1 Japan's Feed-in Tariff Scheme and Its Grid Connection Issues, in Comparison with Germany s Asami Takehama Professor of Sociology Ritsumeikan University Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg August 27-31,
2 Contents: 1. Japan s Renewable Electricity Generation, Current Situation 2. Electricity Generation and the Grid System in Japan 3. Renewable Electricity Feed-in Tariffs since July Weaknesses of the Current FIT: No Priority Access, No Obligation of Grid Expansion, Unbundling 5. Costs for Renewable Energy and Costs for Nuclear Energy in Electricity Price 6. Grid Connection Issues and Feed-in Management Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 2
3 Trends in Renewable Electricity in Japan Mainly large-scale hydropower and small amount of biomass (urban biomass waste) Japan s renewable electricity has not increased in the past 10 years. This is due to heavy reliance on nuclear power generation. Japan s wind power installation has been stagnant in the past years, because of the low purchase price and the limited capacity for grid integration set by major power companies. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 3
4 Source: IEA (2011), Renewable Information BMU( 2012), Zeitreihen zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland. BMU(2011), Langfristszenarien und Strategien für den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 4
5 Source: GWEC (2012), Global Wind Report Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 5
6 Source: EPIA(2012), Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics until 2012; IEA-PVPS (2012), Task1, Trend Preview. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 6
7 Japan s Electricity Generation and Grid System 10 major power companies own more than 90 % of generation capacity. They own their control zones and almost all of the grid systems (transmission and distribution grid). They dominate generation, distribution and the retail market. They are vertically integrated local monopolies. Transmission capacity between control zones is limited and not flexible. 10 major power companies completely control the retail market for households and consumers under 50 kw contract. Japanese consumers under 50kW contract cannot choose their power supplier. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 7
8 Power Supply (Maximum Output) of Power Companies FY 2010 (MW) Maximum Output 供 給 力 ( 最 大 出 力 ) Source: Takehama (2012). Calculated from data provided by the Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan 8 % of which, Nuclear Energy Maximum Power Output 供 給 力 Hokkaido 北 海 道 7,419 2,070 6,100 Tohoku 東 北 電 力 17,206 3,274 11,890 Tokyo (TEPCO) 東 京 電 力 64,988 17,308 54,480 Chubu 中 部 電 力 32,828 3,617 27,860 Hokuriku 北 陸 電 力 8,056 1,746 5,850 Kansai 関 西 電 力 34,877 9,768 28,080 Chugoku 中 国 電 力 11,986 1,280 13,370 Shikoku 四 国 電 力 6,962 2,022 6,770 Kyushu 九 州 電 力 20,330 5,258 17,880 Okinawa 沖 縄 電 力 1, , Major Power Companies (A) Tokutei-Kibo (B) 特 定 規 模 Wholesale Power Producer 卸 事 業 者 206, % 46, ,199 2, % 0 19, % 2,617 *Generation and Retail for *generation and Wholesale to 10 Major Power Other % 0 Nuclear % Total of All Power Companies (C) 電 気 事 業 総 供 給 力 電 気 事 業 者 の 供 給 力 228, % 48,960 21% (M o f w h
9 Grid Structure and Control Zones in Japan Weak Transmission system: Hokkaido -Main Island (600MW), Hokuriku Chubu (300MW) 60Hz-50Hz Conversion (1035MW) Hokkaido is windy but limited transmission capacity 300MW 600MW Tokyo 50Hz-60Hz Conversion: 1035MW 万 kw=10mw. Nine circles show each major power company s control zone. Figures in each circle show maximum electricity demand in each control zone. Figures between circles show capacity of main transmission lines between control zones Source: 地 域 間 連 系 線 等 の 強 化 に 関 するマスタープラン 研 究 会 中 間 報 告 書 電 力 システム 改 革 専 門 委 員 会, p.5. Takehama, Aug.2012-Sal 9
10 Photovoltaic Feed-in Tariffs ( ) and New Feed-in Tariffs for Renewable Energy (July 2012-) Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 10
