1 Switzerland January, 2013 SWITZERLAND ENERGY STATISTICS This document may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without our prior written permission.
2 Switzerland SUMMARY Summary January, 2013 Country Overview Energy Overview Brief Profile Labor Prices Economic Growth Interest Rates Market Profile Energy Production Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Energy Dependency Energy Imports Electricity Generation Consumption Nuclear Electricity Wholesale Market Electricity Prices Electricity Network Liberalization Natural Gas Market Profile Resources Transmission Network Main actors Natural Gas Prices Liberalization Oil Products CO2 Emissions Oil products overview Imports Oil Market Oil Products Prices Climate Challenge Greenhouse Gas Emissions Total National Emissions
3 Switzerland Country Overview January, 2013 COUNTRY OVERVIEW Brief Profile Climate Natural Resources Main Trading Partners Prices Comparative price levels Main export Main industries Economic Growth, GDP/capita Annual growth rate of GDP, comparisons of economic development both over time and between economies of different sizes. Labour Average hourly labour costs, expressed as fulltime units in EUR/month. Labour productivity. Interest Rates Long term interest rates in Switzerland and comparison among various economies in 2010.
4 Switzerland Country Overview Brief Profile January, 2013 BRIEF PROFILE Main industries machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, and insurance Main Trading Partners Export: Germany 20.3%, US 9.7%, Italy 8.7%, France 8.4%, UK 5.1% Import: Germany 32.6%, Italy 10.8%, France 9.5%, US 5.8%, Netherlands 4.6%, Austria 4.2%, UK 4.2% Natural resources hydropower potential, timber, salt Climate The Swiss climate is generally temperate. Summers tend to be warm and humid sometimes with periodic rainfall. The winters in the mountains alternate with sun and snow. Precipitation tends to be spread moderately during the year. Main exports machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products
5 Switzerland Country Overview Trade and economy January, 2013 Trade and Economy Trade The main trading partner of Switzerland is the EU, being at present the fourth biggest trading partner of the EU. In 2011 imports of billion and exports of billion. Switzerland was the EU's 5th most important trading partner in 2008 in terms of imports, after the US, China, Russia and Norway. As regards exports, Switzerland was the third, just after the US and Russia. Swiss merchandise exports are focuses on a few sectors, principally chemicals and medicinal products, machinery, instruments and watches. About 5.2% of EU's total imports are from Switzerland. Switzerland is a very significant partner of the EU for trade in services, especially commercial services are substantial. Sectors of the economy The Swiss economy follows the classic First World model with regard to the economic sectors. In 2006, only 3.8% of the population are involved in the Primary or Agricultural sector, while 23%, a larger minority, are involved in the Secondary or Manufacturing sector. The majority of the working population, or 73.2%, are involved in the Tertiary or Services sector of the economy. Switzerland is exceedingly protecting its agricultural industry. High tariffs and widespread domestic subsidizations encourage domestic production, which presently produces about 60% of the food consumed in the country. Switzerland has a extremely developed tourism infrastructure, principally in the mountainous areas and cities, making it a good market for tourism-related equipment and services. Aside from industry, trade has been the key to success in Switzerland.
6 Switzerland Country overview Prices January, 2013 Prices Comparative price levels Switzerland EU (27 countries) Prices Comparative price levels are the ratio between purchasing power parities and market exchange rate. The ratio is shown in relation to the EU average (EU27 = 100). If the index for a country is higher/ lower than 100, the country is relatively expensive/ compared with the EU average. Source: Eurostat Comparative price levels, Comparative price levels in Switzerland Comparative price levels in Switzerland increased to161.8 in 2011 from in 2010, an increase of 8.78%
7 Switzerland Country Overview Prices January, 2013 Inflation Annual inflation rate, % Switzerland European Union Annual Inflation Rate Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices (HICPs) are designed for international comparisons of consumer price inflation. HICPs are produced and published using a common index reference period (2005=100). Growth rates are calculated from published index levels. Source: Eurostat Annual inflation rate, 2011 Annual Inflation Rate in Switzerland Annual inflation rate in Switzerland has decreased from 0.6% in 2010 to 0.1% in 2011.
8 Switzerland Country overview Productivity January, 2013 Productivity Labour productivity per person employed Switzerland EU (27) GDP per hour worked / person employed gives an impression of the productivity of national economies expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-15 / EU-27) average. Source: Eurostat Labour productivity per person employed in 2011 Labour productivity per person employed in PPS reached an index of in 2011, above the EU27 index of 100.
