A longitudinal study of well-being, basic psychological need satisfaction, vitality and burnout in marathon runners

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1 k Gro Jordalen A longitudinal study of well-being, basic psychological need satisfaction, vitality and burnout in marathon runners Master thesis in Sport Sciences Department of Coaching and Psychology Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, 2012

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3 Acknowledgements First of all I want to express my gratitude for having the opportunity to complete this master thesis. This has been challenging, informative and ineffable interesting. Thank you Thank you Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, for being my supervisor during this work. You have believed in me, always had time for my discussions, and guided me through this work. I am grateful for your time. Thank you respondents, for important contributions. You have done this master thesis possible. Thank you coaches, team leaders, and respondents, who recruited participants for the survey. Thank you Heming Leira for advertising the survey at kondis.no Thanks to the Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education for capitalize the survey, for providing the students with a library with a helpful staff, and for facilitation of opportunities to develop academic abilities. Thank you Paul Andre Solberg, for contribution with the Norwegian version of the BPNES questionnaire used in the survey. Thank you Dag Aalvik, for printing the diary. Last but not least thank you family, friends, and fellow students. I appreciate your help. Gro Jordalen Oslo,

4 Abstract In the current study negative and positive consequences of running were examined longitudinally, by assessing the motivation of marathon runners with the help of Self- Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan 2000). SDT argues that the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, are antecedents of, and have to be satisfied for experiences of optimal health and most effective functioning (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000). Previous research, mostly using cross-sectional research design, has revealed associations between need satisfaction and well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2001), vitality (Ryan & Frederick, 1997), and burnout (Gold & Roth, 1993; Silva, 1990; Smith, 1986) in sport participants. The current study aimed at investigating the relationships between these variables over an eleven-week period. Need satisfaction was expected to have the greatest overall influence on well-being. Additionally, we expected a negative association between well-being and burnout, while satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence was expected to best predict the greatest changes in well-being over time. Participants in the current study returned questionnaires during 11 weeks of mapping when training toward either half marathon or marathon. The participants were runners described ranging from irregular exercisers to elite athletes. Their occupations ranged from being students, workers and retired workers. They were between 18 and 67 years old. Variables investigated in the present study, have been examined in previous research, mostly using cross sectional design (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2000; Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan, 2000; Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis, 1996). These studies have provided evidence for a close link between basic psychological need satisfaction and perceived well-being. The importance of basic psychological need fulfilment of runners over time to achieve ones fullest potential (Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan, 2000; Ryan, 1995) during practice, and running competitions in particular, was supported by the current study findings. The findings underline the importance of paying attention to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, as well as indicators of perceived vitality and burnout in athletes, in order to report higher levels of well-being during and after periods with great training loads. 4

5 Current study findings suggest important gender differences in the relative contribution of the three burnout subscales and basic psychological needs. This suggests that women and men marathon runners may express differences in their psychological adaption when training toward major competitions. The current finding clearly underline the importance of facilitating basic psychological needs satisfaction for autonomy and competence, while paying attention to indicators of emotional and physical exhaustion, to facilitate optimal functioning. 5

6 List of tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of Well-being, Trend Well-being, Basic psychological needs, Balance in need satisfaction, Vitality and Burnout, week 1 and Multiple Regression predicting Well-being week 1 and 11, and Trend Well-being 48 Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of Well-being, Trend Well-being, and the three burnout subscales Emotional and Physical Exhaustion, Reduced Sense of Accomplishment, and Sport Devaluation, week 1 and Multiple Regression predicting Well-being and Trend Well-being, from the three burnout subscales, week 1 and Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of Well-being, Trend Well-being, Autonomy, Competence and relatedness, week 1 and Multiple Regression predicting Well-being and Trend Well-being from Basic psychological needs Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness, week 1 and

7 Contents Acknowledgements Abstract.. 4 List of tables... 6 Contents.. 7 Introduction Chapter 1: Literature review Self-determination theory.. 12 Three basic psychological needs The need for autonomy.. 13 The need for competence.. 14 The need for relatedness The motivational continuum of SDT Intrinsic motivation nourished by external or internal rewards? Extrinsic motivation covering four types of regulations. 18 Autonomous vs. controlled motivation another SDT continuum 20 Thwarting of need satisfaction SDT a organismic dialectic approach Well-being.. 23 Eudaimonic and hedonic approaches to well-being 25 Subjective well-being and its relations to health and illness.. 27 Subjective vitality Athlete burnout Explanations why burnout occur. 32 The association between self-determination and burnout The balance of need satisfaction. 35 Hypotheses Chapter 2: Method Participants.. 38 Measures Procedures.. 41 Data analysis.. 42 Descriptive statistics 43 7

8 Chapter 3: Results Hypothesis I: Basic psychological needs, vitality and burnout predicting well-being.. 44 Preliminary analyses.. 44 Primary analyses tests of Hypothesis I 45 Hypothesis II: The relations between the three subscales of burnout and well-being 49 Preliminary analyses Primary analyses test of Hypothesis II Hypothesis III: The relations between the three basic psychological needs and well-being Preliminary analyses Primary analyses tests of Hypothesis III.. 54 Chapter 4: Discussion Basic psychological needs, vitality and burnout influencing perceived well-being 57 Balance in need satisfaction vital or not?. 59 Vitality and burnout worth emphasizing? 59 The relations between the three subscales of burnout and well-bein The relations between the three basic psychological needs and well-being. 63 Limitations Conclusion and future reasearch. 68 References Appendixes.. 77 Appendix A: Approval by Personvernombudet for forskning, Norsk samfunnsvitenskapelig datatjeneste A/S Appendic B: Information sheet sent to participants. 79 Appendix C: Information sheet/announcement kondis.no. 81 Appendix D: Demographic data questionnaire Appendix E: Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001) Appendix F: The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES; Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006) Appendix G: Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Watson, Tellegen & Clark, 1988) Appendix H: Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985) Appendix I: Subjective Vitality Scale (Ryan & Frederick, 1997)

9 Introduction If you want to run, run a mile. If you want to experience a different life, run a marathon. (Emil Zatopek, as cited by Ellick (2001)) This quotation from Emil Zatopek, one of the greatest runners of the 20 th century, identifies one of countless reasons to run a marathon. When training toward this competition, the reasons for running are multifaceted, and could be both positive and negative. Summers, Sargent, Levey, & Murray (1982) revealed valuable information regarding the motivation for training toward and compete in marathons. They studied non-elite runners when training toward their first marathon, and found that goal achievement and personal worth were the most reported reasons for participation. The popularity of marathon running has been described as some kind of Marathon fever, which is especially prevalent among middle-aged non-elite runners. Summers et al. (1982) wondered if this might be grounded in the concept of midlife crisis. They further found that the challenge of participation was stimulating a test of one s own psychological and physiological capability. The experiences erupted when overcoming the challenge provided with participation; the resultant feelings of deep personal awareness and increased self-image, was quite important and motivating. Personal best was regarded as one important source of motivation, and the comments from one of the participants in the current study underlined this statement, when reporting that I was the boss!. The reputation and respectability following completing a marathon was also mentioned, and this comment; The first marathon would regardless be a personal best, and after finishing the competition you receive respect! Everyone have their own goals, from one of the participants in the current study, emphasized this. Running activates a number of positive psychological responses (e.g., satisfaction of psychological and physiological needs), while running loss can produce negative psychological responses (thwarting of need satisfaction resulting in negative psychological responses) during deprivation (Chan & Grossman, 1988). When proceeding running without interruptions and injuries, people experience high scores on ratings of psychological well-being and self-esteem, and decreased symptoms of depression and overall mood disturbances. 9

