Community Electricity. Rural South Africa: Renewable mini-grid assessment

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1 Community Electricity in Rural South Africa: Renewable mini-grid assessment Page 1 of 39

2 GENERAL PRESENTATION In 2003, ScottishPower plc (SP), an e7 member company, took the lead in the development of a demonstration project in South Africa targeting off-grid mini-hybrid systems, with an emphasis on wind and solar power. The project aims included eligibility for CDM status, replicability, financial sustainability and the practical implementation of the principles associated with economic sustainability. After identifying promising sites, the e7, under the leadership of SP, undertook a pre-feasibility study that yielded positive conclusions, leading to a decision to pursue the project at the feasibility stage. However, due to a change in electrification plans in South Africa, the sites chosen for the feasibility study are no longer eligible for further implementation. Nevertheless, the information and lessons learned from this study can greatly benefit similar electrification projects and programmes in the region. It is with this aim of sharing experiences with interested parties that this document has been prepared. ABOUT E7 The e7 electricity companies operate on the national territories of the G7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and United States). Membership in the e7 is by invitation. The e7 may also invite other organisations from around the world to become Partners and contribute to the implementation of the e7 s goals. The e7 can be characterised as an entity with a unique operational knowledge of the electricity sector. In other words, the e7 s diversity of experience and expertise complement each other harmoniously, granting it with an all-encompassing scope of the global electricity industry. Sharing this wealth of experience with countries facing new pressures on their electrical industry is one way the e7 can contribute to sustainable development throughout the world. Each e7 member considers the management of environmental issues among its highest corporate priorities, and all support the concept of Sustainable Development. Page 2 of 39

3 Abstract The e7 group of electricity companies have made a commitment to sustainable development and are engaged in many different initiatives throughout the developing world. As global companies, they have considerable expertise in a wide range of technical and management areas. Sharing this experience with countries facing new pressures on their electrical industry is one way the e7 can contribute to sustainable development. e7 Projects include Human Capacity Building, where expertise is shared across economic and social divisions. e7 is also closely involved in the implementation of capital investment projects to practically demonstrate the opportunities afforded by innovative sustainable energy technology such as renewables. ScottishPower plc, as a member of e7, has conducted a significant component of work in South Africa to analyse aspects of rural electrification. In particular the work has made an assessment of how the renewable mini-grid model of rural electrification can contribute to the development of rural communities in South Africa and other countries in sub-saharan Africa. This report summarises the findings of the work, which may be of interest to those involved in the various social, technical and economic aspects of rural electrification. Acknowledgments ScottishPower would acknowledge the support and assistance of the following in carrying out our feasibility studies and in development of this report. Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd (ESD), Wiltshire, United Kingdom, as lead consultant to ScottishPower for the duration of this project. Ndizani Networks Group, Centurion, South Africa, for managing all activities associated with on site works including community consultation and GIS mapping. CSIR (Government Technology and Research Institution in South Africa) for assistance in provision of data for the project. Department of Minerals and Energy of the Republic of South Africa, Pretoria, for support and advice on national policy matters Eskom, nationally (Megawatt Park, Johannesburg), provincially (Planning offices in Durban and East London) and locally (Operations office, Shelly Beach, Eastern cape) for their support and guidance throughout the duration of the project. National Energy Regulator of South Africa, Pretoria, for advice on licensing and compliance matters. Page 3 of 39

4 Table Of Abbreviations Abbreviation Description A Ampere ABMDA African Business and Manufacturing Development Association Ah Ampere-hour CAPEX Capital Expenditure CDM Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol CER Certified Emissions Reductions under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol CFL Compact Fluorescent Light CMIP Consolidated Municipal Infrastructure plan DME Department of Minerals and Energy, South Africa ESD Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd GBP United Kingdom Pounds GPS Global Positioning System h or hr Hour IDP Integrated Development Plan IDT Independent Development Trust, South Africa IP Illuminating Paraffin km Kilometre KVA Killovolt-Ampere kw Killowatt Kwhr Killowatt-hour LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas m Metre m/s Metres per second MV Medium Voltage MW Megawatt NER National Electricity Regulator of South Africa NGO Non-Government Association NNG Ndizani Networks Group NRS National Rationalised Specification OPEX Operational Expenditure PLAAS Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies PV Solar Photovoltaic RDP Reconstruction and Development Programme RSA Republic of South Africa SP Scottish Power UK plc tco2e Tonne of CO2 equivalent unit of emission reduction V Volt W Watt Wh Watt-hour ZAR or R South African Rand Page 4 of 39

