# Chap 3 CAPM, Arbitrage, and Linear Factor Models

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1 Chap 3 CAPM, Arbitrage, and Linear Factor Models 1

2 Asset Pricing Model a logical extension of portfolio selection theory is to consider the equilibrium asset pricing consequences of investors individually rational actions. The portfolio choices of individual investors represent their particular demands for assets. By aggregating these investor demands and equating them to asset supplies, equilibrium asset prices can be determined. 2

3 CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), was derived at about the same time by four individuals: Jack Treynor William Sharpe John Lintner Jan Mossin. CAPM predicts that assets risk premia result from a single risk factor, the returns on the market portfolio of all risky assets which, in equilibrium, is a mean variance efficient portfolio. 3

4 William Forsyth Sharpe (born June 16, 1934) is William Sharpe the STANCO 25 Professor of Finance, Emeritus at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He was one of the originators of the Capital Asset Pricing Model, created the Sharpe ratio for risk adjusted investment performance analysis, contributed to the development of the binomial method for the valuation of options, the gradient method for asset allocation optimization, and returns based style analysis for evaluating the style and performance of investment funds. 4

5 Arbitrage Pricing Model it is not hard to imagine that a weakening of CAPM s restrictive assumptions could generate risk premia deriving from multiple factors. We derive this relationship not based on a model of investor preferences as was done in deriving CAPM but based on the concept that competitive and efficient securities markets should not permit arbitrage. 5

6 Arbitrage Pricing Model Arbitrage pricing is the primary technique for valuing one asset in terms of another. (Relative Pricing) It is the basis of so called relative pricing models, contingent claims models, or derivative pricing models. study the multifactor Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) developed by Stephen Ross (Ross 1976). 6

7 Stephen A. Ross Stephen A. Ross is the Franco Modigliani Professor of Financial Economics and a Professor of Finance at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Ross is best known for the development of the arbitrage pricing theory (mid 1970s) as well as for his role in developing the binomial options pricing model (1979; also known as the Cox Ross Rubinstein model). He was an initiator of the fundamental financial concept of risk neutral pricing. 7

8 CAPM It does assume that investors have identical beliefs regarding the probability distribution of asset returns all risky assets can be traded there are no indivisibilities in asset holdings there are no limits on borrowing or lending at the riskfree rate. does not assume a representative investor in the sense of requiring all investors to have identical utility functions or beginning of period wealth. 8

9 CAPM 9

10 10

11 Characteristics of the Tangency Portfolio 11

12 covariance between the tangency portfolio and the individual risky assets. 12

13 a simple relationship links the excess expected to the excess expected returns on the individual risky assets 13

14 Asset Demand suppose that individual investors, each taking the set of individual assets expected returns and covariances as fixed (exogenous), all choose mean variance efficient portfolios. Thus, each investor decides to allocate his or her wealth between the risk free asset and the unique tangency portfolio. Because individual investors demand the risky assets in the same relative proportions, we know that the aggregate demands for the risky assets will have the same relative proportions, namely, those of the tangency portfolio. 14

15 Assets Supply Fixed Supply One way to model asset supplies is to assume they are fixed. For example, the economy could be characterized by a fixed quantity of physical assets that produce random output at the end of the period. Such an economy is often referred to as an endowment economy, and we detail a model of this type in Chapter 6. In this case, equilibrium occurs by adjustment of the date 0 assets prices so that investors demands conform to the inelastic assets supplies. 15

16 Assets Supply Variable Supply to assume that the economy s asset return distributions are fixed but allow the quantities of these assets to be elastically supplied. This type of economy is known as a production economy, and a model of it is presented in Chapter

17 Assets Supply Variable Supply Such a model assumes that there are n risky, constant returns to scale technologies. These technologies require date 0 investments of physical capital and produce end of period physical investment returns having a distribution with mean and covariance matrix of V at the end of the period. there could be a risk free technology that generates a one period return on physical capital of. In this case of a fixed return distribution, supplies of the assets adjust to the demands for the tangency portfolio and the risk free asset determined by the technological return distribution. As it turns out, how one models asset supplies does not affect the results that we now derive regarding the equilibrium relationship between asset returns. 17

18 In Equilibrium Demand= Supply 18

19 Market Portfolio Weight in Equilibrium In equilibrium, the tangency portfolio chosen by all investors must be the market portfolio of all risky assets. the tangency portfolio having weights must be the equilibrium portfolio of risky assets supplied in the market. (3.6) is an equilibrium relationship between the excess expected return on any asset and the excess expected return on the market portfolio. 19

20 The only case for which investors have a long position in the tangency portfolio is Rf < Rmv. for asset markets to clear, that is, for the outstanding stocks of assets to be owned by investors, the situation depicted in Figure 3.1 can be the only equilibrium efficient frontier 20