11 Photovoltaic Feed-in Tariffs in Japan (1) Photovoltaic feed-in tariff for surplus electricity PV FIT started in November 2009 and continued till June Tariffs for only surplus electricity. Firstly, PV electricity must be self-consumed. Only under 500kW systems are compensated. Compensation for 10 years Under 10kW, 42ct/kWh (1 Euro=100 JPY) Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 11
12 PV Feed-in Tariff in Japan (2) IRR in PV surplus FIT is around 4% /a for 10 KW systems. Not very attractive. Larger than 10kW systems were not profitable because of the low tariff. Only residential roof-top systems have increased. Major power companies did not want a large increase in photovoltaic electricity. The Japan s PV market is slowly developing since PV FIT. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 12
13 The Feed-in Tariff Scheme for Renewable Energy Since the Fukushima disaster, energy-related conditions have changed. Japan s feed-in tariff finally took effect in July Obligatory grid connection and grid feed-in Compensation for 20 years, except for PV residential 10 years, Geothermal 15 years Tariff levels are revised every year. IRR from tariffs is from 1% to 13%. IRR of PV tariffs for larger than 10kW is at 6%. Actual IRR in PV tariff could be much higher. Large-scale PV installations are rapidly increasing in 13 number and capacity. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg
14 The New Scheme of Feed-in Tariffs for Renewable Energy Electricity since July 2012 Tariffs for Renewable Energy Electricity in Japan (from 1st July 2012) Photovoltaic Wind Geothermal Hydro (Small and Medium) 10 kw and more <10 kw, Surplus Electricity 20 kw and more < 20kW 15 MW and more <15MW 1,000-30,000 kw 200-1,000 kw <200 kw IRR (Before Tax) Tariffs before Tax JPY/kWh 1JPY = 1ct Compensation Years 6% 3.2% 8% 1.8% 13% 7% 7% years 10 years 20 years 15 years 20 years 14 Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg
15 The New Scheme of Feed-in Tariffs for Renewable Energy Electricity since July 2012 IRR (Before Tax) Tariffs, before Tax, JPY/kWh Compensation Years Methane Gas Processing Wood Biomass, Not Waste Wood Biomass Energy Wood Biomass, Palm Shell Recycled Wood 1% 8% 4% 4% 4% years Biomass Waste, without Wood Biomass Source: Tariff Committee (2012) Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 15
16 Weaknesses of Japan s FIT No obligation of priority access Grid operators (power companies) have no obligation to give priority access to renewable energies. No obligation of grid expansion Grid operators have no obligation to expand the grid in order to avoid grid overload or grid bottleneck. No unbundling of generation and transmission for now (In two years, the government would introduce unbundling.) For now, major power companies control transmission, distribution and retail business. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 16
17 The Surcharge of Feed-in Tariff Scheme for Renewable Energy Surcharge rates for FY2012 Surcharge for households is 87 JPY/month on average (1 JPY = 1 ct ) 0.29 JPY/kWh (PV surcharge included). Standard households (Electricity consumption is 300 kwh/month), paying 7,000 JPY/month Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 17
18 Costs for Renewable Energy vs. Costs for Nuclear Energy in Electricity Price The costs for nuclear energy account for 11-12% of TEPCO s electricity charge. Nuclear energy costs 2.96 JPY /kwh in 2012 at TEPCO. The surcharge for renewable energy costs 0.28 JPY/kWh, 1.1 % of electricity charge in 2012 at TEPCO. Germany: Households pay 14% of electricity charge for EEG Feed-in Tariffs (2012, estimated). Japan: TEPCO consumers pay 12% of electricity charge for Nuclear Energy. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg (2012) 18