9 Switzerland Country overview Currency January, 2013 Currency Real effective exchange rate EUR exchange rate versus Swiss Franc Switzerland EU (27) Real effective exchange rate, 2011 The exchange rates are those for the EURO published by the European Central Bank. The real effective exchange rate aim to assess a country's (or currency area's) price or cost competitiveness relative to its principal competitors in international markets. A rise in the index means a loss of competitiveness. Index 1999 = 100. Source: Eurostat
10 Luxembourg Norway Switzerland United Netherlands Austria Ireland Sweden Denmark Germany Belgium Finland Iceland United France Japan Italy EU (27) Spain Cyprus Slovenia Malta Greece Czech Portugal Slovakia Estonia Hungary Poland Lithuania Croatia Latvia Turkey Romania Bulgaria Switzerland Country overview GDP/capita January, 2013 GDP/capita GDP per capita in PPS GDP in capita per PPS, 2011 Switzerland EU (27) GDP (gross domestic product) is an indicator for a nation s economic situation. It reflects the total value of all goods and services produced less the value of goods and services used for intermediate consumption in their production. Expressing GDP in PPS (purchasing power standards) eliminates differences in price levels between countries, and calculations on a per head basis allows for the comparison of economies significantly different in absolute size Source: Eurostat 0
11 Switzerland Country overview Growth January, 2013 Growth 5 Real GDP growth rate, % change on previous year Switzerland EU (27) Growth In % The calculation of the annual growth rate of GDP volume allows comparisons of economic development both over time and between economies of different sizes, irrespective of changes in prices. Growth of GDP volume is calculated using data at previous year's prices. Source: Eurostat
12 Switzerland Country overview Interest Rates January, 2013 Interest Rates Long term interest rates, % Switzerland Zone euro In % An interest rate is the cost or price of borrowing, or the gain from lending, normally expressed as an annual percentage amount. 10 year government bond yields are used as a measure for long-term interest rates. Source: Eurostat Long term interest rate in %, The interest rate in Switzerland was 1.63% in 2010, lower than the European average.
13 Switzerland Energy Overview January, 2013 Energy Overview Energy Market Profile General overview of energy markets Public administration and other organizations Legislation Policy and energy efficiency policy Energy perspectives to 2035 Energy Production Production of primary energy in 2007 and comparison among other economies from the European Union. Primary production of renewable energy Energy Intensity Energy Dependency Energy dependency of the economy and comparison within other economies. Energy Consumption Gross Inland Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption Energy Consumers Energy Consumption of Transports Energy intensity of the economy and comparison within other EU countries. Energy Imports Dynamics of energy net imports of primary energy by fuel from 1997 till 2007.
14 Switzerland Energy overview Public administration January, 2013 Public Administration Federal Office of Energy (FOE) - - provides electrical energy at the federal level, supervises dams Federal Office of Transport (FOT) - - provides public transport at the federal level - development of the federal rail network and navigation on the Rhine Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) - - responsible for environmental protection issues (against air pollution, natural hazards) Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) - - assesses and monitors security and radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations Federal Pipelines Inspectorates (ERI) - - responsible for the planning, construction and operation of fuel pipeline systems in Switzerland and Liechtenstein Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations (ESTI) - - responsible for inspecting low and heavy-current electrical installations
15 Switzerland Energy overview Other organizations January, 2013 Other Organizations 1. Association Suisse de l Industrie Gazière - ASIG (www.erdgas.ch) company defending political energetical interests of the gas industry in Switzerland 2. International Electrotechnical Commission IEC (www.iec.ch) prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies manages conformity assessment systems that certify that equipment, systems or components conform to its International Standards. 3. International Federation of Industrial Energy Consumers IFIEC (www.ifiec-europe.be) - represents the interests of industrial energy users in Europe for whom energy is an important element of production costs and a key factor of competitiveness in their activities in Europe and throughout the world. 4. International Organization for Standardization ISO (www.iso.ch) - the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards. 5. Société Suisse de l Industria du Gaz et des Eaux 6. Swiss Electricity Association (www.strom.ch) 7. Unites Nations Economic Commission for Europe (www.unece.org) 8. International Labour Organization (www.ilo.org) - aims to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, improve social protection and strengthen dialogue in handling workrelated issues.
16 Switzerland Energy overview Policy January, 2013 Energy Policy 1930 the Swiss federal office for electricity supply industry Energy 2000 Action Plan objectives: - reduction of the consumption of non-renewable energies and CO2 emissions - absorption of electricity consumption and encouragement of renewable energies 1 January 1999 Energy Law and the energy regulation came into force 1 May 2000 CO2-Act (a law belonging to the climatic politics) Atomic door debate in Switzerland the majority against the door, although many atomic opponents Opening of the electricity market 2 steps Swiss Energy Action Plan the follow up program of Energy targets: 1. to reduce consumption of fossil fuels by 10% 2. to limit the increase of electricity consumption at 5% 3. to increase the share of non-hydro renewables in electricity generation from 2.2% in 1999 to 3.2% in to increase heat production by TJ Energy City this label recognizes an result-oriented and reliable energy policy (at present, 128 energy cities or 30% of Swiss population) Climate Cent oil importers agree to contribute one or two cents per liter of gasoline and diesel sold (an option to a possible CO2 tax) the revenue is spent on emissions reduction projects
17 Switzerland Energy overview Efficiency policy January, 2013 Energy Efficiency Policy The factors that characterize the Swiss energy policy are: 1. the federal structure of the country and its direct democracy 2. the principle of subsidiarity - the last way out after unsuccessful private initiatives is state regulation 3. the economic structure with a leading services sector and little heavy industry 4. the increasing influence of EU policymaking Energy policy a split responsibility the federal state twenty-six cantons In majority of cases, the federal state creates a minimum standard, afterwards cantons having to pursue more generous policies. The efficiency of energy policies has improved over the last few years and harmonization, but large disparities among cantonal policies prevail. stricter monitoring Any law, under Swiss direct democracy, might be subjected to a popular verdict, even the laws passed by parliament Polls show that Swiss people became less concerned with ecological issues in recent years.