5 About e Abstract... 3 Acknowledgments... 3 Table Of Abbreviations Introduction Electrification in South Africa The South Africa Mini-Grid Initiative Executive Summary Site Identification Site Assessment Results - Site Identification Use of wind data Western and Northern Cape Limpopo KwaZulu Natal Eastern Cape Final site selection Results - Stakeholder Consultation Household Business Institutional Stakeholders Distribution System Generation System Results - Costing and Business Model Costing and Tariff assessment Business Model Site identification Stakeholder consultation Design and costing Implementation Annexes Annex 1 - Bibliography Annex 2 - Consumer Electrical Supply Design Annex 3 - Proposed Distribution System in and Dumsi Annex 4 - Generating Systems Macro Bill of Materials Page 5 of 39

6 1 Introduction 1.1 ELECTRIFICATION IN SOUTH AFRICA The energy sector in South Africa is overseen by the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), and it is this department which prepares energy policy and legislation. The National Electricity Regulator (NER), established in April 1995 as a statutory body, falls under DME s jurisdiction and acts as the regulatory authority over the electricity industry in South Africa. The routine regulatory activities that fall within the NER s jurisdiction include licensing, tariff approval, handling of disputes and customer complaints, as well as monitoring the quality of supply. The DME appoints board members, but once appointed the NER acts independently and reports to parliament. The NER is funded from a levy imposed on generators of electricity, which is passed onto all electricity customers. The South African government aimed to electrify 2.5 million households by the year In fact, these targets were exceeded and the costs of connection, distribution and metering are some of the lowest in the world. The same government directive specifically targeted electrification of all schools and clinics and has set the goal of providing universal access to electricity by the year This has resulted in the great majority of significant load centres becoming grid-electrified, leaving relatively few isolated communities without grid connection. The remaining 3 million South African households that do not have grid connection are geographically dispersed. The Energy Policy White Paper of 1998 required the integration of grid and non-grid technologies in a single National Electrification Programme. The South African Government encouraged private-sector participation in rural energy service provision. The approach being pursued, as in a number of other countries, was the award of geographical concessions to provide non-grid electricity supplies (primarily solar home systems) in remote areas. The process began in 1998 with a joint venture between ESKOM and Shell International in the Eastern Cape Province. This venture started with the objective of supplying solar energy to 50,000 low cost housing units. Other concessionaires were granted similar agreements between 1998 and 2002, in the Provinces of KwaZulu Natal, the Eastern Cape, and The Northern Province. Further, Shell Renewables has initiated two isolated renewable mini-grid systems in the Eastern Cape: one at Hluleka Nature reserve and one nearby at Lucingweni village. Reflecting the close relationship between energy and sustainable development, and in recognition of the Johannesburg Declaration made at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in 2003, the government passed a White Paper on the Renewable Energy Policy of the Republic of South Africa. This commits the country to a target of GWh (0.8 Mtoe) renewable energy contribution to final energy consumption by 2013, to be produced mainly from biomass, wind, solar and small-scale hydro. This target represents 4% of projected electricity demand in THE SOUTH AFRICA MINI-GRID INITIATIVE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As a member of the e7 group of electricity companies Scottish Power plc (SP) has a commitment to playing an active role in relation to global electricity issues and sustainable development. As such, SP initiated work in South Africa, focused particularly on the opportunity for the implementation of innovative forms of rural electrification using renewable energy. The work conducted was particularly focused on the potential for isolated communities to benefit from emerging renewable technologies in the form of a renewable mini-grid (off grid). The interest in this particular form of rural electrification comes from the demographic profile of many sub-saharan African countries, which have a high proportion of isolated communities. While not discounting any form of renewable energy source, ScottishPower s expertise in wind technologies was an influence in site selection. As the assessment progressed it became obvious that the areas of the country that were likely to be best suited for the mini grid application were areas where wind resource predominated. Page 6 of 39