19 A Comparison of Costs for Nuclear and Renewables in Electricity Price at Tokyo Electric Power Company 2012 September JPY /kwh % Electricity Price at TEPCO (From September 2012) 料 金 単 価 % Costs for Nuclear Power 原 子 力 料 金 原 価 Surcharge of FIT for Renewable Energy Electricity in 2012 (PV FIT Included) % % ( Surcharge for PV FIT, 2012 ) % ( Surcharge for Renewables FIT, 2012) % Source: Calculated by Takehama based on the following data: The costs for nuclear energy is estimated as 11.7% of the electricity price. calculation is based on documents for Electricity Price Examination Committee (2012), 電 気 料 金 審 査 専 門 委 員 会 配 布 資 料 ; Tokyo Electric Power Company, (2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書 ; METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 の 規 制 部 門 の 電 気 料 金 改 定 について, Press release 25th July; TEPCO (2012), 再 生 可 能 エネルギー 発 電 促 進 賦 課 金 および 太 陽 光 発 電 付 加 金 のお 知 らせ ; METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 19 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI (2012) 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg
20 The Costs for Nuclear Power in the Electricity Price (Tokyo Electric Power Company : TEPCO) (from Sep. 2012) (100 Million JPY ) of Which, Costs of Nuclear Energy (100 Million JPY, 1JPY = 1ct ) 原 子 力 関 係 費 用 Labor Costs 3, Fuel Costs 24, Cost of Repairs 4, Depreciation 減 価 償 却 費 6, Business Profits (= Divident, Interest Payment) 事 業 報 酬 Electricity Purchase from Other Power Suppliers 購 入 電 力 料 Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 2, * Business Assets *2.9% 7,876 1,002 Tax Payment 3, Other Costs ( Including Back End Costs for Used Nuclear Fuel ) そ の 他 経 費 ( 原 子 力 バックエンド 費 用 含 ) 7,098 2,396 Subtotal 58,911 6,639 Income except for Electricity Charge 控 除 収 益 -2,128 I expect that other power companies have the similar situations as TEPCO. Costs for Nuclear Energy/Total Costs (%) 総 原 価 に 占 める 原 子 力 比 率 Total Costs 56,783 6, % Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; 20 METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
21 Why TEPCO s Electricity Charge? Before the Fukushima disaster, power companies did not disclose breakdown list of electricity price for the past price raising. Because of huge criticism by citizens about TEPCO s price rise, TEPCO was enforced to disclose the detail data on electricity charge under the special committee on examination of electricity charge (under METI). This is the first time for us that we can get the breakdown lists of electricity charge. Japanese energy policy paid much emphasis on nuclear energy for decades. I assume that other power companies have similar situations on costs for nuclear energy in the electricity charge. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 21
22 Breakdown Lists of Costs for Nuclear Power in the Electricity Charge of TEPCO, ( Sep Aug. 2014, Annual, Unit= Billion JPY) Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 22
23 Breakdown Lists of Costs for Nuclear Power in the Electricity Charge of TEPCO, ( Sep Aug. 2014, Annual, Unit= Billion JPY) (1) Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
24 Costs for Repair 410 Billion JPY 修 繕 費 70.9 Billion JPY (Costs for repair, cooling and stabilization of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant No.1-No.4 reactors are decommissioned. They need 65.2 Billion JPY. Billion JPY. Fukushima Daiichi No.5, No,6 (out of operation), Daini No.1-No.4 (out of operation) need 20.3 Billion for repair. Nuclear power plants need huge costs even if being decommissioned or outage. ) (2) 70.9 Costs for Electricity Procurement 788 Billion JPY 購 入 電 力 料 Electricity purchase of nuclear electricity from whole sale power producers Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 24
25 Capital Costs JPY 資 本 費 886 Billion Unit= Billion JPY) (3) of which, Depreciation Costs, 617 Billion JPY うち 減 価 償 却 費 90 Billion JPY : For Fukushima Daiichi No.5, No.6 reactors, 27.1 Billion JPY. For Fukushima Daini No.1-No.4 (no meltdown) 14.3 Billion JPY. Including other costs, totaling depreciation for nucler power 90 Billion JPY (Mainly for construction of Tsunami protection wall and earthquakeproof storage shelf for used nuclear fuel 90.0 of which, Business Profit ( = Interest and Dividends Paid ) 269 Billion JPY うち 事 業 報 酬 Costs for dividends and interest payment for nuclear fuel assets 21 Billion JPY 21.0 Divident Costs for Nucler Power Facilities 12.9 Bilion JPY 12.9 Divident costs for uclear special investment not by TEPCO 6.6 Billion JPY (for Japan Nuclear Fuel 5.1 Billion JPY, Recycled nuclear fuel storage 0.1 Billion JPY, New Project for Uranium Mine Project 1.3 Billion JPY. Nuclear Disaster Compensation Support Scheme 0.1 Billion JPY 6.6 Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