10 Whether running is a positive or negative passion however, have been discussed by several researchers, and findings suggests evidence verifying both the consequences of this passion may result in both positive and negative health outcomes (Glasser, 1976; Morgan, 1979). The positive consequences of running was by non-elite marathon runners in Gondola & Tuckman (1982) reported as feeling less tense, depressed, fatigued and confused, and more vigorous, compared to controllers. In summary, the participants in Gondola & Tuckman (1982) and Summers et al. (1982) reported both psychological and physical well-being as resulting from running, while reporting both psychological and physical withdrawal symptoms when losing training sessions. The positive health outcomes from running may often overshadow the negative consequences reported in several studies, and active runners are motivated because of perceived well-being, being socially challenged, experiencing status and increased fitness/health during the participation (Clough, Shepherd, & Maughan, 1989). To understand motivation, researchers have looked into both the quantity (Bandura, 1997), and the quality of this phenomenon (Deci & Ryan, 2008), and it is important to both look at the regulatory processes and the inherent qualities forming the basis for distinct types of motivation (Standage & Ryan, 2012). Self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) emphasizes the quality of motivation when looking at satisfaction of basic psychological needs and their role when trying to create an understanding of human motivation (Standage & Ryan, 2012). When searching for explanations why motivation is fluctuating, the current study used the self-determination theory when looking at both positive and negative responses as a result of training, especially when running. In the current study both negative and positive consequences of running was examined, through looking at measures considering satisfaction of basic psychological needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000), vitality (Ryan & Frederick, 1997) and burnout (Gold & Roth, 1993; Silva, 1990; Smith, 1986) in relation to well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2001). When conceptualizing, the literature differentiates between psychological and physiological needs, both viewed as necessary nutriments to reach ones fullest potential, essential for survival, growth and integrity (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan, Sheldon, Kasser, & Deci, 1996). Vitality is quite often mentioned as a valuable indicator of well-being (e.g., Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000a), and refer to a positive feeling of aliveness and energy (Ryan & Frederick, 1997, p. 529). Burnout may, on the 10

11 other hand, refer to experiences of psychophysiological exhaustion resulting from frequent, and sometimes extreme, efforts during training and competition (Silva 1990), and may result in withdrawal from a formerly enjoyable activity (Lemyre, 2005; Smith, 1986; Weinberg & Gould, 2007). These variables need satisfaction, vitality and burnout influences the individuals perceived well-being, which is referred to as optimal psychological functioning and experience (Ryan & Deci, 2001, p. 142). The World Health Organization further mentioned that it is important to look at the quality of life as a broad ranging concept, including both physical and psychological health, the relations to significant others and the milieu, degree of independence and personal beliefs (World Health Organization [WHO], 1997). 11

12 Chapter 1 Literature review Self-determination theory Stop the pay, and stop the play (Deci & Flaste, 1995, p. 25) The importance of engagement because of self-determined reasons Theories regarding human motivation describe this as behaviours executed believing some desired outcomes or goals will be the result (Deci & Ryan, 2000), and the theories refer to behaviours being executed from a motivation classified on a continuum ranging from autonomous to controlled (Deci & Flaste, 1995). It is additionally important that the motivational processes embrace successful conative processes that is identification of significant goals, followed by goal attainment resulting in individuals happiness and enhanced motivation (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). To organize the study of motivation, the concept of needs was employed in empirical psychology (Deci & Ryan, 2000), defined in terms of their physiological or psychological content, or referred to as innate or learned. Although the cognitive theory direction in psychology in the 1960s repudiated and replaced the concept of needs with theories regarding goal selection and goal pursuits the Self-determination theory (SDT) differentiated between the what and why of goal pursuits, or the content or outcomes of goals and the regulatory processes through which the outcomes were aspired (Deci & Ryan, 2000). The theory further differentiates between three innate, psychological needs the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness as the basis for an understanding of human motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), and says that these needs are motivational antecedents (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991, 2000). Deci & Ryan (2000) refers to human needs as necessary conditions for psychological health or well-being and their satisfaction are thus hypothesized to be associated with the most effective functioning (p. 229). They further claim that every one of these three innate psychological needs plays an essential functioning in optimal development, and none of the needs can be thwarted or neglected without significant negative consequences. 12

13 Needs could also refer to a persons conscious wants, desires, or motives (Baard, Deci, & Ryan, 2004). Alternatively needs could be defined in regard of an organisms nutriments, physiological and/or psychological, essential for survival, growth, and integrity (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan, Sheldon, Kasser, & Deci, 1996). Deci & Ryan (1991) define needs in this more functional term as nutriments essential to a living entity s growth, integrity and health (Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan, 2000, p. 420). Ryan (1995) agree with this definition and describes psychological needs in accordance to SDT as evolved experiential requirements that all people must have in order to grow to their fullest potential, describing them like the nutriments (i.e., soil, sun, water) plants require to reach their fullest potential. Deci & Ryan (2000) agrees with the psychological emphasis and refers to needs at the psychological rather than physiological level, when specifying needs as innate psychological nutriments that are essential for ongoing psychological growth, integrity and well-being (p. 229). Sheldon, Ryan & Reis (1996) assume, in addition, that the functional role of needfulfilling experiences, are the supplement for the individuals psychological energies and are therefore a boost for motivated behaviour. Three basic psychological needs Thus, needs could be conceptualized as nutriments required to reach ones fullest potential, and to achieve optimal psychological health. Deci & Ryan (1991) proposes that infants are born with general interests and innate capacities, which motivate their strivings throughout life. The human being is born with innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, and the self-determination theory highlight the fulfilment of these needs when explaining the framework behind human motivation. The need for autonomy The need for autonomy or self-determination refers to doing what you want to do the feeling of choosing one s activities and what activities to be engaged in, enjoying the activity or at least believing in it (Milyavskaya, Gingras, Mageau, Koestner, Gagnon, Fang, & Boichè, 2009; Sheldon & Krieger, 2007). SDT further defines autonomy as 13