7 Development of an appropriate, economic solution for isolated communities is a challenging aim. Yet balanced against rising fuel prices and the mixed success of a number of diesel based isolated systems throughout the region, interest is growing in the emerging role of renewables in this form of electricity service delivery. The work that is summarised within this text concludes that it is not feasible to deliver a sustainable mini-grid solution in South Africa, but that the methodology employed is valid for other Sub-Saharan African countries where the challenges of competing with low cost grid electricity are not so prominent. Our conclusion not to proceed in South Africa was driven by a number of factors including failure to identify a suitably remote site of reasonable density that was unlikely to be grid connected within the next five years. In discussions with government it also became obvious that providing rural communities with renewable energy solutions was likely to conflict with developing electrification policy in South Africa The assessment carried out also provides valuable social information regarding rural communities in South Africa and offers the first substantive proof that the economics of a mini grid approach do not allow implementation of a project at this time. 2 Methodology 2.1 SITE IDENTIFICATION Appropriate sites for a renewable mini-grid project were identified through direct consultation with key institutions and the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modelling Criteria First a set of clear criteria were established in order to identify appropriate sites. These criteria were: Electrification Grid electrification plans (No grid electrification plans in area for at least 5 years) Off-grid electrification plans (No off-grid plans for the area) Customer Institutional users (Potential off-grid school(s), clinic(s) and others) Household density (General density of >50 households/km² in clusters) Community commitment (Alignment of community expectations) Topography Isolated village (Potential impact of revised grid electrification plans) Renewable resources (Preference for wind-based generation) SMEs/Agricultural potential (Promotes productive use and economic sustainability) Others Positive political landscape (Facilitates access & communication) Secure generation site (Prevent vandalism/theft) Geographic Information System (GIS) Model A GIS (Geographic Information System) tool was developed to assist in the identification of possible mini-grid areas. Four sets of parameter were used in the GIS process: 1) Provincial boundaries 2) Grid electrification data 3) Village population data 4) Supplementary village and geographical data The main sources of the data used in the GIS modelling process were: MV electrification data: Eskom; Village Data (HELP Data): Eskom; and Provincial & District Data: Demarcation Board Page 7 of 39

8 2.2 SITE ASSESSMENT Following the determination of appropriate locations for renewable-based generation, several components of site assessment were carried out as detailed below Stakeholder Consultation Relevant stakeholders at the national, provincial and local level were consulted at appropriate stages of the project. This included government partners, utilities and non-government organisations (NGOs). For the community component of the stakeholder consultation, best practice participatory approaches for poverty alleviation in developing countries were used. A methodology was developed for the community consultation which included 100% household and business surveys, focus group work and individual meetings with community leaders Outline Technical Design An outline design for a potential renewable energy mini-grid initiative development was produced. This was based on the available technical and socio-economic data from the previous work. The distribution and reticulation design was based on Eskom standards for reticulation systems. This approach was used to allow for: 1) Interconnection with Eskom standard equipment in the future; and 2) Delivery of grid-like electricity services Outline Costing and Business Model Preliminary costings for the outline design were developed in order to assess the relative economic merits and measure costings against existing tariff structures. This costing was then aligned with an operational model that would be most likely to suit the local business and government structures. This included aspects of private and public sector capacity to perform necessary implementation and operational duties. Page 8 of 39

9 3 Results - Site Identification 3.1 GIS MODELLING A GIS (Geographic Information System) tool was developed to assist in the identification of possible mini-grid areas. Four key parameters were used in the GIS process (Provincial boundaries, Grid electrification data, Village population data, and Supplementary village/geographical data) were incorporated into 4 distinct steps in the modelling process Step 1 Provincial boundaries The process started out by placing a map of the nine provinces of South Africa as a platform of the GIS tool as indicated in figure 1. Figure 1 Map of South Africa showing provinces Page 9 of 39

10 3.1.2 Step 2 Electrification data The 2003 Medium Voltage (MV) data for the whole of South Africa was then layered over the map of South Africa. This led directly to the identification of geographical pockets that are currently unelectrified. The results of this assessment indicate several pockets of un-electrified areas (shown as white in figure 2) all over South Africa especially in the Northern Cape, the Northern part of the Western Cape, Kwazulu Natal and the Eastern cape. Even though the MV data indicated all the areas that are currently not electrified, this does not yet represent any other data relevant to the site identification exercise. For instance, many of the unelectrified areas are also unpopulated and this is not yet taken into account. Figure 2 MV Network Page 10 of 39

