,749

89% 96% 94% 100% 54% Williams 93% financial aid at Williams. completion statistics $44,753 76% class of 2013 average four-year debt: $12,749 financial aid at Average - $, financial aid is comprehensive, covering books, health insurance, study abroad costs, travel, and personal expenses % % % % cost met by average % of with demonstrated need

More information

Faster voice/data integration for global mergers and acquisitions

Faster voice/data integration for global mergers and acquisitions Global agility in technology solutions. sm Faster voice/data integration for global mergers and acquisitions >The InTech Group, Inc. Worldwide in-country technical resources for newly merged companies

More information

Global Education Office University of New Mexico MSC06 3850, Mesa Vista Hall, Rm. 2120 Tel. 505 277 4032, Fax 505 277 1867, geo@unm.

Global Education Office University of New Mexico MSC06 3850, Mesa Vista Hall, Rm. 2120 Tel. 505 277 4032, Fax 505 277 1867, geo@unm. Global Education Office University of New Mexico MSC06 3850, Mesa Vista Hall, Rm. 220 Tel. 505 277 4032, Fax 505 277 867, geo@unm.edu Report on International Students, Scholars and Study Abroad Programs

More information

Global Dialing Comment. Telephone Type. AT&T Direct Number. Access Type. Dial-In Number. Country. Albania Toll-Free 00-800-0010 888-426-6840

Global Dialing Comment. Telephone Type. AT&T Direct Number. Access Type. Dial-In Number. Country. Albania Toll-Free 00-800-0010 888-426-6840 Below is a list of Global Access Numbers, in order by country. If a Country has an AT&T Direct Number, the audio conference requires two-stage dialing. First, dial the AT&T Direct Number. Second, dial

More information

CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX 2012.

CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX 2012. CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX 2. Transparency International is the global civil society organisation leading the fight against corruption. Through more than chapters worldwide and an international secretariat

More information

World wide qualifications framework developments and (V)ET reforms some early findings

World wide qualifications framework developments and (V)ET reforms some early findings World wide qualifications framework developments and (V)ET reforms some early findings National Qualifications Frameworks in an international perspective International seminar on the occasion of the launch

More information

Know the Facts. Aon Hewitt Country Profiles can help: Support a decision to establish or not establish operations in a specific country.

Know the Facts. Aon Hewitt Country Profiles can help: Support a decision to establish or not establish operations in a specific country. Aon Hewitt Country Profiles Your eguide to employment requirements and practices Profiles for nearly 90 countries worldwide Risk. Reinsurance. Human Resources. Know the Facts Whether you are a newcomer

More information

EMEA BENEFITS BENCHMARKING OFFERING

EMEA BENEFITS BENCHMARKING OFFERING EMEA BENEFITS BENCHMARKING OFFERING COVERED COUNTRIES SWEDEN FINLAND NORWAY ESTONIA R U S S I A DENMARK LITHUANIA LATVIA IRELAND PORTUGAL U. K. NETHERLANDS POLAND BELARUS GERMANY BELGIUM CZECH REP. UKRAINE

More information

WORLD HYDRO POTENTIAL AND DEVELOPEMENT.

WORLD HYDRO POTENTIAL AND DEVELOPEMENT. WORLD HYDRO POTENTIAL AND DEVELOPEMENT www.intpow.com Africa Africa Gross Theoretical Technically recent Algeria 12,000 4,000 278 560 2.7 0 n/a Angola 150,000 >65,000 790 3,147 77.7 >80 1,164-5,514 Benin

More information

Guide to Treatment of Withholding Tax Rates

Guide to Treatment of Withholding Tax Rates Guide to Treatment of Withholding Tax Rates Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Aims of the Guide 1 1.2. Withholding Tax Definition 1 1.3. Double Taxation Treaties 1 1.4. Information Sources 1 1.5. Guide Upkeep

More information

Raveh Ravid & Co. CPA. November 2015

Raveh Ravid & Co. CPA. November 2015 Raveh Ravid & Co. CPA November 2015 About Us Established in 1986 by Abir Raveh, CPA & Itzhak Ravid, CPA 6 Partners, 80 employees Located in Tel Aviv, Israel wide range of professional services highly experienced