14 endorsing one s actions at the highest level of reflection (Ryan, Kuhl, & Deci, 1997, p. 708), and these authors further suggests that autonomy is a general organizational nature of existence, a tendency toward coordination and integration of functioning vital for living being. Autonomous actions are initiated and guided by the self, and the greater this autonomy; the more one acts in accord with the self, feel like and appears as a unit in one s character (values, needs, and intentions). The opposite of acting in accord with this self, would be to act in accord with pressure and controlling forces (either within the individual or as external forces). Succeeding in autonomous behaviour can be understood in accordance to successful development and self-regulated behaviour (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Nix, Ryan, Manly, & Deci (1999) also underlines this, and say when autonomous the human s behaviour is said to be flowing from and expressing the self. Satisfaction of the need for autonomy has further demonstrated positive influences on psychological well-being (Daley & Maynard, 2003; Parfitt & Gledhill, 2004). When autonomous people will experience the feelings of being the origin of ones actions that is seeing oneself as possessing the locus of causality (internal perceived locus of causality) rather than seeing oneself as a pawn when perceiving the source of initiation to be outside the self (external locus of causality) (decharms, 1968). Ryan, Kuhl, & Deci (1997) state that one can theoretically, in addition to being a pawn with respect to other people, be a pawn with respect to controlling forces within ones personality, and these forces could be as strong as the controlling forces in the surroundings. These feelings of being the origin of ones actions, results in the individuals free choice of behaviours and doings, an internal perceived locus of causality, and the feeling that the actions emanates from the self (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Ryan et al., 1997). The need for competence The need for competence refers to feeling good at doing something, or at least feel one can become good in the activity (Sheldon & Krieger, 2007). Competence also refers to the feeling of master one s environment and different social contexts, experience efficiency, and achieve and control desired outcomes (Milyavskaya et al., 2009; Deci & 14

15 Ryan, 1991). White (1960) defined competence as fitness or ability to carry on those transactions with the environment that result in its maintaining, growing and flourishing (p. 100), when he postulated this as a basic human need. DeCharms (1968) included some more facets into this definition, when he suggested that humans have a primary psychological need to be an origin of action to feel they are the promoter of activities, and to feel they can regulate their own actions. Competence is further linked to enhanced well-being achieving important goals predict enhanced well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2001). The need for relatedness The need for relatedness refers to relating meaningfully and closely to significant others in activities and processes, and connecting to the selves of other people (Milyavskaya et al., 2009; Sheldon & Krieger, 2007). Research suggests that the need for relatedness is one of the most important factors influencing how people rate their happiness (Ryan & Deci, 2001). DeNeve (1999) note that traits enhancing relatedness and affiliation are one of the most strongly associated with subjective well-being, somewhat similar to Ryan & Deci s (2001) proposal which says that when related to significant others, this foster well-being if it represents a relationship where a person s basic psychological needs is satisfied. It is important to point out that it is not the quantity, but the quality of relatedness that counts (e.g., Kasser & Ryan, 1999; Nezlek, 2000). Sheldon et al. (1996), in addition to reveal the relations between well-being, autonomy and competence, looked for gender differences in their study. They found that women reported more symptoms and higher levels of negative affect than men, and in addition they found significant gender differences concerning overall well-being. When presenting gender differences that emerged when it comes to the interactions between trait competence, autonomy and daily well-being, the authors found that women reported significant relations between competence and well-being, while this relationship were non significant among the men in the analysis. The situation was opposite when it comes to trait autonomy in this analysis only men reported significant relations between autonomy and daily well-being. Sheldon & Elliot (1999) in addition detected gender differences regarding need satisfaction women were lower than men in 15

16 competence, while the opposite were true for relatedness, were women demonstrated the highest score. Contrary, Reinboth & Duda (2006) found no gender differences in their study investigating factors predicting indices of well-being in sport over the course of the season, and large meta-analytical studies confirm this finding there are only small and variable gender differences on well-being and happiness (Haring, Stock, & Okun, 1984). In order to explain the framework behind human motivation, SDT suggests that the fulfilment of these three needs are essential, and further describe motivation on a continuum ranging from being extrinsic or intrinsic, depending on the fulfilment of the three needs. The motivational continuum of SDT Motivation can be viewed as a general term that refers to people being moved to do something (Ryan & Deci, 2000b), and may arise from quite different forces (Nix, Ryan, Manly, & Deci, 1999), ranging from being intrinsic to extrinsic. SDT distinguishes mainly between three types of motivation named intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation. This differentiation is based on the reasons or goals causing the individual to engage in an activity or relationship (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). Intrinsic motivation nourished by external or internal rewards? Intrinsic motivation could be defined in terms of the task being interesting, or in terms of the satisfactions gained from the engagement (Ryan & Deci, 2000b), and may further be seen in the eyes of Skinner s (1953) Operant theory or Hull s (1943) Learning theory. The Operant theory refers to intrinsically motivated behaviours performed due to external rewards or reinforcements, whereas the Learning theory describe this as behaviours from psychological drives caused by satisfaction of innate psychological needs (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). Intrinsic motivation has since then been referred to as when doing activities found interesting without achieving external rewards (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000b). This last proposal fit White s (1959) description of actions driven by intrinsic motivation suggesting that these were a result of inner motives (Ryan & Deci, 2000b) and a desire to achieve feelings of efficacy and 16

17 competence (Deci & Ryan, 2000), done without the necessity of external reinforcements or rewards. The rewards for acting are in the activity itself the person doesn t need any external rewards (Deci & Ryan, 1991), but rely on internal rewards such as the pleasure obtained from satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Deci (1975) imply in addition that intrinsically motivated behaviours are originally self-determined, acted naturally and spontaneously because of interest and enjoyment. These tendencies are especially prominent in childhood because of the great freedom to be intrinsically motivated (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). If nurtured, intrinsic motivation is also evident in adolescents and adults engagements and different life epochs (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). To uphold this intrinsic motivation, the basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence have to be satisfied (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000b). Experiments by Deci (1971, 1972) suggests that intrinsic motivation decreases when external rewards (money) are used, leading to a level of postreward behaviour with intrinsic motivation below baseline (Deci & Ryan, 2000). The innate pleasure of doing an activity (intrinsic motivation) is replaced by the targeted extrinsic motivation. The research declares that the individual, after being offered external rewards such as money, should not render the activity without getting paid they should not be intrinsically motivated to act. Deci (1971) describes this well when writing: It appears that money perhaps because of its connotation and use in our culture may act as a stimulus which leads the subjects to a cognitive reevaluation of the activity from one which is intrinsically motivated to one which is motivated primarily by the expectation of financial rewards. In short, money may work to buy off one s intrinsic motivation for an activity (p. 114). Deci (1971) also states that intrinsic motivation increased when verbal reinforcements and positive feedback were used. Sharp, Pelletier, & Lévesque (2006) argue, in contrast, that without providing external rewards you cannot activate all there will always exist people who will not be motivated without this offer. Especially, if participants receive external rewards and these ends, the participation plunges. Deci (1971) suggests nevertheless, that there is no support for the prediction that external rewards decrease intrinsic motivation. This is also the conclusion made by Deci & Ryan (1991), saying that external rewards do not necessarily undermine intrinsic motivation. More crucial, 17