18 Switzerland Energy overview Policy objectives January, 2013 Priority Of Policy Objectives Policy objective Marks Reduction of CO2 1 Increase the use of local primary energy resources 2 Reduce total final consumption/gdp 3 Reduce dependency on energy imports 4 Diversification of fuels 5
19 Switzerland Energy overview Legislation January, 2013 Legislation Energy Article in the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1990 the federal government and the cantons obliged to guarantee an adequate, secure, economical and ecological energy supply; economical and efficient use of energy The CO2 Act - entered in effect on 1 May 2000 Switzerland s objective: to reduce greenhouse gas, CO2, from the combustion of fossil fuels by 10% by 2010 ( consumption of heating fuels must be reduced by 15% and motor fuels by 8% ) Federal Nuclear Energy Act - approved on 21 March 2003, associated ordinance entered into effect on 1 February 2005 Option of nuclear energy to be kept open Moratorium on recycling spent fuel elements Optional referendum for new nuclear facilities Federal Electricity Supply Act - revision on 23 March 2007, published in the Swiss Federal Gazette on 3 April 2007, entered into force on 1 January 2008 regulates the bases for a reliable and sustainable electricity supply opening of the market in 2 stages: 1. In the first 5 years, end-consumers with annual consumption >100 MWh - free access to the market 2. After 5 years, all end-consumers can freely choose their electricity supplier
20 Switzerland Energy overview Production January, 2013 Energy Production Any kind of extraction of energy products from natural sources to a usable form is called primary production. Primary production takes place when the natural sources are exploited, for example in coal mines, crude oil fields, hydro power plants or fabrication of biofuels. Transformation of energy from one form to another, like electricity or heat generation in thermal power plants or coke production in coke ovens is not primary production. Source: Eurostat Not so diversified internal production of energy. Important amount of nuclear energy and renewables (hydro, solar and wind power). Total production of primary energy EU (27 countries) Switzerland
21 Switzerland Energy overview Gross consumption January, 2013 Gross Consumption In thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent. Gross inland consumption is defined as primary production plus imports, recovered products and stock change, less exports and fuel supply to maritime bunkers (for seagoing ships of all flags). It therefore reflects the energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption within the limits of national territory. Source: Eurostat Crude oil/petroleum products (45.56%) and nuclear energy (25.42%) have important shares in gross inland consumption Gas accounts for 9.55% of the gross inland consumption Compared to 2010, the final energy consumption in Switzerland has decreased by 6.5% to 852,330 TJ Favorable weather conditions are responsible for this decline. Gross inland consumption European Union (27 countries) Switzerland
22 Switzerland Energy overview Final consumption January, 2013 Final Consumption In thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent. Final energy consumption includes all energy delivered to the final consumer's door (in the industry, transport, households and other sectors) for all energy uses. It excludes deliveries for transformation and/or own use of the energy producing industries, as well as network losses. Source: Eurostat Petroleum products and natural gas have important shares in internal consumption. Petroleum products 55.57% Electricity 23.63% Natural Gas 11.82% Final energy consumption EU (27 countries) Switzerland
23 Switzerland Energy overview Consumers January, 2013 Consumers In thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent. This indicator expresses the sum of final energy consumption in industry, transport, households, services, agriculture etc. Final energy consumption in industry covers the consumption in all industrial sectors with the exception of the energy sector. Source: Eurostat Share of final energy consumption of industries in EU27 SW 0.34% Share of final energy consumption of transports in EU27 SW 1,97% Share of final energy consumption of households in EU27 SW 0,53 % Share of final energy consumption of services in EU27 SW 2,38% Transport consumes 35.35% of the total, households consume 28.36%, while industry amounts for 18.23% and services consume 17.42% Within the European total, the highest share belongs to services (2.82%)
24 Switzerland Energy overview Intensity January, 2013 Energy Intensity In kgoe per EUR This indicator is the ratio between the gross inland consumption of energy and the gross domestic product (GDP) for a given calendar year. It measures the energy consumption of an economy and its overall energy efficiency. The energy intensity ratio is determined by dividing the gross inland consumption by the GDP. Since gross inland consumption is measured in kgoe (kilogram of oil equivalent) and GDP in EUR, this ratio is measured in kgoe per EUR. Source: Eurostat Energy intensity lower than the EU27 average Energy intensity has been stable in the last 7 years, with ups and downs in the limit of 1-2%. Energy intensity of the economy EU (27 countries) Switzerland