11 3.1.3 Step 3 Village data The next step was to add village data to the GIS tool to eliminate empty spaces and only identify the zones where villages are situated. Due to the large number of rural villages, it was necessary to then split this data into two further categories The first set indicated villages that are known from existing data to be electrified as well as those villages that are in close proximity to the grid. The second set highlighted villages that are not electrified or within close proximity to the grid. The result of this step is presented in figure 3 (dark areas). The larger dark areas indicate several villages without electrification. The results also point out that even though the MV data as presented in figure 2 indicates huge pockets in the Northern Cape and the Northern part of the Western Cape there are very few populated areas without electricity. Figure 3 MV network and areas not electrified Page 11 of 39

12 3.1.4 Step 4 geographical detail Although the GIS tool was now able to deliver results at a National level, it now required further detail to allow navigation in specific regions. More data was therefore added to assist in the site identification exercise. The following data sets were included in the GIS tool at step 4): - Roads and Rivers - Village Names - The number of people living in a specific village 3.2 USE OF WIND DATA National level wind data was not incorporated into the GIS model itself. However, the existing broad information available on wind resources in South Africa was used to guide the next phases of site identification. The information used is the first Wind Atlas of South Africa, published in 1995 for the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) (Diab, 1995). The atlas was based on existing data from South Africa's approximately 170 meteorological stations. The coastal and escarpment areas were identified as having a mean annual wind speed of greater than 4 metres/second at 10 metres above ground level (see map below). This parameter was used to guide the further selection of sites and particularly directed the selection of coastal areas in the Eastern Cape. 3.3 WESTERN AND NORTHERN CAPE Figure 4 shows the un-electrified areas identified in figure 3, by province. It can be seen in figure 4 that there are very few potential areas for mini-grid in the Western and Northern Cape. Electrification stakeholders in the Western and Northern Cape indicated that these two provinces are not ideal candidates for a mini-grid demonstration. Figure 4 Areas not electrified Page 12 of 39

13 3.2 LIMPOPO The Limpopo province is one of the provinces where mini-grid might be a possibility. The province still has in the vicinity of 456,000 households that are not electrified. The province was discounted in the assessment as the majority of the villages that are not electrified are sparsely distributed (figure 4). 3.3 KWAZULU NATAL Figure 4 indicates several pockets of un-electrified communities in the KZN area, however, these are relatively small areas. This means that the villages situated in these pockets are closer to the grid than some of the pockets in the Eastern Cape for instance (see below). Further, the non-grid Concession holder of the Northern part of KZN (NUON-RAPS) has previously performed work in their concession area to identify possible mini-grid sites and have yet to move forward with implementation. 3.4 EASTERN CAPE In the GIS analysis, the Eastern Cape exhibits large un-electrified village areas, particularly in the coastal and mountainous areas to the East. Electrification stakeholders in the Eastern Cape province suggested focusing on a) the Fort Donald area; b) the area between Mt. Frere and Cedarville; and c) the coastal zone between Elliotdale, Coffee Bay and the Haven. 3.5 FINAL SITE SELECTION Final site selection from the results of the GIS assessment, review of wind data, extensive consultation with stakeholders at the national and local level and individual site visits at short-listed locations. Villages located in the Fort Donald area of the Eastern Cape, called and Dumsi were selected for further assessment. These sites were investigated further to demonstrate the key socioeconomic and technical issues associated with a mini-grid renewable based project. The detailed GIS model of this area is shown in figure 5 below. Dark blue indicates village areas and red lines represent existing grid electricity lines. The results of this detailed work includes Stakeholder Consultation (Section 5), outline Technical Design (Section 6) and Costing and Business Model development (Section 7). Figure 5 Detailed GIS image for the Dumsi- area Page 13 of 39