18 whether external rewards decrease or increase intrinsic motivation, depend on the way feedback is worded (Ryan, 1982), and the contexts external rewards are offered (Ryan, Mims, & Koestner, 1983). Deci & Ryan (1991) suggests that events experienced as controlling when the intent is to motivate or pressure the individual to behave, think or feel in specific ways, are not intrinsically motivating. The motivator should rather offer the individual choices in a non-pressing way of speaking. Deci & Ryan (1991) therefore suggest that the intrinsic/extrinsic dichotomy in relation to self-determination should not be considered as two reverse concepts, but should be viewed in the nature of its internalization. Extrinsic motivation covering four types of regulations Extrinsic motivation consists of 4 types of regulations external, introjected, identified and integrated regulation. These are separated depending on the degree of extrinsic influence on the SDT continuum, and can vary greatly in degree of autonomy (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). External regulation. This regulation is located at the opposite extremity on the motivation continuum compared to intrinsic motivation the behaviour is controlled by specific external contingencies (Deci & Ryan, 2000). In view of this regulation, humans are motivated by external rewards they are driven by and want to satisfy an external demand, or want to avoid a threatened punishment (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). Behaviours regarded as controlled, do often suffer from poor maintenance, and come to stop when rewards are lacking (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Introjected regulation. Behaviours motivated by introjection are quite close to resembling behaviours motivated by external regulation (Ryan & Connell, 1989). The distinction between these regulations is that introjected regulated individuals administer the contingent consequences themselves (Deci & Ryan, 2000). These consequences could be contingent self-worth (pride), or threats of guilt and shame. Engagement in behaviour is grounded in feelings of pressure to avoid guilt or anxiety, or to achieve ego-enhancement or pride (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). In contrast to external regulations; introjected regulations are more likely to be maintained, are yet an unstable form of 18

19 regulation (Koestner, Losier, Vallerand, & Carducci, 1996), but may be internalized (Ryan et al., 1997). Internalization is the tendency of individuals to take in and transform external regulations and values in the surroundings into internal behaviours and values. Internalization is viewed on a continuum ranging from impersonal causations (amotivation) through gradual higher personal causation and degree of internal causation (external, introjected, identified and integrated regulation) to the highest form of self-determined behaviour, intrinsic motivation. The internalization of introjected regulated behaviours are initiated, but motivation, cognition and affect could not be understood as integrated because they are not part of the constitution of the self. The degree to which people are able to internalize regulations to synthesize cultural demands, values, and regulations, and to incorporate them into the self, depends on degree fulfilment of the basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness (Chandler & Connell, 1987). SDT proposes that the internalization also is dependent on the regulations and values of the social groups the individual is a member of (Deci & Ryan, 2000), and the fulfilment of the basic psychological needs for relatedness and competence perceived in these groups. It is vital to get hold of the importance of the integrated values and regulations, and become self-determined in this respect. Deci & Ryan (1991) states, internalization is something the person does (p. 254), and continue when describing internalization as something the person is motivated to do rather than something that is done to the person (p. 254). Identification. When humans are motivated by identified regulations, they have uncovered and understood the value and meaning of behaving in specific ways (Deci & Ryan, 2000), and have more fully accepted it as and made it their own when exercising because of the benefit both physically and psychologically, beyond the profits of immediately well-being, people are driven by identified regulation. The behaviour is still considered as external regulated it is not executed because of pleasure, enjoyment or spontaneous satisfaction, but because the individual find its outcome valuable and rationally. Identified regulations are thus considered with even more maintenance and commitment than external and introjected regulations, and the motivation is more powerful. Integration. Behaviours regulated by integrated motivation are the fullest and most complete form of extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Humans identify with the 19

20 value and importance of behaving in specific ways, and integrate these identifications to other aspects of the self, bringing these regulations into congruence with one s values and needs (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). The behaviours are herein in harmony and accordance with the true self, the human s values and identities (Ryan, 1995). This motivation is described as self-determined extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000) the more one is internalizing the reasons to act in specific ways, the more one is assimilating the reasons to act to oneself, and the more self-determined (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). Behaviours are still considered extrinsic motivated, because they re done for its expected statement of value with respect to the resultant outcome, even though the individual is fully volitional and value the behaviour. The regulations could from another point of view be characterized on a continuum ranging from being autonomous to controlled (Deci & Ryan, 2000), due to their internalization. Autonomous vs. controlled motivation another SDT continuum External regulation is, according to Deci & Ryan s (2000) description of SDT, the least internalized regulation and the most controlled form of extrinsic motivation. This is because the behaviour is regulated by rewards or punishments from others and the individual could not control the outcome. Ryan & Deci (2000b) state that the primary reason people engage in externally motivated behaviours is because these are valued by significant others, for instance family members, close friends or a coach. This aspect of the motivation could in SDT s term be referred to as relatedness, one of the basic psychological needs important considering achievement of well-being, psychological and physical health. When moving toward more internalized forms of regulation and intrinsic motivation on the motivation-continuum, the behaviours will continually become more autonomous. Proceeding from external regulations through introjection, identification and integration, the regulation will gradually become more within the person and the internalization will be fuller. The individual will little by little feel as the owner of the behaviour, and perceive lessened conflict behaving in accord with the regulation. When individuals display behaviours internalized to the level of integration, they carry through fully volitional (Deci & Ryan, 2000). When more internalized, SDT proposes that basic psychological needs will to a fuller extent be satisfied (Ryan & Deci, 2002b). 20

21 This will result in a uniform and healthy identity, adopted in the service of basic psychological needs (Ryan & Deci, 2002b, p. 254), leading to a lesser extent of opposing identities and role conflicts. Within ones general identity, there are several different components that could be internalized and integrated in various degrees, pointing out that individuals may be introjected regulated in some activities, while identified regulated and even intrinsically motivated in others. At the farthest left end on the motivation-continuum, is amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Individuals engaging in behaviours with this regulation are missing the intention to act (Deci & Ryan, 1991), they actually lack motivation in the way the cognitivemotivational tradition define the term. People are in danger of being amotivated when they are not able to regulate themselves with respect to behaviour (Pelletier, Dion, Tucson, & Green-Demers, 1999). This could be the result when they gradually have moved to the left of the motivation-continuum and become more externally regulated, if their self-efficacy is affected (Deci & Ryan, 2000), and they don t feel competent to act out (Deci, 1975). Behaviours driven by amotivation is completely missing selfdetermination and the individual feel totally controlled by the environment or other individuals, don t believing in the desired goal achievement (Seligman, 1975). Heider (1958) refer to amotivation as impersonal causation that is marked by a perceived absence of intentionality, and is similar to what Seligman (1975) called helplessness (Deci & Ryan, 1991). Deci & Ryan (2000) summarize the research on regulatory styles and causality orientations by saying that behaviours executed within the autonomous regulation, showed a variety of positive outcomes, such as higher quality performance, improved maintenance of behaviour change, and better mental health (p. 244), relative to behaviour executed with more controlled regulation. Thwarting of need satisfaction Experiences of amotivation and controlled motivation could be a result of thwarted need satisfaction (or vice versa), which is hypothesized to lead to diminished well-being and negative consequences (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2008). Participants in Sheldon & Filak s 21