25 Switzerland Energy overview Imports January, 2013 Net Imports In thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent. Net imports are calculated as imports minus exports. Imports represent all entries into the national territory excluding transit quantities (notably via gas and oil pipelines); electrical energy is an exception and its transit is always recorded under foreign trade. Exports similarly cover all quantities exported from the national territory. Source: Eurostat Imports constitute 57.3% of the gross energy consumption Crude oil/petroleum products and gas are imported in proportion of 100% in Switzerland Denmark and Norway are both net exporters of energy. Net imports of primary energy EU (27 countries) Switzerland
26 Switzerland Energy overview Dependency January, 2013 Dependency In % Energy dependency shows the extent to which an economy relies upon imports in order to meet its energy needs. The indicator is calculated as net imports divided by the sum of gross inland energy consumption plus bunkers. It is expressed in percentage points. Source: Eurostat Higher than average dependency on imports Energy dependency dropped from 60.1% in 1997 to 54.25% in 2010 Denmark and Norway are not presented in the graph as their ratio is negative Energy dependency EU (27 countries) Switzerland
27 Switzerland Energy overview Transport January, 2013 Transport In thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent. This indicator covers the consumption of energy in all modes of transport, with the exception of maritime and pipelines. Source: Eurostat Road transport consumes the highest share of energy Insignificant rail transport Energy consumption of transport EU (27 countries) Switzerland
28 Switzerland Energy overview Renewables January, 2013 Renewables In thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent. Primary production: biomass (heat content of the produced biofuels or biogas; heat produced after combustion during incineration of renewable wastes); hydropower covers potential and kinetic energy of water converted into electricity in hydroelectric plants; geothermal energy comprises energy available as heat emitted from within the earth's crust; wind energy covers the kinetic energy of wind converted into electricity; solar energy covers the solar radiation exploited for solar heat (hot water) and electricity production. Source: Eurostat Hydroelectricity accounts for 59.71% of internal renewable primary production Biomass and wastes account for almost 35.9% of the renewable energy Primary production of renewable energy EU (27 countries) Switzerland
29 Switzerland Energy overview Renewables share January, 2013 Renewables Share In % This indicator is defined as the percentage share of renewables in gross inland consumption. Source: Eurostat The share of renewables increased in Switzerland from 16.93% in 2009 to 17.5% in 2010 Switzerland share of renewable energy is twice higher than the EU average Share of renewables Switzerland 15.30% 15.39% 17.60% 16.74% 17.43% 16.01% 16.10% 15.79% 15.29% 14.79% 16.93% 16.96% 16.93% 17.5%
30 Switzerland Energy overview Perspectives January, 2013 Energy Perspectives to 2035 I Scenario II Scenario Business-as-usual, with 2 subscenarios (with and without a CO2 tax) III Scenario CO2 tax ( 22/tCO2) on stationary fuels Ramped-up feed-in tariffs ( mln/year) Constant Climate Cent revenues at 65 mln /year New electricity charge for a new energy efficiency fund ( 32 mln/year) Moderate tightening of building standards and appliances Fuel tax reform IV Scenario To reduce CO2 emissions: 10% by 2010, 20% by 2035 To reduce energy demand per capita -20% by 2035 Renewable targets by 2035: increase by 10% of electricity, 20% of total heat demand, 5% of motor fuels Transition towards a 2000-Watt society
31 Switzerland Electricity Overview January, 2013 Electricity Overview Generation Gross electricity production by origin Electricity generated from renewable sources Wind power installed Consumption Dynamics of final electricity consumption by sector from 1996 until Main Actors Main actors in energy markets links: the energy regulatory authority (ElCom), main energy suppliers, main producers, main distributors, electricity grid operator, etc. Network Wholesale Market Spot electricity price Swiss Electricity Price Index Electricity Costs Liberalization SwissGrid- Swiss transmission system operator: the main transporter of electricity in Switzerland. Nuclear electricity Nuclear power plants Nuclear radioactive wastes Nuclear laws and regulations
32 Switzerland Electricity Capacity January, 2013 Capacity Capacity 63.4 billion kwh From the total output of electricity: Hydroelectric plants 56.1% Nuclear power plants 39.0% Conventional thermal power plants and other plants 4.9% Electricity production in Switzerland practically without CO2 emissions In GWh The gross electricity generation is measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included. Source: Eurostat Exports of surplus of electricity fell from 2.1 (2008) to 1.1 (2007) billion kwh (when domestic production exceed domestic demand) Electricity consumption GWh in Electricity consumption in GWh Switzerland
33 Switzerland Electricity Gross generation January, 2013 Gross Generation In GWh The gross electricity generation is measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included. Source: Eurostat 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Electricity generation by origin Other Wind Petroleum products Nuclear Natural gas Hydroelectricity Hard Coal Electricity production 69 billion kwh (2008) Factors contributing to the increase of the electricity consumption: - the increase in gross domestic production GDP - the cold weather - the increase in the average number of residents living in Switzerland in 2008 Total gross electricity generation Switzerland