More information

FACT SHEET. Gini Coefficient

FACT SHEET. Gini Coefficient FACT SHEET 1. Overview 1.1 Developed by an Italian statistician Corrado in the 1910s, is commonly used to indicate income inequality in a society. is a number which has a value between zero and one. As

More information

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Senate Committee: Education and Employment QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Outcome: Higher Education Research and International Department of Education and Training Question No. SQ15-000549

More information

ADVOC. the international network of independent law firms

ADVOC. the international network of independent law firms ADVOC the international network of independent law firms About ADVOC ADVOC is an international network of independent law firms, sharing international expertise in jurisdictions across the globe Our member

More information

Triple-play subscriptions to rocket to 400 mil.

Triple-play subscriptions to rocket to 400 mil. Triple-play criptions to rocket to 400 mil. Global triple-play criptions will reach 400 million by 2017; up by nearly 300 million on the end-2011 total and up by 380 million on the 2007 total, according

More information

Digital TV Research. http://www.marketresearch.com/digital-tv- Research-v3873/ Publisher Sample

Digital TV Research. http://www.marketresearch.com/digital-tv- Research-v3873/ Publisher Sample Digital TV Research http://www.marketresearch.com/digital-tv- Research-v3873/ Publisher Sample Phone: 800.298.5699 (US) or +1.240.747.3093 or +1.240.747.3093 (Int'l) Hours: Monday - Thursday: 5:30am -

More information

KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA NATION RELIGION KING 3

KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA NATION RELIGION KING 3 KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA NATION RELIGION KING 3 TOURISM STATISTICS REPORT February 2016 MINISTRY OF TOURISM Statistics and Tourism Information Department No. A3, Street 169, Sangkat Veal Vong, Khan 7 Makara,

More information

Chapter 4A: World Opinion on Terrorism

Chapter 4A: World Opinion on Terrorism 1 Pew Global Attitudes Project, Spring 2007 Now I m going to read you a list of things that may be problems in our country. As I read each one, please tell me if you think it is a very big problem, a moderately

More information

INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944

INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 State INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 Entry into force: The Agreement entered into force on 30 January 1945. Status: 130 Parties. This list is based on

More information

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Prepared by The Office of International Affairs Nova Southeastern University Nova Southeastern University International Student Statistics Fall 2015 International

More information

Facts about German foreign trade in 2012*

Facts about German foreign trade in 2012* Facts about German foreign trade in 2012* Foreign trade figures in 2012 Exports Imports Net foreign demand Total Goods Services Total Goods Services Total memorandum items billion EUR In relation to EU

More information

Dutch/Canadian tax treaty comparison, 2013

Dutch/Canadian tax treaty comparison, 2013 Dutch/Canadian tax treaty comparison, 2013 Hendrik van Duijn DTS Duijn's Tax Solutions Zuidplein 36 (WTC Tower H) 1077 XV Amsterdam T +31 888 387 669 T +31 888 DTS NOW F +31 88 8 387 601 duijn@duijntax.com

More information

Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts

Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts An Additional Help document for ADS Chapter 302 New Reference: 06/14/2007 Responsible Office: OAA/P File Name: 302sap_061407_cd48 BACKGROUND:

More information

ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international

ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international The ISO Survey 2005 ISO and The ISO Survey ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international standards for business, government and society. Its portfolio at the beginning of June 2006 comprised

More information

Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries

Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries Fiscal Affairs Department Effects of Good Government, by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Siena, Italy, 1338-39 Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries Martine

More information

Brandeis University. International Student & Scholar Statistics

Brandeis University. International Student & Scholar Statistics 1 Brandeis University International Student & Scholar Statistics 2014 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENT & SCHOLAR POPULATION 3 DETAILED INFORMATION ON INTERNATIONAL STUDENT POPULATION

More information

GLOBAL INVESTMENTS IN R&D

GLOBAL INVESTMENTS IN R&D Americas North America United States Europe Asia European Union Japan Germany N.I.E. Asia China L.A.C. C.I.S. Europe C.E.O. Europe India Oceania Israel Africa Other in Asia Mexico Arab States (Africa)

More information

Global AML Resource Map Over 2000 AML professionals

Global AML Resource Map Over 2000 AML professionals www.pwc.co.uk Global AML Resource Map Over 2000 AML professionals January 2016 Global AML Resources: Europe France Italy Jersey / Guernsey 8 Ireland 1 Portugal 7 Luxembourg 5 United Kingdom 1 50 11 Spain