22 (2008) study, showed that thwarting peoples need satisfaction was more impactful than enhancing it. Deci & Ryan (2000) also distinguish between the thwarting of physiological and psychological needs when physiological needs are thwarted, people will typically immediately try to satisfy this shortage, while they when psychological needs are thwarted would be suspicious to find compensatory satisfactions and accommodations, e.g., by the valuing of materialism (Ryan & Deci, 2002b). Kasser & Ryan (1993, 1996) found that placing a strong value on wealth relative to more intrinsic reasons (e.g., close relationship, personal growth) resulted in poorer well-being. Deci & Ryan (2000) states that thwarting of needs could also lead people to become controlled (either complying or defying) or amotivated (either being out of control or acting helpless (Seligman, 1975)). SDTs organismic dialectic approach states that thwarted need satisfaction and amotivation may be the result if the challenges exceeds an optimal level, but proposes that the human being may be adjustable owing to its capacity (Deci & Ryan, 2000). SDTs organismic dialectic approach SDT have an organismic dialectic approach when viewing humans as active, growthoriented organisms who integrate their psychic elements into a unified sense of self and seeing themselves in larger social structures (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Deci & Ryan (1991) referred to an organismic integration as the most basic developmental strivings of the self, and it is the combination of innate activity and integration that gives a theory an organismic disposition. The organismic dialectic approach views the human being as self-motivated, curious, interested, vital, and eager to succeed, because success itself is personally satisfying and rewarding (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Deci & Ryan (2000) further propose that human organisms, pursuant to SDT have an adaptive design which causes them to engage in activities and environments promoting their innate needs to be satisfied. The dialectic part of the approach involves the integrative tendency when the internally forces and events of the self meets externally forces and events and integrate them into the self, able to gain a sense of being an agent with respect to them (Deci & Ryan, 1991). This resulting entails if the challenges the individual experience from the self, others and the community are at an optimal level, otherwise they will result in thwarted need satisfaction, and impaired or inhibited development. 22

23 When psychological theorists embrace the organismic paradigm trying to understand human behaviour and personality, they assume that psychological development result in a natural tendency toward greater differentiation (growth, self-extension) and integration (coherence, self-regulation, unity). Deci & Ryan (1991) describe this organismic integration when stating that it deals with the tendency toward unity in one s self, that is toward coherence in one s regulatory activity and experience (p. 243). The process here entails separating aspects of one s interests and capacities and thereafter to assemble them into higher-order organization with other aspects of one s self (Deci & Ryan, 1991). Successfully ending this process will leave the individual with improved physiological and psychological health the well-being precursors. Well-being The concept of well-being could be approached from many levels (Reis et al., 2000), and refers to conditions of optimal psychological functioning and experience (Ryan & Deci, 2001, p. 142). Thomas, Dyrbye, Huntington, Lawson, Novotny, Sloan, & Shanafelt (2007) revealed that well-being were positively related with empathy and negatively related with burnout among medicine students, but well-being is not just the absence of mental illness (Ryan & Deci, 2001). In a simplistic view well-being is described as a subjective experience of affect positively, and in a wider description it is an organismic function in which the person display vitality, psychological flexibility, and a deep inner sense of wellness (Ryan & Frederick, 1997). Well-being is fundamental in the World Health Organization s definition of health, and is contained in its constitution: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (World Health Organizations [WHO], 1997, p. 1). The organization emphasize the importance of measuring improvement in quality of life instead of focusing on the frequency and severity of disease, and refer to quality of life as a broad ranging concept including the person s physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs and their relationship to salient features of their environment (WHO, 1997, p. 1). Deci & Ryan (2000) further suggest that satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness is necessary for, and could lead to conditions of 23

24 psychological health and well-being, and experiences of optimal development and effective functioning. Research additionally emphasizes that greater need satisfaction promote well-being in sport (Gagnè, Ryan, & Bargmann, 2003; Reinboth & Duda, 2006; Reinboth, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2004). Deci & Ryan (2000) further says that variations in the amount satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs will result in variations in perceived well-being. Sheldon et al., (1996) found that satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and autonomy lead to greater daily well-being, in a study over a 2-week period. When the participants experienced the most satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, they also reported the highest well-being, and they denote this a good day. In this study Sheldon et al. (1996) also found a carryover-effect when participants reported bad days they felt more sick or sad the day before, but this was not true when the participants reported good days they did not necessary proclaim more positive affect or vitality the day before. Research by Sheldon & Elliot (1999) and Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan (2000) also supported the need satisfaction wellbeing hypothesis. Reis et al. (2000) stated, daily variations may be understood in terms of the degree to which three basic needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied in daily activities (p. 419). These authors also found systematic day-of-the-week variations in emotional well-being and need satisfaction the weekly cycle identified by several researchers (e.g. Egloff, Tausch, Kohlmann, & Krohne, 1995; Kennedy-Moore, Greenberg, Newman, & Stone, 1992; Larsen & Kasimatis, 1990). Fluctuations in participants mood from weekday to weekends, and also a weekly cycle for satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness, but not for competence, were uncovered (Reis et al., 2000) autonomy and relatedness scores were significantly higher during weekends, autonomy also with the significantly lowest score on Mondays and relatedness with the lowest score on Tuesdays. The scores for competence didn t show any such weekly cycle, but were increasing from Mondays till Wednesdays, a bit lower on Thursdays, and thereafter relatively high in weekends. This is in line with former research (e.g., Kennedy-Moore et al., 1992), suggesting that people are likely to experience more autonomy and relatedness in weekends, when the majority of people are free to decide what activities to engage in and with whom to engage these activities. The high score on competence also during weekdays may be explained by the activities people participated during the 24

25 week which typically provide many opportunities for its manifestation (Reis et al., 2000). The authors also found higher average levels of positive affect on weekends than weekdays, and the opposite with negative effect, with lowest levels on Mondays and Fridays and highest levels on Saturdays and Mondays, respectively. Interestingly, autonomy and competence were associated with favourable outcomes on all four measures of well-being (positive affect, vitality, negative affect, and symptoms). Relatedness was significantly predictive for two of the well-being measures positive affect and vitality, only. This could be due to the experience that positive affect is elevated when socializing with others (Watson & Clark, 1994). These results were supported by Lonsdale, Hodge, & Rose (2009), who unveiled that relatedness only significantly predicted one of the burnout subscales, and concluded by saying that the satisfaction of this need may be of lower importance when promoting well-being and avoiding ill-being. Sheldon, Ryan, Deci, & Kasser (2004) found evidence stating that it s both what you pursue and why you pursue it (p. 484), that matters and affects people s well-being. It is both the directive focus of goals (e.g., contents) and the processes underlying goals (e.g., motives) which matters, and higher well-being would be achieved when focused on the pursuits of goals (e.g., growth-seeking, rather than seeking money or fame) and the pursuit of goals motivated by autonomous rather than controlled reasons (Sheldon et al., 2004). Thus, when estimating amount of well-being, it is further crucial whether approaching well-being by means of the eudaimonic or hedonic view. Eudaimonic and hedonic approaches to well-being The hedonic approach to well-being has focused on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment, happiness and pain avoidance, while the eudaimonic approach has focused on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning (Ryan & Deci, 2001). This latter view says that well-being lies in the actualization of human potentials, and fulfilling or realizing one s nature. Kahneman, Diener & Schwarz (1999) defines hedonism as what makes experiences and life pleasant and unpleasant (p. 9), and they announces how to 25