21 21

22 Market Portfolio Weight in Equilibrium Can market portfolio weight in equilibrium negative? No since assets must have nonnegative supplies, equilibrium market clearing implies that assets prices or individuals choice of technologies must adjust (effectively changing R and/or V ) to make the portfolio demands for individual assets nonnegative. 22

23 implications of CAPM we consider realized, rather than expected, asset returns. 23

24 24

25 OLS estimation 25

26 Capital Market Line 26

27 27

28 28

29 The Expression and Implication of CAPM The essence of CAPM is that the expected return on any asset is a positive linear function of its beta and that beta is the only measure of risk needed to explain the crosssectionofexpectedreturns. The spirit of CAPM is. No, no CAPM.

30 Fama MacBeth Approach The basic idea of the approach is the use of a time series (first pass) regression to estimate betas and the use of a cross sectional (second pass) regression to test the hypothesis derived from the CAPM.

31 Fama MacBeth Approach Step1(First Pass Regression): For each of the N securities included in the sample, we first run the following regression over time to estimate beta: R it i R i mt i (1) Step2(Second Pass Regression) We run the following cross section regression over the sample period over the N securities: R it 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 3 0 t 1t i 2 t i t ei it S (2)

32 Fama MacBeth Approach ˆ3 should not be significantly different from zero, or residual risk does not affect return. ˆ2 should not be significantly different from zero, or the expected return on any asset is a positive linear function of its beta. ˆ1 must be more than zero: there is a positive price of risk in the capital markets, namely, a positive relationship exists between systematic risk and expected return.

33 Zero Beta CAPM If a riskless asset does not exist so that all assets are risky, Fischer Black (Black 1972) showed that a similar asset pricing relationship exists. But with respect to the expected return on the portfolio that has zero covariance with the market portfolio Zero beta portfolio Derivation: see the textbook 33

34 Fischer Black Fischer Sheffey Black (January 11, 1938 August 30, 1995) was an American economist, best known as one of the authors of the famous Black Scholes equation. 34

35 Zero Beta CAPM 35

36 Arbitrage It involves the possibility of getting something for nothing while having no possibility of loss. A more mathematical interpretation will be given in Shreve Chap 5 36

37 Arbitrage Specifically, consider constructing a portfolio involving both long and short positions in assets such that no initial wealth is required to form the portfolio. Proceeds from short sales (or borrowing) are used to purchase (take long positions in) other assets. If this zero net investment portfolio can sometimes produce a positive return but can never produce a negative return, then it represents an arbitrage: starting from zero wealth, a profit can sometimes be made but a loss can never occur. 37

38 Arbitrage A special case of arbitrage is when this zeronet investment portfolio produces a riskless return. If this certain return is positive (negative), an arbitrage is to buy (sell ) the portfolio and reap a riskless profit, or free lunch. Only if the return is zero would there be no arbitrage. 38

39 Arbitrage Opportunity If a portfolio that requires a nonzero initial net investment is created such that it earns a certain rate of return, then this rate of return must equal the current (competitive market) risk free interest rate. Otherwise, there would also be an arbitrage opportunity. 39

40 Arbitrage Opportunity For example, if the portfolio required a positive initial investment but earned less than the risk free rate an arbitrage would be to (short ) sell the portfolio and invest the proceeds at the riskfree rate, thereby earning a riskless profit equal to the difference between the risk free rate and the portfolio s certain (lower) rate of return. 40

41 Arbitrage Opportunity In efficient, competitive, asset markets where arbitrage trades are feasible, it is reasonable to think that arbitrage opportunities are rare and fleeting. Should arbitrage temporarily exist, then trading by investors to earn this profit will tend to move asset prices in a direction that eliminates the arbitrage opportunity. it may be reasonable to assume that equilibrium asset prices reflect an absence of arbitrage opportunities. 41

42 No Arbitrage and Law of One Price No arbitrage assumption leads to a law of one price If different assets produce exactly the same future payoffs, then the current prices of these assets must be the same. This simple result has powerful asset pricing implications. 42

43 limited arbitrage For some markets, it may be impossible to execute pure arbitrage trades due to significant transactions costs and/or restrictions on short selling or borrowing. Andrei Shleifer and Robert Vishny (Shleifer and Vishny 1997) discuss why the conditions needed to apply arbitrage pricing are not present in many asset markets. 43

44 The link bet. CAPM and APT To motivate how arbitrage pricing might apply to a very simple version of the CAPM, suppose that there is a risk free asset that returns Rf and multiple risky assets. 44

45 The link bet. CAPM and APT 45

46 The link bet. CAPM and APT 46

47 The link bet. CAPM and APT This condition states that the expected return in excess of the risk free rate, per unit of risk, must be equal for all assets, and we define this ratio as λ. Thus, this no arbitrage condition is really a law of one price in that the price of risk, λ, which 47 is the risk premium divided by the quantity of risk, must be the same for all assets.