More information

Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe

Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe Asylum Trends Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe November 2013 2014 November 2014 Colophon Title Subtitle Author Asylum Trends Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in

More information

Region Country AT&T Direct Access Code(s) HelpLine Number. Telstra: 1 800 881 011 Optus: 1 800 551 155

Region Country AT&T Direct Access Code(s) HelpLine Number. Telstra: 1 800 881 011 Optus: 1 800 551 155 Mondelēz International HelpLine Numbers March 22, 2013 There are many ways to report a concern or suspected misconduct, including discussing it with your supervisor, your supervisor s supervisor, another

More information

Introducing GlobalStar Travel Management

Introducing GlobalStar Travel Management Introducing GlobalStar Travel Management GlobalStar is a worldwide travel management company owned and managed by local entrepreneurs. In total over 80 market leading enterprises, representing over US$13

More information

United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs

United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation (DLHWC) Defense Base Act

More information

7.3. Cannabis: Wholesale, street prices and purity levels

7.3. Cannabis: Wholesale, street prices and purity levels 7.3. Cannabis: Wholesale, street prices and purity levels CANNABIS HERB East Eritrea 4.0 3.0-5.0 2003 1,100.0 1,000.0-1,200.0 1.0-5.0 2003 Kenya 0.2 0.1-0.3 2003 99.0 70.0-130.0 2003 Madagascar 1.3 1.1-1.4

More information

Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter calling number, enter 800-544-6666 American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199

Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter calling number, enter 800-544-6666 American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199 National Financial Services International Calling Instructions Albania 00-800-0010 Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199 Dial

More information

UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Belgium 22 Jul 1953 r 08 Apr 1969 a Belize 27 Jun 1990 a 27 Jun 1990 a Benin 04 Apr 1962 s 06 Jul 1970 a Bolivia 09 Feb 1982 a 09 Feb 1982 a Bosnia and Herzegovina 01 Sep 1993 s 01 Sep 1993 s Botswana

More information

Gap Banana Republic Old Navy Athleta Intermix. Stores Online (countries) Stores Online (countries) Stores Online (countries) Stores Franchise Stores

Gap Banana Republic Old Navy Athleta Intermix. Stores Online (countries) Stores Online (countries) Stores Online (countries) Stores Franchise Stores Gap Inc.'s Global Footprint As of the end of Q3 2016, Gap Inc. had 3,742 company operated or franchised stores in operation across 50 countries and our global brands have the ability to ship online orders

More information

Outsource International Ltd

Outsource International Ltd Providing global technology solutions for: Carriers Systems Integrators Resellers Outsource Manufacturers International Ltd Government agencies Financial sector Global Technology Solutions Providing global

More information

ARTICLE 5 Frequency allocations of amateur satellite service

ARTICLE 5 Frequency allocations of amateur satellite service ARTICLE 5 Frequency allocations of amateur satellite service Section IV Table of Frequency Allocations 7 000 khz 29.7 MHz 7 000-7 100 AMATEUR 5.140 5.141 5.141A 14 000-14 250 AMATEUR 18 068-18 168 AMATEUR

More information

MAUVE GROUP GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS PORTFOLIO

MAUVE GROUP GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT SOLUTIONS PORTFOLIO MAUVE GROUP GLOBAL SOLUTIONS PORTFOLIO At Mauve Group, we offer a variety of complete employee management services such as Global Employment Solutions (GES), Professional Employment Outsourcing (PEO),

More information

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50.