26 achieve well-being in a hedonic perspective by calculating utilities, maximizing rewards, and optimize pleasure rather than displeasure. One common method for measurement of hedonic well-being, is by using Diener & Lucas (1999) assessment of subjective well-being (SWB). This assessment consists of a total happiness score derived from life satisfaction, the presence of positive mood, and the absence of negative mood (Ryan & Deci, 2001). There have been some arguments against using this measure to examine well-being, but Diener & Lucas (1999) method has been, and still is, a primary index for this research (Ryan & Deci, 2001). The eudaimonic view of well-being emphasizes that true happiness is found in the expression of virtue that is, in doing what is worth doing (Ryan & Deci, 2001, p. 145). Aristotle agreed in this way of looking at happiness, and meant that the hedonic view of happiness makes humans slavish followers of their desires. Fromm (1981) distinguished between the hedonic and eudaimonic view of happiness by stating that the first are subjectively experienced needs (desires) whose satisfaction result in immediate but short-lived pleasure, and the latter are rooted in human nature whose satisfaction leads to human growth and requirements of human nature (Deci & Ryan, 2001). This view underline that not all human desires are leading to happiness when well-being is achieved, because the outcome isn t necessarily good and therefore would not promote well-being. This is an objective perspective on human well-being. Self-determination theory is also considering aspects leading to well-being, and agree with the eudaimonic view, when stating that humans achieve greater well-being through self-realization, the worth of actualizing the self this through fulfilment of the three basic psychological needs (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). Ryan & Deci (2001) further state that need satisfaction foster SWB as well as eudaimonic well-being, confirmed by Nix et al. (1999) research who unveiled that success in an activity while feeling autonomous resulted in both happiness and vitality, and succeeding in the activity while feeling pressured to perform just resulted in happiness and not vitality. In sum, the hedonic viewpoint focuses on subjective well-being (more positive affect, less negative affect and greater life satisfaction), and the eudaimonic viewpoint focuses 26

27 on psychological well-being, defined in terms of the fully functioning person. The distinction between these positions could in brief be described as eudaemonic philosophies espouse balance, harmony, and temperance, whereas hedonic philosophies typically espouse intensity, quantity, and extremity (Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006, p. 333). Subjective well-being and its relations to health and illness The link between subjective well-being and physical and psychological health is multilateral. It is intuitively clear that there is an association between these variables (Ryan & Deci, 2001), but this relation is multifaceted. Sickness and illness is often associated with poor well-being and negative affect, but whether this decision is made by the people themselves or by e.g., doctors is vital when interpreting the situation (Okun, Stock, Haring, & Witter, 1984). This complexity could be seen when people with objectively poor health are rated with high SWB, and when others with no signs of somatic illness are rated with poor SWB (Ryan & Deci, 2001). How people interpret their physiological and psychological health, also depends on their energy level and perceived vitality. Subjective vitality Ryan & Frederick (1997) refer to subjective vitality as a positive feeling of aliveness and energy (p. 529), and says that when under conditions where the basic psychological needs are satisfied, subjective vitality should be maintained or enhanced. Because their opinion before exploring the energy-variable in their research was that energy available to the self cannot be directly measured, Ryan & Frederick (1997) explored vitality as a subjective variable, creating a scale which narrowly focused on positive feelings of energy and aliveness. Their proposition was subjective vitality is both experientially salient and meaningful, and evidence will point to it as a phenomenal nexus upon which physical and psychological factors converge (p. 533). In his chapter Moods as Barometers of Well-Being, Thayer (1986) points out that our energy level tells us a great deal about our body s overall well-being (p. 21). Thayer 27

28 (1986) further postulates that energy together with tension and the thoughts these influences are responsible for what people refer to as mood. Our perceived energy level tells us a lot about our physical and psychological state, and could be a prediction of our well-being and health conditions. Research suggests that exercise could influence energy level moderate exercise could result in increased perceived energy level, while strenuous exercise generally temporarily decreases it (Thayer, 1986). The immediate feelings received when start up walking after sitting for hours, is energy flowing through the blood vessels, and Lazarus (1991) propose that the increased energy level could be observed after just 5 minutes of brisk walk. Thayer (1986) emphasized that this is the immediate response, while a program of endurance training would show different results this would most often result in heightened experienced energy levels. Research in addition points out that Deci & Ryan s (1985) conception intrinsic motivation could be linked to feelings of vitality and energy (Ryan & Frederick, 1997). When intrinsiccally motivated, the consequence of the engagement is feelings of pleasure and enjoyment, and these feelings could be accompanied by feeling alive and vital. This is the result when behaviours are rendered with a sense of internal locus of causality (IPLOC) (Deci & Ryan, 1985). When having this IPLOC one feel as an origin of ones actions, rather than when driven by an external perceived locus of causality (EPLOC) and feel as a pawn (Ryan & Frederick, 1997). Ryan & Frederick (1997) further propound that when one experiences one s energy as one s own and as emanating from the self (p. 535), the individual will give notice of vitality. In addition they proposed that subjective vitality was closely associated to individual differences in self-actualization, defined by Jones & Crandall (1986) as the discovery of the real self, and its expression and development (p. 63). Ryan & Frederick (1997) expected that those with high score in self-actualization in addition possess high scores on autonomy and IPLOC. Their research confirmed this hypothesis among others; subjective vitality were significantly positively related to indexes of wellbeing, self-actualization, self-esteem, better mental health, and higher reported selfdetermination, and negatively related to indexes of ill-being (e.g., psychopathology, anxiety and depression) and physical symptoms. The comprehension and personal interpretation of somatic factors, whether it be headaches, cold symptoms or other severe conditions, are vital for the influence on perceived vitality if people experience these obstacles as challenges or destructive factors. Ryan & Frederick (1997) also found 28

29 that physical competence were associated with feelings of energy and aliveness. They suggest that subjective vitality are positively associated with extraversion and conscientiousness, and negatively associated with neuroticism. Positive affect, warmth and activity were positively related to vitality, and the authors state that people feeling more vitality have less negative and more positive mood. They further found that vitality were associated with global and body functioning self-esteem and selfactualization among pain clinic patients compared to healthy controls, participants unveiled that physical symptoms could be a drain on one s subjective vitality. Ryan & Frederick (1997) conclude by saying that the results from their studies demonstrate that vitality may be a useful marker of well-being in applied research, and subjective vitality may be related both to physical and psychological factors concerning well-being. But, they also state that the results from these studies do not say whether high ratings on subjective vitality is always indicative of well-being, and state that other subjective conditions may be associated with well-being. Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Ryan, 1995) suggests that contexts that supports the basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness, will enhance vitality, whereas those contexts that thwart these needs (when feeling controlled, incompetent, or unloved) would diminish vitality (Ryan & Frederick, 1997). People who are more tied up to aspirations leading to external outcomes (money, rewards), rather than intrinsic outcomes (interpersonal relations, personal growth), reports less vitality (Ryan & Frederick, 1997), well-being and self-actualization (Jones & Crandall, 1986) intrinsic aspirations were confirmed to positively and significantly relate to self-actualization and vitality (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996). Extrinsic aspiration (relative importance/index for financial success) was further negatively related to these variables (self-actualization and vitality) of well-being. Kasser & Ryan (1993, 1996) emphasizes the importance of intrinsic aspirations and intrinsic motivation to attain high scores on variables of well-being. They conclude by saying that the desire for money does not necessarily bring happiness; instead, too much emphasis on this aspect of the American dream may be an organismic nightmare (p. 421). Kasser & Ryan (1996) in addition investigated the relationship between extrinsic/ intrinsic aspirations and depression and physical symptoms. They found that these variables were negatively related to intrinsic aspirations and the opposite yielding extrinsic aspirations. Ryan, Chirkov, Little, Sheldon, Timoshina, & Deci (1999) had similar 29