34 Switzerland Electricity Nuclear January, 2013 Nuclear Electricity Nuclear power makes 39% of the electricity generation, or 26.3 billion kwh Nuclear power plants operate with imported fuel Switzerland has 5 nuclear reactors located in 4 nuclear power plants Nuclear plants practically no radioactivity in the air (<0.01 msv) Nuclear electricity generation Billion KWh
35 Switzerland Electricity Nuclear Plants January, 2013 Nuclear Power Plants Nuclear electricity generation (Terawatt hours net TWh) Nuclear percentage of total electricity generation Number of plants connected to the grid Switzerland EU27 total Source: OECD BEZNAU BEZNAU GOESGEN 1979 Status of Swiss nuclear power plants Grid date Type Capacity (MW) PWR (pressurized water reactor) PWR (pressurized water reactor) PWR (pressurised water reactor) Production (2010) Utilization GWh 95.80% GWh 90.50% GWh 96.10% LEIBSTADT 1984 BWR (boiling water reactor) GWh 92.50% MUEHLEBERG 1972 BWR (boiling water reactor) GWh 92.60% Source: IAEA Country Information
36 Switzerland Electricity Nuclear Plants January, 2013 Nuclear Power Plants
37 Switzerland Electricity Nuclear Wastes January, 2013 Nuclear Electricity radioactive wastes Nuclear uranium obtained from 3 sources: - Partnership or joint-venture production - Long term contracts - Spot market contracts All radioactive waste, according to Swiss law, has to be disposed off domestically Each nuclear power plant has enough storage capacity for its own waste Radioactive waste from industry, medicine and research is stored at the Federal Storage Facility operated by the research institute PSI PSI - environmental research in nuclear and non-nuclear energy (reactor safety, thermo/hydraulics, system analysis, scientific services, material aging safe disposal of radioactive wasted, new methods for energy production and storage)
38 Switzerland Electricity Nuclear Legislation January, 2013 Nuclear Electricity laws and regulations Legislation Law on Nuclear Energy (LENu) adopted in 2003, entered into force on 1 February 2005 Protection against radiation Radiation Protection Act 1991 Radiation Protection Ordinance 1994 Ordinance on measures to protect the vicinity of nuclear installations in case of emergencies Ordinance on interventions in case of increase of radioactivity levels Civil liability Ordinance on Nuclear Third Party Liability 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability 1983 Energy policy May two initiatives on nuclear power have been rejected by the Swiss electorate MORATORIU PLUS (goal: interdict the construction of new nuclear plants for another ten years until 2010) Strom ohne Atom (goal: shutting down of all existing power plants after a 30 year duration and the stop of any reprocessing of spent fuel)
39 Switzerland Electricity Renewables Hydropower January, 2013 Hydropower 11.4% Hydropower production (1000 toe) EU (27 countries) Switzerland Hydropower makes 56% of the electricity generation, or billion kwh (2011) Hydropower represented: in % of domestic electricity production in % now 56% 538 hydropower plants with capacity of >300 kw which generate about 35,500 GWh/year in average 47% - produced in run-of-river power plants 49% - in storage power plants 4% - in pumped storage power plants Hydropower the most important domestic source of renewable energy in Switzerland
40 Switzerland Electricity Renewables Hydropower January, 2013 Hydropower 2/3 of electricity generated in the mountain cantons of Uri, Ticino, Grisons and Valais, Aargau, Bern 10% of electricity generated from facilities located on bodies of water along the country s borders Hydropower market 2 billion Swiss francs (1.3 billion euros) basis = delivery from power plant - 5 cents per kwh Hydroelectric energy no CO2 emissions The Swiss Federal Office of Energy deals with policy-related aspects of hydropower (perspectives, strategies, promotion), as well as safety and technical aspects The Swiss Federal Office for the Environment in charge for the environmental aspects (residual water, protection of bodies of water)
41 Switzerland Electricity Renewables Hydropower January, 2013 Hydropower Hydroelectric power stations in Switzerland Company Capacity MW Power generation GWh average Aarewerke Atel Hydro AG Atel Hydro Ticino SA Blenio Kraftwerke AG Electra-Massa AG Electricite d'emosson SA Energie Electrique du Simplon SA Engadiner Kraftwerke AG Kraftwerke Gougra AG Kraftwerke Hinterrhein AG Kraftwerk Ryburg-Schworstadt AG Kraftwerke Zervreila AG Maggia Kraftwerke AG
42 Switzerland Electricity Renewables Wind January, 2013 Wind Energy st wind energy facility near Soolhof (Langenbruck) capacity 28 kw wind plants with a total capacity of 15.9 GWh (consumption of 4500 households) Mont Crosin - the largest wind plant (>100 kw) with 8 wind turbines with a total capacity of 7,660 kw (near St Irmier, in the Bernese Jura) Wind power production in MW 2011 EU (27 countries) Switzerland 42 Other important plants (>100 kw) in: Entlebuch (Lucerne), Collonges (Valais), Gutsch Andermatt (Uri), Vernayaz-Martigny (Valais), Grenchenberg One project in development a location with 2 wind plants (>500 kw) in Saint Brais/Jura, with an expected annual production of 7 GWh By 2030 expected to produce about 600 GWh of electricity from wind sources per year Suisse Eole association for the promotion of wind energy, entrusted by the SFOE, with the task of marketing wind energy.