26 Taxes 301 Billion JPY 公 租 公 課 Unit= Billion JPY) (4) The costs for nuclear energy in the Special Tax for Development of Power Sources: 69.8 Billion JPY. This tax is the surcharge for development of power generation sources, especially for nuclear energy. I estimated 64% of the tax is for nuclear costs. 電 源 開 発 促 進 税 1091 億 円 の64%を 原 子 力 関 係 と 推 定 Special Tax for Nuclear Fuel and Used Nuclear Fuel, Funds reserved for processing of used nuclear fuel 2.8 Billion JPY Estate Tax for nuclear energy 12.8 Billion JPY (Fukushima Daiichi 5.6 Billion JPY, Fukushima Daini 2.7Billion JPY, Kashiwazaki-Kariha 6.7 Billion JPY, and METI's reduction ) Water use charge for hydropower plants 1 Billion JPY Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
27 Backend Costs for Nuclear Energy 66.7 Billion JPY 原 子 力 バックエンド 費 用 Unit= Billion JPY) Backend costs for used nuclear fuel ( Fund reserve, Transport costs for used fuel to Aomori-Rokkasho Village) 51.5 Billion JPY, (5) 51.5 Processing costs for radioactive wastes 10 Billion JPY 10.0 Deassemble costs for nuclear power facilities 5.2 Billion JPY for Kashiwazaki Kariha Plant 1-No.3 -No.7 reactor. (Fukushima Daiichi: 0 Billion JPY, Fukushima Daini: 0 Billion JPY) 5.2 Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
28 Other Costs 643 Billion JPY その 他 経 費 of which, Removal Costs of Estate Assets 94.2 Billion JPY うち 固 定 資 産 除 去 費 Unit= Billion JPY) Insurance costs for nuclear accsidents 1.4 Billion JPY 損 害 保 険 料 のうち 原 子 力 災 害 関 係 Removal costs of estate assets from nuclear power plants 6.7 Billion JPY 固 定 資 産 除 去 費 のうち 原 発 分 Promotion and advertising costs for 'All-Electrification' 0 Billion JPY オー ル 電 化 関 連 の 普 及 費 用 (6) Contribution Payment for the Support Scheme of Nuclear Accident Compensation 56.7 Billion JPY 原 子 力 損 害 賠 償 支 援 機 構 一 般 負 担 金 56.7 Costs for waste processing for radioactive waste from nuclear energy plants 7.6 Billion JPY 廃 棄 物 処 理 費 用 のうち 原 子 力 関 係 7.6 Consumables including protecting clothes against radioactive 5.8 Billion JPY 消 耗 品 ( 保 護 衣 防 護 具 等 ) 5.8 Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
29 Maintenance coste for the PR Building of Kashiwazaki- Kariha Nuclear Power Plant, the costs for Public Relationlon for local citizens 0.5 Billion JPY Unit= Billion JPY) 0.5 (7) Outsourcing costs for nuclear energy 84.5 Billion JPY ( Including Outsourcing for accepting bills, payment and telephone call center 29.9 Billion JPY, Stabilizing costs 21.5 Billion JPY (outsourceing of radiation dose monitoring, water processing for stagnant and contaminated radioactive water), costs for temporary storage of radioactive used fuel 9.3 Billion JPY 84.6 Costs for 'Reports on Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Site for Local citizenz', 1.3 Billion JPY 1.3 Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
30 Unit= Billion JPY) Compensation for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear accident, without outsourcing (Rents, renting, communication costs, others) 5 Billion JPY The costs for the Commission on Reprocessing of Used Nuclear Fuel in Overseas, the costs for Japan Nuclear Technology Association : 0.5 Billion JPY Research costs for nuclear energy at Central Research Institute fo Electric Power Industry 2.9 Billion JPY (8) Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
31 Breakdown Lists of Costs for Nuclear Power in the Electricity Charge of TEPCO, (Sep Aug. 2014) (9) Total costs for electricity charge 5,678 Billion JPY (56.8 Billion EURO) 総 原 価 of which, Costs for nuclear energy in electricity charge, Billion JPY ( 6.6 Billion EURO) Unit= Billion JPY) Share of nuclear energy in the electricity charge 11.7% % of Interest and Divident Paid 2.9% 査 定 により 事 業 報 酬 率 は 2.9%に 引 き 下 げ Source: Calculated by Takehama. This is estimated from the following documents: METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI(2012), 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について ; TEPCO(2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書. These figures are annual figures.