14 4 Results - Stakeholder Consultation As described in section a best practice approach was used in the consultation process. This included an exhaustive 100% household survey, specific consultation on business related issues and a comprehensive dialogue with key institutional stakeholders. The results of this process are presented in the following sections. 4.1 HOUSEHOLD A household survey was administered to approximately 411 households in each of the two villages of Dumsi and. The survey was designed to provide household data on basic demographics, housing types, current fuel use patterns, livelihoods and access to services Sample demographics & housing Gender ratios within both the total sample population and within the respondent group exhibited a female bias. The age sets of the sample populations correlate closely with the national average. Figure 6 Age sets Age sets Dumzi The villages have been in existence for more than 30 years. The clustered layout of the villages (unlike the dispersed patterns encountered in other regions) suggests that the villages might have been a product of the village planning processes that were instituted under the historically Independent governments of the Transkei. In each case, between 60%-80% of the households have lived in their respective villages for more than 10 years. The range of construction methods and materials of houses is fairly constant between the two villages. The figure below records the type of construction for the principle dwelling within the homestead 1. Figure 7 Construction of main dwelling Dumsi Number Percentage Number Percentage House(bricks/blocks) 45 22% 54 26% Traditional dwelling % 79 38% Combination 36 18% 75 36% Total % % Perhaps more informative from an electrification perspective are the number of dwellings (building units) which comprise the homesteads. The average number of rooms per dwelling is 3.6 and the average number of buildings or dwellings is 2.8 per homestead. 1 A homestead refers to the boundaries of a family space, which can include a number of houses/buildings. Page 14 of 39

15 Figure 8 typical village layout Paraffin Use Paraffin is the most commonly used modern or commercial fuel within the two villages. Paraffin is a popular choice in all non-electrified rural areas in South Africa as it is freely available, can be bought in varying unit sizes and compatible appliances are both cheap and readily available. On average, 89% of households reported that they use paraffin at a monthly cost of R 68. As indicated below, most non-electrified households use candles for lighting while the general and common use of wood provides easy co-application possibility for heating water. Figure 9 Paraffin applications Paraffin applications Cooking Heating water Lighting Dumzi The majority of paraffin using households spends in excess of R 40 a month on fuel. Prices of paraffin vary significantly both in terms of economies of scale as well as specific retail outlets. The average price of paraffin is around R 3 per litre although purchasing from larger commercial centres coupled with larger quantities sees the price fall to closer to R 2 per litre. Page 15 of 39

16 Figure 10 Paraffin expenditure profile Expenditure Profile Dumzi 20 0 R1-R20 R21-R40 R41-R60 R61> Candle Use The majority of non-electrified households in South Africa use candles for lighting. Candles are readily available from spaza shops and general dealers within the communities. Alternatives to candles include LPG lanterns and paraffin lanterns. On average 87% of householders responded that they use candles at an average monthly cost of R LPG Use South Africa lags behind in LPG usage when compared to equivalent economies, with a national average for non-electrified households of just 12% 2. LPG usage amongst the two villages is relatively high, however. In the villages sampled, use of LPG is 27% and a monthly expenditure of about R 135. The contrast against the national average might be explained by a number of local conditions. First, it appears that household incomes are significantly higher than for an average rural community in South Africa. And, secondly, the LPG infrastructure is very accessible. The latter point is brought about by the close proximity (approximately 30km) to the regional centres of Kokstad and Bizana. LPG is a clean burning, easy to manage fuel that is well suited to cooking. Other applications include heating water and ironing. Refrigeration as a service requirement is also becoming increasingly pronounced. Studies elsewhere in South Africa have pointed to an increasing use of modern (nonelectrical) fuels for refrigeration. The benefits include food preservation and small businesses opportunities. Figure 11 LPG applications LPG Applications Cooking Heating w ater Ironing Refridgeration Dumzi 2 IES; LPG the fuel for poverty reduction in rural South Africa Page 16 of 39

17 The expenditure profile for LPG presents significantly larger ranges than paraffin. The principle reason for this is the operation of LPG fridges which require significant amounts of LPG. That said, there are households who rely exclusively on LPG contributing to the higher accounts as indicated in the figure below. Figure 12 LPG Expenditure profile Expenditure profile R99 R100-R199 R200> Dumzi Dry-cell battery use Dry cell batteries are principally used for powering radios although other applications such as Hi-fi s, tape recorders and clocks were recorded. 54% of households use dry cell batteries at an average monthly cost of R 30. Figure 13 Dry cell battery applications Dry-cell battery applications Dumzi 0 Radio Hi-Fi Tape recorder Torch Clock Wood Use Consistent with developing countries elsewhere, South Africa s rural populations are reliant on wood fuel. While the South African energy industry is significantly more developed than many other developing economies, there remains a high portion of non-electrified (and electrified) households which rely on wood for cooking. This is particularly true for rural areas. In the case of Dumsi, 90% of households used wood fuel while in, 76% use this energy source. Page 17 of 39