43 Switzerland Electricity Overview Renewables Wind power January, 2013 Wind Power Installed Source: Wind power 2011 European statistics, EWEA
44 Switzerland Electricity Renewables Geothermal January, 2013 Geothermal Energy Production geothermal energy (1000 toe) Switzerland world leader for the utilization of geothermal sensors 2.82% EU (27 countries) Switzerland Deep Mining project (Basel) plans to build a facility able to generate 3 MW of electricity and 20 MW of thermal output, capable to supply almost 10,000 households with electricity and 2,700 households with heat Geothermal energy: -CO2 free -Constant energy supply -Requires little space -High costs and feasibility By 2030 more than 12 plants generating an output of 800 GWh
45 Switzerland Electricity Renewables Biomass January, 2013 Biomass Production biomass&wastes (1000 toe) - share in Europe 1.89% EU (27 countries) Switzerland Biomass all organic material produced directly or indirectly through photosintesis, which has not been transformed by geological processes (by contrast with fossil fuels oil, coal, gas) Examples: material from forests, fields, hedges, waste and surplus wood, surplus harvest material, manure Uses: combustion, gas production, fermentation
46 Switzerland Electricity Renewables Solar January, 2013 Solar Energy Solar energy can be used: -for generating heat through solar collectors -for electricity generation through photovoltaic systems With photovoltaics by 2050 it would be possible to generate 20% of electricity demand The average production 820 kwh/kwp (annual yield/peak output system), other systems produce 1,000 kwh/kwp Solar systems for hot water and auxiliary heating (4,000 systems installed each year) 1% of the Sahara area would be needed to meet the world s entire electricity requirements with solar power plants
47 Switzerland Electricity Costs January, 2013 Electricity Costs - comparison Methods of electricity production Price (cents) par kwh Hydropower 3 to 7 Gas Carbon 8 to 12 + CO2 taxes 5 + CO2 taxes Nuclear 4 to 5 Wind 20 to 25 Solar 80 to 120 Geothermal 15 Biomass 15 No carbon plants in Switzerland, carbon is imported; release of CO2 emissions Electricity price of gas plants depend 70% on gas price Increase in gas prices involve increase in electricity prices Wind and solar plants do not generate CO2 emissions; no security in supply To reach the capacity of a nuclear plant in Switzerland necessary to build thousand of wind plants or 120 geothermal plants Geothermal power many CO2 emissions
48 Switzerland Electricity Supply January, 2013 Supply The supply of electricity - provided by: 900 companies 7 generation and transmission companies used the regulations of the Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), established a subsidiary called ETRANS to function as a coordination centre approximately 80 producers (main producers: AXPO, ALPIQ, BKW, Ratia Energy AG) The stake in the capital stock of electricity supply companies the public sector - 80% - approximately 5.6 billion Swiss francs the private-sector companies - 20% Cross-border electricity trading very important for Switzerland, both economically and in terms of supply. The balance from electricity trading, with an export surplus of between 5 and 10 TWh, has increased to more than a billion Swiss francs thanks to rising wholesale prices.
49 Switzerland Electricity Supply Transport and distribution January, 2013 Transport And Distribution Main transporters: Alpiq (Atel+EOS), CKW, EGL, BKW FMB, NOK, EWZ EOS (Energie Ouest Suisse) + ATEL CKW - Centralschweizerische Kraftwerke AG BKW - Bernische Kraftwerke AG EGL - Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft Laufenburg AG NOK - Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG Main distributors: West Group BKW FMB, Alpiq (Atel+EOS) East Group (Axpo) CKW, EGL, NOK Electric network: Total length of transmission system, domestic: 6,700 km Length 380 kv: 1,780 km Length 220 kv: 4,920 km Total number of lines in the transmission system: kv lines: kv lines: 198 Number of network gateways to foreign countries: 41 80% of the lines are wired
50 Switzerland Electricity Supply Swissgrid January, 2013 Swissgrid transmission network an independent network operator initiated on 15 December 2006, created by the main distribution firms responsible for the security and quality of power supplies in accordance with the Electricity Supply Law (StromVG) dated 23 March 2007 acts upon a legal mandate by way of transparent management of grid operations, including the provision of additional services responsible for managing the Swiss high-voltage grid (Alpiq, BKW, CKW, EGL, EWZ, NOK and RE) with a length of about kilometers monitors and controls the whole 380/220 kv transmission grid and assure the access to it on the basis of objective, transparent, and non-discriminatory criteria performs grid organization and supervisory tasks within the UCTE (Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity) framework. New owner of transmission since January,2013