32 Breakdown List of Electricity Price at TEPCO by Sector of Utility Business Electricity Price from Sep (100 million Yen) (%) Hydropower 3, % Fossil Fuel Power 85, % Nuclear Energy 16, % Renewable Energy % Transmission Costs 12, % Transformer Costs 変 電 費 5, % Distribution Costs 配 電 費 18, % Retail Costs 販 売 費 5, % Total Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 146, % Note: Conditions for calculation are different from slide p. 20. Therefore, the amount of total costs is different from p.20. Source: Date is based on TEPCO (2012), Application for approval on amendment of electricity supply agreements, revised ( 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書 ). Total amount of electricity costs is shown in the sum of 3 years costs. 32
33 I estimate that the costs for nuclear energy is 12.1% of electricity charge, Sep Aug (*1) Consumers in TEPCO zone paid 2,616 Billion JPY for nuclear energy. 11.7% of electricity charge, Sep Aug (*2) Consumers in TEPCO zone will pay 2,018 Billion JPY for nuclear energy. TEPCO s consumer paid / will pay totaling 4,634 Billion JPY (= 46 Billion EUR, 1ct =1EUR) for nuclear energy for 7 years. The total amount of surcharge for PV feed-in tariff from 2009 to 2011 was 67.9 Billion JPY (= Billion EURO) in the entire Japan. Source: Calculated by Takehama, based on the following documents: 1) Electricity Price Examination Committee (2012) ( 電 気 料 金 審 査 専 門 委 員 会 配 布 資 料 ); 2) The documents for Electricity Price Examination Committee (2012) ( 電 気 料 金 審 査 専 門 委 員 会 配 布 資 料 ); Tokyo Electric Power Company, (2012), 別 冊 1 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 補 正 書 ; METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 の 規 制 部 門 の 電 気 料 金 改 定 について, Press release 25th July; TEPCO (2012), 再 生 可 能 エネルギー 発 電 促 進 賦 課 金 および 太 陽 光 発 電 付 加 金 のお 知 らせ ; METI (2012), 東 京 電 力 株 式 会 社 の 供 給 約 款 変 更 認 可 申 請 に 係 る 査 定 方 針 ; METI (2012) 東 京 電 力 の 認 可 申 請 にかかる 査 定 方 針 について Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 33
34 Germany: Households Pay 14% of Electricity Charge for EEG Feed-in Tariffs. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg EEG Surcharge (ct/kwh) Electricity Charge for Household in Germany, Surcharge Included (ct/kwh) ドイツ 家 庭 料 金 Percentage in the Electricity Charge 賦 課 金 比 率 Y % Y % Y % Y % Y % Y % Y % Y % Y % Source: BDEW (2011), Energie-Info. Erneuerbare Energien und das EEG: Zahlen, Fakten, Grafiken; EEG/ KWK-G (2012), EEG-Umlage The electricity charge in 2012 is estimated. 34
35 Grid Connection Issues and Feed-in Management Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 35
36 Comparison of FIT schemes Germany Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz EEG Japan The Act on Feed-in Tariff Scheme for Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources Priority Access: Grid system operators shall as a priority connect renewable energy plants. Major power companies are not obliged to give priority access to renewable energy. They can refuse grid connection to renewable energy when renewable energy may unreasonably harm the profit of major power companies. (Section 4, 5) Obligation of Grid Expansion: Grid operators shall immediately strengthen and expand their grid systems in order to guarantee the purchase of renewable energy electricity. Not specified by the law Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 36
37 Comparison of FIT schemes Germany Japan Unbundling of Transmission and Generation is mandatory. No unbundling. Major power companies are vertically integrated local monopolies. They own largescale power plants and almost all transmission and distribution grid systems. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 37
38 Grid Connection Issues and Feed-in Management Germany Japan Feed-in Management (Output Reduction): When there is a risk of grid bottleneck or grid overload, grid operators are entitled to take output reduction of renewable energy. When output of major power companies exceeds the demand in each contol zone, they are allowed to set output reduction on renewable electricity up to 30 days a year without compensation to renewable power suppliers. For output reduction, major power companies must reduce their output from fossil fuel energy and pump-up hydropower. They, however, do not need to reduce their output from nuclear energy. (The Ministerial Ordinance of the Law No. 46, Enforcement Regulations of the Law, Section 6) Compensation for Feed-in Management (Output Reduction) : When output reduction was set to avoid grid overload and grid bottleneck, grid operators must compensate renewable power plants for 95% of lost income. If the lost income is more than 1% of annual sales income of renewable energy plants, grid operators must compensate 100% of the lost income (EEG Section 12). Up to 30 days a year, major power companies can set output reduction of renewable energy electricity without compensation. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 38
