CEN 559 Selected Topics in Computer Engineering. Dr. Mostafa H. Dahshan KSU CCIS

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1 CEN 559 Selected Topics in Computer Engineering Dr. Mostafa H. Dahshan KSU CCIS

2 Access Control

3 Access Control Which principals have access to which resources files they can read programs they can execute how they share data with other principals packets that can enter the system

4 Access Control Levels

5 Access Control Levels Application credit card transactions Middleware database management systems Operating system files, communication ports Hardware memory management More complex Less reliable We ll focus on these

6 Operating System AC Authenticate users to system Mediate access to resources Modeled as a matrix of permissions columns: files rows: users r: read; w: write; x: execute; -: no access

7 Example 1 Sam: system admin; universal access Alice: manager; execute Bob: auditor

8 Example 2 We don t want Alice an Sam to have uninhibited access to account file Set write access to accounting program

9 Limitations of AC Matrices Don t scale well for large systems 30,000 users x 500 apps=15 million entries Performance problems Admin mistakes

10 Alternatives Groups and roles Access Control Lists (ACLs)

11 Groups and Roles Most staff fall in number of categories teller, chief teller, branch accountant, Few need individual permissions Permissions assigned to groups Users are added to appropriate group group: list of principals role: fixed set of access permissions

12 Access Control Lists Store AC matrix a column at a time Attached to corresponding resource Example:

13 ACL Limitations To get list of all files a user can access, it is required to check all system files Not efficient at runtime Not suitable for large number of users

14 Capabilities Store AC matrix a row at a time Attached to corresponding user Example:

15 Capabilities Advantages runtime security is more efficient easy to delegate Limitations changing files status is harder need to check all users

16 Unix Security Access Control List: rwx attributes for owner group world (others)

17 Unix Security Example -rw-r----- Alice Accounts dir owner group world Owner (Alice): read, write, no execute Group (Accounts): read World: no access

18 Unix Security Kernel runs as supervisor root All programs run as users invoked them Program has access = user runs it Admin can do anything To protect audit trail, send system log to printer in locked room

19 Issues Admin can do anything ACL have names of users, not programs Can t make access: (user, program, file) partly overcome using setuid, setguid Programmers often design code to require more privilege than it needs

20 Run Program as Another User setuid run program with its owner s level setguid run program with its group s level sudo run program as another user

21 Windows NT4 More permissions delete, take ownership, change permissions applies for both users and groups More flexible delegation Attributes not just on/off AccessDenied, AccessAllowed, SystemAudit AccessDenied has highest priority

22 Windows NT4 Everyday tasks can be achieved with less than full admin privileges Users, resources can be partitioned into domains with distinct administrators Trust can be inherited between domains one direction both directions local admins don t have to be global admins

23 Windows 2000 Active Directory object oriented database organizes users, groups, machines and organizational units, within domain Group policy centralized management of resources controls security policy, user rights, startup and logon scripts,

24 Granularity OS level smallest object for ACL is the file Application (e.g. a database system) all data might be bundled in one file access control must be done both at OS level and application level

25 Granularity Single sign-on to multiple systems simple script hiding real user ids sophisticated single logon server e.g. RADIUS

26 Sandboxing Code executed in a restricted access environment No hard disk access or single directory e.g. Java Virtual Machine Too restrictive for general programming environments

27 Virtualization Virtual machine runs inside real machine VM has its own memory space, virtual hard disk space Damage to VM can be isolated

28 Hardware Protection Processor s memory management Control programs behavior Prevent process from interfering with another Prevent programs communications except from authorized channels Limit process to its memory segment Multiple rings of protection

29 Hardware Protection Issues Less privileged process might need to invoke more privileged process (driver) Need to be designed carefully

30 Attack Types Smashing the stack / buffer overflow Race condition Trojan horse User interface failures

31 Buffer Overflow Program writes to memory address on the call stack outside the intended space Usually facilitated by not checking the size of the function arguments Extra written data can corrupt adjacent data in the stack transfer control to attacker s code privileged process gain admin privilege

32 Buffer Overflow Example source: Wikipedia

33 Buffer Overflow Example initially argv: hello source: Wikipedia

34 Buffer Overflow Example Overwrite local stack data, saved frame pointer, and return address Point return address to code within stack AAA can be replaced with attack code argv: "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA \x08\x35\xc0\x80" source: Wikipedia

35 Race Condition Also know as: time-of-check-to-time-ofuse (TOCTTOU) Utilize time between condition (credential) is checked result (granting access) is used Requires correct timing

36 Race Condition Example When used with setuid root in a UNIX system Create a file the user can read Start the program Between access() call and open() call Change file to a symbolic link to a file user doesn t have permission to read source: Wikipedia

37 Trojan Horse Program that has hidden component which may send information without user consent do harm to computer enable remote access to computer Some games occasionally checks if user is admin, create another admin account and password to author

38 User Interface Failures Execute program from current path program w/ same name as common utility place it in local directory (e.g. ls in UNIX) call admin, complain, admin enters: ls properly set PATH variable User must be admin to install anything use unidirectional trust relationship use group policy (Windows 2K/XP/Vista)

39 Additional References Wikipedia Fixing Races for Fun and Profit: How to abuse atime, FreeBSD - File System Access Control Lists, The definitive guide to Windows 2000 security, Chapter 5, 'Configuring access control,

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