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50. Overall Results Climate Change Performance Index 2012 Table 1 Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 1* Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 21 - Egypt***

More information

PAY MONTHLY ADDITIONAL SERVICES TERMS AND CONDITIONS

PAY MONTHLY ADDITIONAL SERVICES TERMS AND CONDITIONS 4GEE PHONE PLANS ADDITIONAL SERVICES (ALL STANDARD 12 & 24 MONTH PLANS INCLUDING SIM ONLY PLANS) The following add-ons are available on your plan. We reserve the right to change the add-ons available to

More information

Asylum Trends. Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe. August 2015

Asylum Trends. Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe. August 2015 Asylum Trends Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe IND Business Information Centre (BIC) Asylum Trends Colophon Title Asylum Trends Subtitle Monthly Report on Asylum Applications

More information

Total Domestic Factoring FCI 594, , , , , , , %

Total Domestic Factoring FCI 594, , , , , , , % Accumulative Turnover Figures for All FCI Members Compared to Worldwide Factoring Turnover (in Millions of EUR and USD) EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR INCREASE 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2011/2012

More information

Summary of all Treaties for the Avoidance of Double Taxation. Signed not Ratified. Ratified in SA

Summary of all Treaties for the Avoidance of Double Taxation. Signed not Ratified. Ratified in SA Summary of all Treaties for the Avoidance of Double Taxation Country in Algeria - - - - 21303 dd 21/06/2000 12 June 2000 Australia - - - - 20761 dd 24/12/1999 21 December 1999 Australia (Protocol) - -

More information

THE ADVANTAGES OF A UK INTERNATIONAL HOLDING COMPANY

THE ADVANTAGES OF A UK INTERNATIONAL HOLDING COMPANY THE ADVANTAGES OF A UK INTERNATIONAL HOLDING COMPANY Ideal Characteristics for the Location of an International Holding Company Laurence Binge +44 (0)1372 471117 laurence.binge@woolford.co.uk www.woolford.co.uk

More information

Composition of Premium in Life and Non-life Insurance Segments

Composition of Premium in Life and Non-life Insurance Segments 2012 2nd International Conference on Computer and Software Modeling (ICCSM 2012) IPCSIT vol. 54 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore DOI: 10.7763/IPCSIT.2012.V54.16 Composition of Premium in Life and

More information

Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd

Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd Important Staff Richard Kelly Managing Director Richard joined CTIS in 2006 having previously managed the Pharmaceutical wholesale division at Heath Lambert

More information

List of tables. I. World Trade Developments

List of tables. I. World Trade Developments List of tables I. World Trade Developments 1. Overview Table I.1 Growth in the volume of world merchandise exports and production, 2010-2014 39 Table I.2 Growth in the volume of world merchandise trade

More information

No Data Overlap Area Search and Rescue Region notified to IMO Provisional Search and Rescue Region NORWAY 65 N SWEDEN FINLAND FINLAND 60 N RUSSIAN

No Data Overlap Area Search and Rescue Region notified to IMO Provisional Search and Rescue Region NORWAY 65 N SWEDEN FINLAND FINLAND 60 N RUSSIAN North Pacific Pages 16-17 South Pacific Pages 14-15 Caribbean Sea Pages 10-11 North Atlantic Page 4 Mid Atlantic Pages 6-7 South Atlantic Pages 12-13 European Waters Page 5 Baltic Sea Page 3 Mediterranean

More information

Global Effective Tax Rates

Global Effective Tax Rates www.pwc.com/us/nes Global s Global s April 14, 2011 This document has been prepared pursuant to an engagement between PwC and its Client. As to all other parties, it is for general information purposes

More information

Sources of Global CO 2 Emissions ( , Direct Emissions by Sector Only) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Sources of Global CO 2 Emissions ( , Direct Emissions by Sector Only) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "World energy consumption" by Construct - BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2015 Sources of Global CO 2 Emissions (1970-2004, Direct Emissions by Sector Only) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

More information

NORTHERN TRUST GLOBAL TRADE CUT OFF DEADLINES

NORTHERN TRUST GLOBAL TRADE CUT OFF DEADLINES Argentina T+3 Only Govt Tsy Bills (Letes) have a settlement cycle of T+1, other fixed income securities have a T+3 settlement cycle. T+0 OTC Market (MAE) SD 1200 9amSD-2 9am SD T+3 T+0 SD 1500 9am SD 9am

More information

Population below the poverty line Rural % Population below $1 a day % Urban % Urban % Survey year. National %

Population below the poverty line Rural % Population below $1 a day % Urban % Urban % Survey year. National % 2.7 International the the Afghanistan.................... Albania 2002 29.6 19.8 25.4...... 2002 a

More information

Total of 280 fatal cases in Europe and EFTA countries and in the rest of the world have been reported up to date.