53 Switzerland Electricity Grid Tariff January, 2013 Grid Tariff ElCom stipulated In its decision of 6 March 2009, that the operational tariff for 2009, the output tariff and the basic tariff for grid usage in the transmission system, and an on-account billing rate for distribute the costs of ancillary services to power plants with a minimum electricity production of 50 MW. Swissgrid published on 26 April, 2012 the grid usage and ancillary service tariffs (AS) for the Swiss transmission system for Applicable from 2012 (in accordance with ElCom ruling of 12 March 2012) (Based on Swissgrid calculation for 2013 tariffs) Grid usage Operational tariff 0.15 Rp/kWh 0.16 Rp/kWh Output tariff CHF 23,500/MW CHF 24,600/MW Fixed basic tariff per weighted feed-out point CHF 225,000/a CHF 235,400/feed-out point p.a. Ancillary services General AS tariff for grid operators and end consumers connected to the transmission system 0.46 cent/kwh 0.31 cent/kwh Individual AS tariff for active power losses 0.11 cent/kwh 0.07 cent/kwh Individual AS tariff for reactive energy (from 1 January 2010) 0.93 cent/kvarh Remuneration for power plants for reactive energy supplied according to requirements Reactive energy tariff 0.30cent/kvarh 0.30cent/kvarh Balance Group Management Registration tariff for standard balance group EUR 6,250 EUR 6,250 Registration tariff for control balance group in addition to standard balance group EUR 3,500 EUR 3,500 Registration tariff for CH-15 balance group in addition to standard balance group EUR 3,500 EUR 3,500 Clearing tariff EUR 0 EUR 0 (Net tariffs, excl. VAT) Source:
54 Switzerland Electricity Prices January, 2013 Prices Swiss Electricity Price Index (SWEP) - EGL launched in 1998 a spot market price index for electricity - the first one in continental Europe - an important index for energy traders. Electricity prices are composed of: commodity+transport+taxes regulated (commodity price based on the customer consumption group and on the county) unregulated (commodity price based on EEX stock exchange) taxes represent a quarter of the final price (fixed taxes+consumption tax+tva) transport prices based on the localization of the customer and on the county Market prices are basically reflected by wholesale prices Swiss electricity sector constantly changing, prices for captive consumers vary enormously (+/- 50% or more) among the country s 900 distribution companies The federal Price Surveillance Authority monitors electricity tariffs Distribution companies are local monopolies, which can impose tariffs as they want Since most of these companies are owned by municipalities, tariffs are approved by the local councils While fossil fuel prices rose in 2004 and 2005, electricity prices continued to decrease from 2000 till 2005
56 Switzerland Electricity Price January, 2013 PRICE by consumption profile In view to calculate the total price of electricity by consumption profile, you have to consult and compare the electricity prices of the Swiss electricity suppliers (please go to You have to chose one region and one electricity supplier, afterwards select one of the 15 consumption categories. The result correspond to the average price in cents per kwh required by the electricity supplier for the consumption profile indicated. The final price does not include the VAT. The diagram offers the price level compared with those practiced in the cantons of Switzerland. The comparison might be limited to some of the electricity price components: such as, the grid usage tariff, the electricity supply or license fee. The managers of the distribution networks are the ones who provide data.
57 Switzerland Electricity Price January, 2013 Consumption Profiles Consumption profiles of the households : H kwh / year: apartment 2 rooms with electric stove H kwh / year: apartment 4 rooms with electric stove H kwh / year: apartment 4 rooms with electric stove and electric water heater H kwh / year: apartment 5 rooms with electric stove and dryer (without electric water heater) H kwh / year: apartment with 5 rooms with electric stove, electric water heater and dryer H kwh / year: apartment with 5 rooms with electric stove, electric water heater, dryer and electric heating H kwh / year: apartment with 5 rooms with electric cooker, electric water heater, dryer and heat pump 5 kilowatts for heating H kwh / year: large residential property with extensive use of electricity Consumption profiles of the industrial consumers: C kwh / year: very small business, power max.: 8 kw C kwh / year: small business, power max.: 15 kw C kwh / year: average company, power max.: 50 kilowatts C kwh / year: large company, power max.: 150 kw, low voltage C kwh / year: large company, power max.: 400 kw, medium voltage, own transformer station C kwh / year: large company, power max.: 1630 kw, medium voltage, own transformer station
59 Switzerland Electricity Prices Traders January, 2013 Traders Alpiq BKW FMB Cargill International EOS Mercuria Energy Trading Raetia Energy AG NOK Vitol
60 Switzerland Electricity Liberalization January, 2013 Liberalization 1996 the political process for an opening of the electricity market started 2003 a decree has been published based on cartel rights, pushing to open power market from juridical aspect January 2008 LApEl Federal law on power supplying: Any electricity consumer has the right to be connected to the network. Network actors have to guarantee a non-discriminatory access to the network. January 2008 New Power Comission of the Confederation (ElCom) independent juridical Authority. ElCom controls power prices. Liberalization in 2 steps (according to LApEL): 1 st step as of January 2009 Switzerland opens its power market for large consumers (annual electricity consumption >100 MWh almost 53% of consumers) and for electricity supplier companies 2 nd step after 5 years, in 2014, the market will be open for small consumers (<100 MWh 47% of consumers) Full market opening is subject to an optional referendum.