18 Figure 14 Wood fuel use Dumsi Total households Total users % (using) 90% 76% Total users (buying) Average expenditure R 17 R 15 % (buying) 40% 36% Wood fuel often has social value beyond the utilitarian or service type relationship that LPG and paraffin present. Many households light wood-fires within the homestead for social purposes and use it for social cooking or water heating. Figure 15 Wood fuel applications Fuelwood Applications Cooking Heating water Lighting Ironing Space heating Dumzi There are three categories of wood users within the two villages. The first of these include the people who collect wood, free of charge, from neighbouring forest plantations and the open bush. The second category consists of people who purchase and collect pre-packaged wood. The final category is those who purchase wood and have it delivered to their homesteads. The costs of wood vary between 15 to 50c/kg depending on the volume purchased at any one time. Most people purchase tractor loads in the winter months. Those collecting are subject to opportunity costs. Households collecting wood spend between 2½-3 hrs, 2-3 times a week collecting wood Car battery Use While the use of car batteries (lead acid) is quite common in both villages, its use is more pronounced in Dumsi village. Forty-eight percent of households in this village use this energy option as opposed to 32% in. In addition, users in Dumsi spend more per month on recharging (& transporting) their batteries than their counterparts. Figure 16 Car batteries Dumsi Total households Total users Average expenditure R 32 R 23 % Battery users 49% 32% The number of users and the distribution of users are indicated on the expenditure profile in the figure Page 18 of 39

19 below. The bulk of the users fall in the R category. Figure 17 Battery expenditure profile Expenditure Profile Dum zi M bandana 5 0 R 1-R 10 R 11-R 20 R 21-R 30 R 30> The end uses of the car batteries include powering televisions, radios and Hi-fi s. None of these activities can be considered essential, providing further support to the idea that poorer households will recharge their batteries less. Most households use their batteries for powering televisions. Car battery systems for households are often seen as a precursor for solar PV and subsequently grid electricity. Figure 18 Car battery applications Car Battery Applications Dumzi 20 0 TV Radio HIFi Generator Use Given the costs associated with the purchase and use of small generators, it is not surprising that few households within the sample group use them. 11 out of the 411 households own and operate generators. High average costs are clearly indicated in the figure below. In. there is only a single user/owner. Overall, users report an average monthly cost of R Most interesting are references to welding, phone-charging and sewing; all three are the basis of small business. Page 19 of 39

20 Figure 19 Generator applications Generator applications Lighing Television Radio Welding Charging phone Sewing machine Cooking Dumzi Electricity Use and willingness to pay While the villages are obviously not grid electrified they do fall within the Shell/Eskom off-grid concession. The consortium provides (on a fee for service basis) PV electricity to rural households. A very small portion of the households have signed a contract to receive this basic electricity service. Other than households using generators, car batteries, PV and dry cell batteries the remaining households do not have access to electricity. Part of the survey enquiry included a number of questions which sought to establish some level of expectation for an improved community electricity service as well as the household s willingness to pay for that service. Included amongst these questions were how many electric lights the household would require and the positioning of these lights. The average preferred number of lights per household is 5. Most household indicated that they would want between two and four bedroom lights. Enumerators were instructed to inform respondents that they would be required to pay for electricity. They were then asked which of three different energy scenarios (which had an associated fee) they would be prepared to pay for. Option 1: R 20 per month - radio (6-10 hrs), three lights and a black and white television. This scenario was generated on the basis of the kind of energy provided by a 50Wp solar home system. Option 2: R 70 per month - colour television, VCR, 4 lights and a radio. This is based on service associated with a 100Wp solar home system with inverter Option 3: R 140 per month - colour television, VCR, radio/hi-fi, 5 lights and a combined fridge/freezer. The results are included in the willingness to pay graphic in figure below. Figure 20 Willingness to pay Willingness to Pay Dumzi 0 Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Page 20 of 39

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