Total of 280 fatal cases in Europe and EFTA countries and in the rest of the world have been reported up to date. ECDC DAILY UPDATE Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Update 28 October 2009, 09:00 hours CEST Main developments in past 24 hours Total of 280 fatal cases in Europe and EFTA countries and 5 658 in the rest of the world

More information

Foreign Exchange Awards 2017

Foreign Exchange Awards 2017 Including the All-New Corporate FX Awards In January 2017, Global Finance will publish its annual selections for the World s Best Foreign Exchange Providers. Global Finance will name the best foreign exchange

More information

HEPATITIS B Global Infection Rates Reviewed 2006

HEPATITIS B Global Infection Rates Reviewed 2006 HEPATITIS B Global Infection Rates Reviewed 2006 Afghanistan 26,511,000 1,060,440 4 % Albania 3,795,000 265,650 7 % Algeria 32,904,000 1,645,200 5 % American Samoa 50,923 3,565 7 % Andorra 58,000 580 1

More information

Trade Finance and Supply Chain Finance Awards 2017

Trade Finance and Supply Chain Finance Awards 2017 In February 2017, Global Finance will publish its annual selections for the World s Best Trade Finance and Supply Chain Finance Providers. Global Finance will name the best trade finance providers in 83

More information

OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP

OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Republic of Albania People s Democratic Republic of Algeria Principality of Andorra Republic of Angola Antigua and Barbuda

More information

heat transfer solutions Turflow heat exchanger high efficiency heat transfer solution

heat transfer solutions Turflow heat exchanger high efficiency heat transfer solution heat transfer solutions Turflow heat exchanger high efficiency heat transfer solution E X P E R T I S E S O L U T I O N S S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y T u r f l o w h e a t e x c h a n g e r Turflow heat

More information

Information Referred to in the Text of the WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Use

Information Referred to in the Text of the WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Use May 31, 2004 Information Referred to in the Text of the WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Use List of member States of treaties administered by WIPO, in the order of their appearance

More information

Cities THE GLOBAL CREATIVITY INDEX 2015

Cities THE GLOBAL CREATIVITY INDEX 2015 Cities THE GLOBAL CREATIVITY INDEX 2015 The Cities Project at the Martin Prosperity Institute focuses on the role of cities as the key economic and social organizing unit of global capitalism. It explores

More information

- 5 - Status on July 15, 2016

- 5 - Status on July 15, 2016 - 5 - Status on July 15, 2016 Latest Act 1 of the to which is party Albania... October 4, 1995 Stockholm: October 4, 1995 Algeria... March 1, 1966 Stockholm: April 20, 1975 2 Andorra... June 2, 2004 Stockholm:

More information

Editorial for Summer Edition

Editorial for Summer Edition Editorial for Summer Edition of the SOCIETAS ET IURISPRUDENTIA 2015 Dear readers and friends, let me introduce the second issue of the third volume of SOCIETAS ET IURISPRUDENTIA, an international scientific

More information

U.S. Salary Increase Survey Highlights

U.S. Salary Increase Survey Highlights Consulting Performance, Reward & Talent 2012 2013 U.S. Salary Increase Survey Highlights We ask each participating company to treat these survey findings with the greatest confidence. The findings are

More information

nomis official labour market statistics QS213EW - Country of birth (expanded)

nomis official labour market statistics QS213EW - Country of birth (expanded) nomis official labour market statistics QS213EW - Country of birth (expanded) Overview Table population All usual residents Reference QS213EW Source Census 2011 Keywords Country of Birth Coverage England

More information

Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries 1

Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries 1 Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries 1 firms Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries 1 Country 2 Interest 3 Dividends 4 Royalties 5 Annuities 6 Pensions/ Algeria 15%

More information

States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol

States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Date of entry into force: 22 April 1954 (Convention) 4 October 1967 (Protocol) As of 1 October 2008 Total

More information

Technical & Trade School Lines World Report

Technical & Trade School Lines World Report Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1836899/ Technical & Trade School Lines World Report Description: TECHNICAL & TRADE SCHOOL LINES WORLD REPORT The Technical & Trade

More information

DSV Air & Sea, Inc. Aerospace Sector. DSV Air & Sea, Inc. Aerospace

DSV Air & Sea, Inc. Aerospace Sector. DSV Air & Sea, Inc. Aerospace DSV Air & Sea, Inc. Aerospace Sector DSV Air & Sea, Inc. Aerospace Introduction to DSV DSV is a global supplier of transport and logistics services. We have offices in more than 70 countries and an international