39 Japan s Feed in Management (Output Reduction) When output of major power companies exceeds the demand in each control zone, they are allowed to set output reduction on renewable electricity up to 30 days a year without compensation to renewable power suppliers. For output reduction, major power companies must reduce their output from fossil fuel energy and pumpup hydropower. They, however, do not need to reduce their output from nuclear energy. Up to 30 days a year, major power companies can set output reduction of renewable energy electricity without compensation. (The Ministerial Ordinance of the Law No. 46, Enforcement Regulations of the Law, Section 6) Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 39
40 Germany s Feed-in Management When there is a risk of grid bottleneck or grid overload, grid operators are entitled to take output reduction of renewable energy. Compensation for Feed-in Management When output reduction was set to avoid grid overload and grid bottleneck, grid operators must compensate renewable power plants for 95% of lost income. If the lost income is more than 1% of annual sales income of renewable energy plants, grid operators must compensate 100% of the lost income (EEG Section 12). 40 Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg
41 Grid Connection Issues and Feed-in Management Germany Japan Grid Data Disclosure and Verification: Concerning output reduction on renewable power plants, grid operators must disclose grid data that they fed-in renewable electricity as much as possible. Numerical grid data is required. Evidence for the necessity of feed-in reduction must be shown by 'documents'. Not specified by the law Grid Data Disclosure: Grid operators shall disclose grid data on wind feed-in (both forecast and actual) on an hourly basis. Grid operators voluntarily disclose wind feed-in (both forecast and actual), solar feed-in (both forecast and actual) at 15 minute-intervals on thier website. 規 定 なし Not specified by the law Takehama, Aug.2012-Sazburg 41
42 Why Detail Grid Data is Necessary? Transparency of grid feed-in is important Every 15 minute grid data is important that RES power producers can check whether the maximum amount of RES electricity is fed-in. Wind Feed-in Solar Feed-in Power Load Vertical Load Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 42
43 Germany Grid operators must verify that they feed-in the maximum amount of RES electricity by numerical grid data. (EEG, EnWG) 4 German TSOs have to verify that they accept the maximum amount of solar and wind energy to the grid. By numerical grid data, they have to verify that their feed-in management is reasonable and appropriate. 50 Hertz (very windy, less population) shows huge efforts to maintain the transmission grid with more wind energy than the demand in its zone. max load in 50 Hertz zone : around 13GW, max wind feed-in: around 11GW in 2011) Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 43
44 Source: Takehama (2012)
45 Japan Wind energy 0.4%, Photovoltaic electricity 0.3% in the total electricity consumption Japan s FIT scheme has set the feed-in management (output reduction) on RES-E, without disclosure of detail grid data. Renewable energy power producers cannot check whether feed-in management is appropriate and reasonable. Major power companies do not like to accept large amount of wind energy, especially in Hokkaido (north island ). Hokkaido Power Company set a lottery for grid connection of wind farms. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 45
46 Sub conclusion Japan s FIT scheme for renewables has a number of weaknesses: No priority access No obligation of grid expansion No unbundling Feed-in management without compensation up to 30 days Limited grid-data disclosure on wind feed-in and solar feed-in Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 46
47 Conclusions Germany: Households pay 14% of electricity charge for EEG Feed-in Tariffs (2012, estimated). Japan: TEPCO consumers pay 12% of electricity charge for Nuclear Energy. Japan s FIT cost is much smaller than the cost of nuclear energy in the electricity price. Japan s FIT scheme for renewables has a number of structural weaknesses. The current FIT scheme is highly determined by the existing grid structure. Lack of unbundling has an especially serious negative impact on the effectiveness of the FIT scheme. The Japanese government s favoring of nuclear power is hurting the development of renewable energy. Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 47
48 Thank you Asami Takehama Schloss Leopoldskron, Salzburg August 27-31, 2012 Takehama, Aug.2012-Salzburg 48
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