30 findings in their study extrinsic aspirations did generally not enhance well-being, whereas intrinsic aspirations did. Kasser, Ryan, Zax, & Sameroff (1995) concluded that extrinsic aspirations for financial success were a compensatory act for feelings of insecurity, acted out to maintain a sense of worth and gain approval. Kasser & Ryan (1996) end their article with a poem by Said Lao-tzu (1988), pronounce that the only way to serenity is to step back after you have done your work, not chase after extrinsic goals or pursue approval from others who may result in you being their prisoner. The eudaimonic view of subjective well-being supports the idea that intrinsic rather than extrinsic aspirations lead people to greater well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2001). In poor nations however, where people do not have enough money, this affects reported level of well-being, but in nations where people are richer, money is not a variable with reference to well-being (e.g., Diener & Diener, 1995). Ryan & Deci (2001) suggest that this relationship may occur because of the functional freedom accompanying national wealth. This statement in addition says that in wealthier nations, well-being and basic psychological need satisfaction may be greater because the citizens don t have to deal with problems caused by poor finances. Other research (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996) suggests that people who place a strong value on extrinsic aspirations and life goals, relative to intrinsic ones, should experience lower well-being because of poor basic psychological need satisfaction. Ryan & Deci (2001) summarize the studies discussed in relation to intrinsic-extrinsic aspirations, when saying that the work in both the hedonic and eudaimonic traditions underline that extrinsic aspirations (money) does not at all lead to either happiness or well-being. Sheldon & Niemiec (2006) are also stating that...there is no a priori connection between motivated behaviour and resultant need satisfaction (p. 332), and people are at risk of focusing on the wrong goals resulting in thwarting of need satisfaction (Sheldon, 2004). Ryan, Sheldon, Kasser, & Deci (1996) underline this statement when suggesting that not all achievements will favour the individuals need satisfaction and result in well-being. Athletes could experience both adaption and maladaption considering the training loads they carry out adaption will promote need satisfaction, and maladaption could inhibit need satisfaction and lead to more severe consequences (Ryan & Deci, 2002a). 30

31 Athlete burnout The connection between need satisfaction, thwarting of need satisfaction and the negative consequences resulting, have been examined concerning e.g., athlete burnout. In periods with increased training load, athletes will experience an equal increase in, no change, or decrease in performance. When these periods result in decreased performance and maladaption, when the athletes cannot adapt the perceived charges either physiological or psychological, they are vulnerable for experiencing conditions of overreaching, staleness, overtraining and burnout (Gould & Diffenbach, 2002). Gould (1996) summarizes his review, which examines the phenomenon of burnout in athletes, by stating that burnout in sport is a combination of personal (e.g., perfectionism) and situational (e.g., parental expectations, physical overtraining) factors (p. 285). Overreaching, a short term overtraining (Lehman, Gastmann, Petersen, Bachl, Seidel, Khalaf, Fischer, & Keul, 1992), and overtraining are often results of the tremendous training load exposed to athletes in periods with increased training load (high volume and intensity). It s important that the athletes manage to get enough rest in these periods, and that they are not stressed of unessential psychological and physiological factors. Otherwise these periods, instead of leading to adaptation and improved performance, will lead the athletes to maladaptation and decreased performance (Weinberg & Gould, 2007), and they would be susceptible for experiencing overtraining, staleness or burnout. Weinberg & Gould (2007) says that staleness is the end result of overtraining, defined by The American Medical Association (1966) as a physiological state of overtraining which manifest as deteriorated athletic readiness (Weinberg & Gould, 2007, p. 492). The condition will inhibit the athlete to continue the training load, and the athlete can no longer achieve the performance results he achieved earlier. In this state, the athlete could still be motivated to do training and to try to achieve good performance results. If this condition expands, athletes may be exposed to burnout, and will no longer be motivated to participate in training and competitions (Lemyre, 2005). This will further induce psychological, emotional, and at times physiological withdrawal from a formerly enjoyable activity (Weinberg & Gould, 2007; Smith, 1986). Athletes in this condition, often display negative responses both to exercise, the sport, teammates and coaches. 31

32 They also start to devaluate their engagement in sport this is of lesser importance and worth than earlier the withdrawal is a matter of fact (Gould, 1996). Silva (1990) defines athlete burnout as an exhaustive psychophysiological response exhibited as a result of frequent, sometimes extreme, but generally ineffective efforts to meet excessive training and sometimes competitive demands (p. 11). Burnout can further be defined as a reaction on the chronic stresses a person is exposed to, dealing with physiological, mental and behavioural components (Smith, 1986). Pines (1996) and Gold & Roth (1993) refer to burnout as a chronic discrepancy between expectations and reality, and one could conclude by saying that burnout is a condition experienced when the individual are exposed to physiological and psychological strains over its capacity, unable to absorb and/or adapt this load, resulting in physiological exhaustion leading to decreased performance, and in addition a psychological exhaustion leading to lesser rejoice considering the participation in training and competitions. These results of the burnout condition reflect the differentiation of three burnout subscales Emotional and physical exhaustion, Reduced sense of accomplishment, and Sport devaluation. Explanations why burnout occur Researchers have proposed an explanation why burnout occurs, and the different theories agree upon psychological and/or physiological antecedents (Smith, 1986; Silva, 1990; Coakley, 1992; Raedeke, 1997). Smith (1986) discusses whether the athlete cope with psychological and physiological demands exposed to by training, as the athletes physical responses to training could be vital for avoiding conditions of burnout (Silva, 1990). Sociological factors and the athletes society may in addition catalyse burnout situations (Coakley, 1992) those who feel entrapped by the sport and after all actually don t want to participate, may be those who are vulnerable for experiencing burnout (Raedeke, 1997). The importance of possessing an identity outside the sport arena, serving as a buffer against conditions of burnout have been underlined (Raedeke, 1997; Coakley, 1992). Athletes who meet with injury or failure considering their performance, or athletes retiring from sport, who solely identify with their athleteidentity, would be more vulnerable and perceive this situation more stressful (Gould, 1996). This emphasizes the importance of having a complex identity formation, and Linville (1987) underlines that a great self-complexity could act as a cognitive buffer 32