48 The link bet. CAPM and APT 48

49 CAPM is not reasonable The CAPM assumption that all assets can be held by all individual investors is clearly an oversimplification. Transactions costs and other trading "frictions that arise from distortions such as capital controls and taxes might prevent individuals from holding a global portfolio of marketable assets. many assets simply are nonmarketable and cannot be traded. the CAPM s prediction that risk from a market portfolio is the only source of priced risk has not received strong empirical support. 49

50 CAPM is not reasonable Roll s Critique Richard Roll (Roll 1977) has argued that CAPM is not a reasonable theory, because A true "market" portfolio consisting of all risky assets cannot be observed or owned by investors. Moreover, empirical tests of CAPM are infeasible because proxies for the market portfolio (such as the S&P500 stock index) may not be mean variance efficient, even if the true market portfolio is. Conversely, a proxy for the market portfolio could be mean variance efficient even though the true market portfolio is not. 50

51 motivation for the Multifactor APT model. APT assumes that an individual asset s return is driven by multiple risk factors and by an idiosyncratic component. APT is a relative pricing model in the sense that it determines the risk premia on all assets relative to the risk premium for each of the factors and each asset s sensitivity to each factor. No assumptions regarding investor preferences but uses arbitrage pricing to restrict an asset s risk premium. The main assumptions of the model are that the returns on all assets are linearly related to a finite number of risk factors and the number of assets in the economy is large relative to the number of factors. 51

52 52

53 53

54 How to hedge away asset s idiosyncratic risk we will argue that if the number of assets is large, a portfolio can be constructed that has "close" to a riskless return, because the idiosyncratic components of assets returns are diversifiable. we can use the notion of asymptotic arbitrage to argue that assets expected returns will be "close" to the relationship that would result if they had no idiosyncratic risk. 54

55 Asymptotic Arbitrage an asymptotic arbitrage exists if the following conditions hold The portfolio requires zero net investment The portfolio return becomes certain as n gets large The portfolio s expected return is always bounded above zero 55

56 56

57 APT 57

58 APT 58

59 APT Proof: See the textbook 59

60 APT We see that APT, given by the relation can be interpreted as a multi beta generalization of CAPM. CAPM says that its single beta should be the sensitivity of an asset s return to that of the market portfolio 60

61 APT and ICAPM Robert Merton s Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) (Merton 1973a) A multi beta asset pricing model the ICAPM is sometimes used to justify the APT the static (single period) APT framework may not be compatible with some of the predictions of the more dynamic (multiperiod) ICAPM. 61

62 Robert C. Merton Robert C. Merton (born 31 July 1944) is an American economist, Nobel laureate in Economics, and professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, known for his pioneering contributions to continuous time finance, especially the first continuous time option pricing model, the Black Scholes Merton formula. 62

63 APT and ICAPM In general, the ICAPM allows for changing riskfree rates and predicts that assets expected returns should be a function of such changing investment opportunities. The ICAPM model also predicts that an asset s multiple betas are unlikely to remain constant through time, which can complicate deriving estimates of betas from historical data. 63

64 APT APT gives no guidance as to what are the economy s multiple underlying risk factors. An empirical application of APT by Nai Fu Chen, Richard Roll, and Stephen Ross (Chen, Roll, and Ross 1986) assumed that The risk factors were macroeconomic in nature, as proxied by industrial production, expected and unexpected inflation, the spread between long and short maturity interest rates, and the spread between high and low credit quality bonds. 64

65 Other models Other researchers have tended to select risk factors based on those that provide the best fit to historical asset returns. The well known Eugene Fama and Kenneth French (Fama and French 1993) model is an example of this. 65

66 Fama and French (1993) Its risk factors are returns on three different portfolios: a market portfolio of stocks (like CAPM), a portfolio that is long the stocks of small firms and short the stocks of large firms, and a portfolio that is long the stocks having high book tomarket ratios (value stocks) and short stocks having low book tomarket ratios (growth stocks). The Fama French model predicts that a given stock s expected return is determined by its three betas for these three portfolios. lacking a theoretical foundation for its risk factors. 66

67 Fama and French Eugene Francis "Gene" Fama (born February 14, 1939) is an American economist, known for his work on portfolio theory and asset pricing, both theoretical and empirical. He is currently Robert R. McCormick Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Kenneth Ronald "Ken" French (born March 10, 1954) is the Carl E. and Catherine M. Heidt Professor of Finance at the Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College. He has previously been a faculty member at MIT, the Yale School of Management, and the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He is most famous for his work on asset pricing with Eugene Fama. 67

68 Theoretical Foundation The theoretical foundation for factor models is still a on going research 68

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