61 Switzerland Electricity Regulator January, 2013 Regulator ElCom - independent regulatory authority in the electricity sector initiated since the 1 st January 2008 it is responsible for monitoring conformity with the Swiss Federal Electricity Act and the Swiss Federal Energy Act it takes all necessary related decisions and pronouncing verdicts where required it monitors electricity prices and rules as a judicial authority on disputes relating to network access and payment of cost-covering feed-in of electricity produced from renewable energy it also monitors electricity supply security and regulates issues relating to international electricity transmission and trading it supervises the market liberalization
62 Switzerland Natural Gas Overview January, 2013 Natural Gas Overview Natural Gas Overview Gas diversification and resources Gas supply and consumption Import capacity Transmission Network Transitgas Swissgas Pipelines Policy and legal framework Liberalization Resources Gross inland natural gas consumption Net imports of natural gas Main Actors Regulator (SFOE-Swiss Federal Office of Energy) Suppliers Importers Distributors Prices Taxes
63 Switzerland Natural gas market Resources January, 2013 Resources Switzerland important transit corridor at the heart of the European gas market (100% gas imports) Finsterwald (canton of Lucerne) total volume of 73 million cubic meters provides 3% of annual gas consumption Gas imports in Switzerland Others 8% Norway 21% Russia 21% UE 50% 95% of the gas consumed in Switzerland is produced in the Netherlands, Russia, Norway, Germany and Algeria International pipeline Netherlands-Switzerland- Italy opened in TRANSITGAS NETWORK ( km): transport network (2 220 km) and distribution network ( km) The Swiss gas industry : in public filling stations offering natural gas
64 Switzerland Natural gas market Supply and consumption January, 2013 Supply and Consumption gas consumption rose by an average of 11% per year Gas consumption by sector The federal government encourages the use of more motor fuels protecting the environment, including gas, in order to meet the CO2 objectives 20% 7% 38% Households Industry Gas demand in Switzerland about 1% of the EU demand 35% Services The most important gas reserves Netherlands and Norway Others In Switzerland there is no domestic production of natural gas Consumption of LNG (liquefied natural gas) is very small Swiss Federal Oil Tax Act to reduce by 40% per equivalent liter of petrol the rate of oil tax on natural gas and liquefied gas to spare all the motor fuels produced from renewable sources from the tax The importance of gas is expected to continue to increase in Switzerland
65 Switzerland Natural gas market Consumption Consumption Energy mix in Switzerland 2010 Renewable 17% Solid fuels 1% Consumption 115 billion cubic feet (2011) January, 2013 The IEA estimates that gas consumption will increase by around two-thirds by 2030, which means that its share of the global energy mix will grow from the current 20.5% to 22.6%. Nuclear 26% Natural gas 10% Petroleum products 46% Natural gas - covers 10% of energy needs in Switzerland The transport sector where natural gas is used rapidly increasing 116 filling stations offering natural gas
66 Switzerland Natural gas market Policy January, 2013 Policy and Legal Framework Article 29 in Federal Constitution the governing federal legislation in the field of pipelines for natural gas The Act of Pipelines The Ordinance of Pipelines The Ordinance of Safety Regulation for Pipelines The adoption of Gas Market Act has been suspended after the Swiss people rejected the Electricity Market Act in According to present energy policy, the gas market will only be liberalised after the electricity market.
67 Switzerland Natural gas market Actors January, 2013 Main Actors Main suppliers: E.ON Ruhrgas contracts of about 25 years (its distribution network km, 11 underground storage installations, 28 compression stations) GasTerra - founded in 1963, head office in Groningue - separated from Gasunie in 2005, after the liberalization of the Dutch gas market - Gasunie s basic activity - gas transport, GasTerra gas sales - transport network km (belongs to Gasunie) - BBL gas pipeline first pipeline connecting the Netherlands and UK Eni S.p.A. - the largest society in Italy - activity: oil and gas markets, energy, petrochemistry, engineering and services - transport, supply, distribution and sales of natural gas GDF Suez SA - international group of energy distribution - founded in 2008 after the fusion between Gaz de France and Suez - the most important gas distributor in Europe - 2 nd in Europe for its storage capacity - 5th in Europe for electricity production and sales - 1st in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) sector
68 Switzerland Natural gas market Actors January, 2013 Main Actors Main gas importer: SWISSGAS (80% of total imports) SWISSGAS - Swiss public limited company for natural gas founded in 1971 by 4 regional distributors purpose: working together with regional companies in view to buy natural gas and to supply Switzerland with natural gas in all its forms, to protect natural gas - related interests in Switzerland and abroad first acquisition of natural gas in 1974 from Netherlands natural gas enters in Switzerland at Wallbach (in the east of Basle canton of Aargau), traversing Germany via the Trans-European Natural gas Pipeline long-term contracts with competitive suppliers to ensure a safe and efficient supply of natural gas
69 Switzerland Natural gas market Actors January, 2013 Main Actors Main local gas distributor: IWB Basel (Industrielle Werke Basel) Regional distribution companies: 1. Arlesheim Gasverbund Mitteland AG 2. Luzern Erdgas Zentralschweiz AG 3. Vevey GAZNAT S.A. 4. Zurich Erdgas Ostschweiz AG Other distribution companies: 1. Zurich SVGW 2. Lugano Aziende Industriali di Lugano SA AIL
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