More information

CMMI for SCAMPI SM Class A Appraisal Results 2011 End-Year Update

CMMI for SCAMPI SM Class A Appraisal Results 2011 End-Year Update CMMI for SCAMPI SM Class A 2011 End-Year Update Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 1 Outline Introduction Current Status Community Trends Organizational Trends

More information

Other Tax Rates. Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries. Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries 1

Other Tax Rates. Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries. Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries 1 Other Tax Rates Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries Non-Resident Withholding Tax Rates for Treaty Countries 1 Country 2 Interest 3 Dividends 4 Royalties 5 Annuities 6 Pensions/ Algeria

More information

מדינת ישראל. Tourist Visa Table

מדינת ישראל. Tourist Visa Table Updated 22/06/2016 מדינת ישראל Tourist Visa Table Tourist visa exemption is applied to national and official passports only, and not to other travel documents. Exe = exempted Req = required Press the first

More information

Taxation Determination

Taxation Determination Page status: legally binding Page 1 of 8 Taxation Determination Fringe benefits tax: reasonable amounts under section 31G of the Fringe Benefits Tax Assessment Act 1986 for food and drink expenses incurred

More information

Withholding Tax Rates 2015*

Withholding Tax Rates 2015* Withholding Tax Rates 2015* International Tax Updated March 2015 Jurisdiction Dividends Interest Royalties Notes Afghanistan 20% 20% 20% Albania 15% 15% 15% Rates on dividends, interest and royalties increased

More information

LIST OF RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS SIXTY-EIGHTH SESSION ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE

LIST OF RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS SIXTY-EIGHTH SESSION ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE LIST OF AT THE LEVEL OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE ITEM 27: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ITEM 27 (a) Implementation of the outcome of the World Summit for Social Development and of the twenty-fourth special session of

More information

International Student Population A Statistical Report by The International Office

International Student Population A Statistical Report by The International Office International Student Population A Statistical Report by The International Office CURRENT STUDENTS: 2,362 F-1 OPT & STEM OPT STUDENTS: 313 F-2/J-2 DEPENDENTS: 303 TOTAL: 2,978 Basic Information: There

More information

steam & condensate management solutions STAPS Wireless steam trap monitoring

steam & condensate management solutions STAPS Wireless steam trap monitoring steam & condensate management solutions STAPS Wireless steam trap monitoring S T A P S W i r e l e s s STAPS Total acoustic performance solutions The STAPS wireless steam trap monitor from Spirax Sarco

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION Notes: R = Ratification At = Acceptance Ap = Approval Ac = Accession 1. ALBANIA ----- 01/04/05 (Ac) 30/06/05 2. ALGERIA ---- 16/02/05 (Ac) 17/05/05 3. ANTIGUA AND

More information

Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems POLICE

Ninth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems POLICE Indicators as defined by the (- ) POLICE 2. Crimes recorded in criminal (police) statistics, by type of crime including attempts to commit crimes 2.2 Total recorded intentional homicide, completed (c)

More information

Research. The 2016 Sovereign Rating Calendar. A cross-agency review of announced sovereign rating dates by ESMA registered Credit Rating Agencies

Research. The 2016 Sovereign Rating Calendar. A cross-agency review of announced sovereign rating dates by ESMA registered Credit Rating Agencies Research The 2016 Sovereign Rating Calendar A cross-agency review of announced sovereign rating dates by ESMA registered Credit Rating Agencies Date of research: December 30th, 2015 Table of content Page

More information

Directory & Mailing List Publisher Lines World Report

Directory & Mailing List Publisher Lines World Report Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1836438/ Directory & Mailing List Publisher Lines World Report Description: DIRECTORY & MAILING LIST PUBLISHER LINES WORLD REPORT

More information

Culture in the Cockpit Collision or Cooperation?

Culture in the Cockpit Collision or Cooperation? Culture in the Cockpit Collision or Cooperation? Dr. Nicklas Dahlstrom Human Factors Manager Understanding Safety - The Changing Nature of Safety 1 Lives lost per year How safe is flying? 100 000 10 000

More information