33 against stress-related illness and depression. A person with greater self-complexity would have more self-aspects and greater distinctions among these, and something to fall back on when something supposed to be experienced as destroying, happens. Important to underline here is that it is greater self-complexity (which entails cognitively organizing self-knowledge in terms of a greater number of self-aspects and maintaining greater distinctions among these (Linville, 1987)) and not greater selfconcept differentiation (SCD; the tendency to see oneself as having different personality characteristics in different social roles (Donahue, Robins, Roberts, & John, 1993)) that makes the difference. Greater self-concept differentiation were in Donahue, Robins, Roberts, & John (1993) associated with poor emotional adjustment, and the subjects tended to reject norms and socialization (e.g., low socialization). The authors conclude by saying that showing high SCD were signs of fragmentation of the self rather than specialization of role identities. The proposition by Linville (1987), that greater selfcomplexity are preferable, underline the value of different role identities, e.g., a woman having a self-complexity which contains a mother, wife, lawyer, runner and friend. To summarize, research predicts that burnout would occur because of physiological, psychological and sociological factors, and the absence of athletes motivation to participate in sport activities is prominent. Important to note; individual reasons leading an athlete to the burnout condition will always be present there are individual differences how to cope in situations and an adaptive load could be too much, just right or too little. Aristotle s concept, not too little, not too much, but just enough applies the situation when people seek this golden mean, they learn to live in harmony and order with themselves (Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006, p. 339). Common symptoms of burnout include psychological and physical exhaustion, depression, apathy, sleep disturbances, loss of interest and caring, changes in values and beliefs, lack of desire to participate, increased anxiety, lowered self-esteem, negative affect, mood changes, substance abuse and emotional isolation (Weinberg & Gould, 2007). 33

34 The association between self-determination and burnout Perreault, Gaudreau, Lapointe & Lacroix (2007) pointed out that satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and the balance among these were negatively correlated with burnout. Especially the need for relatedness (particularly with the head coach) played a key role in this study, where Canadian high school student-athletes training for various individual and team sports, participated. They tested two hypothesis based on research by Ryan & Deci (2002a) and Sheldon & Niemiec (2006), who predicted that those with satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs would display lower levels of burnout, and when these needs were simultaneously satisfied the burnout score would be lower, respectively. Lemyre, Treasure, & Roberts (2006) study of swimmers supported these statements swimmers who became less self-determined over the course of a season scored higher on athlete burnout than those whose motivation became more self-determined. The swimmers who experienced increased variability in negative affect were also more at risk for burnout, and the authors conclude by saying that systematic monitoring of athletes motivation profiles and affect swings are potentially pertinent to help avoid maladaptive behaviours and burnout in sport (Lemyre et al., 2006). Additionally, monitoring the athletes score on the self-determination continuum may prevent them from undergo a negative development, as Eklund & Cresswell (2007) found evidence suggesting that amotivation and intrinsic motivation were significantly related to burnout in rugby players. Athletes experiencing burnout will be more prone to lose motivation, and pursuant to SDT appear as amotivated or exploring extrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2002a). The athletes could further show a decrease in autonomy if not acting out of internal motivation, experience a decrease in competence and command, and changed circumstances considering the belonging they experienced with formerly successful engagement with significant others (coaches, teammates, supporters). Athletes with the basic psychological needs fulfilled to an appropriate extent, will be less postponed for experiencing burnout compared to athletes where the need-fulfilment are displeased (Ryan & Deci, 2002a). This is consistent with the declaration that fulfilment of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness influences the athletes well-being and contentment (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). Research in addition indicates that it is not the total quantity of need satisfaction that counts but the essential balance between the three needs (Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006). People could display equal total amount need satisfaction, but those 34

35 whose need satisfaction is balanced among the three needs, in addition expel greater well-being and pleasure. Milyavskaya, Gingras, Mageau, Koestner, Gagnon, Fang, & Boichè (2009) also suggested the link between a person s well-being and adjustment, and the importance of a balanced need satisfaction considering different contexts within the person s surroundings at home, school, during spare-time activities with friends, part-time jobs and so on. Personality theories (e.g., Jung, 1971) also states the importance of developing a multifaceted self when it comes to a balanced need satisfaction, and Linville (1987) refer to this as not putting all eggs in one basket. The balance of need satisfaction Many studies have found support for the hypothesis that all three needs matter, when considering people s experience of psychological health and well-being (e.g., Sheldon & Filak, 2008). If satisfaction of any of the basic psychological needs are lacking, Fisher (1978) proposes that it would influence the amount of intrinsic motivation, and Nix et al., (1999) agree by stating that this would influence intrinsic motivation and vitality. Deci & Ryan (2000) conclude by saying that if all three needs are satisfied in a properly quantity, the result will become behaviours characterized by choice, volition, and autonomy rather than pressure, demand, and control (p. 243), and the authors suggest that this will lead to higher quality behaviour and greater psychological well-being. This research underscored the importance of balanced need satisfaction, whether at the bottom or the top of the scale considering total amount satisfaction. Participants in Sheldon & Niemiecs (2006) research revealed that a balanced level of satisfaction in all three needs were a positive predictor of, and resulted in greater wellbeing and psychological health compared to when needs were satisfied in an imbalanced manner, independent of total amount. The 3 months longitudinal study also revealed that balanced need satisfaction is best suited when facilitating people s wellbeing and psychological health. The authors state that the psychological needs will often be satisfied to an equally extent, but people will now and again experience an imbalance in the satisfaction even though the total amount is the same. To understand the importance of balanced need satisfaction, contemplate these examples; a professor at the university is working from 07 am until 11 pm, he s doing 35

36 quite well in his work, but has no family and has indeed very infrequently a day off from work. This professor will likely present an imbalanced need satisfaction; a low score on the satisfaction of the need for relatedness, and a relatively high score on the satisfaction of the needs for autonomy and competence. Let s consider another example; a woman is working part-time at a kindergarten, has a cohabitant, and is also participating in some spare-time activities when she affords energy. This woman display average scores in the satisfaction of the three needs. These individuals sum score of need satisfaction would be medium the woman displaying a balanced and the professor an imbalanced need satisfaction. The question then becomes, which of the woman or the professor would experience need satisfaction facilitating the greatest psychological health and well-being? Pursuant to the researches the woman would have the highest scores on the variables of psychological health and well-being, and the man would be advised to not put all eggs in one basket (Linville, 1987). The benefits from greater self-complexity have been suggested to be essential for psychological health, and could in many situations act as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression (Linville, 1987). According to Linville s (1987) model, greater self-complexity involves more self-aspects and greater distinctions among these, aiding a person dealing with problems because he or she has something to rebound upon when the stakes are high. Good friends, a challenging job, and interesting spare-time activities may portray a person with great self-complexity and help him through e.g., getting divorced. Satisfactory self-complexity may in addition prevent depression, stress, physical symptoms and illnesses following high levels of stressful events. Possessing great self-complexity may in addition promote balance in need satisfaction across contexts Milyavskaya et al., (2009) stated that balance in need satisfaction at home, with friends and in part time jobs, resulted in improved well-being and teacher rated school adjustment, and lower drop-out intentions among adolescents. High need satisfaction both at school and on part time jobs were predictive of low drop-out intentions, and high need satisfaction at work and at school demonstrated great correlations, suggesting that a satisfactory situation at work may facilitate the teenagers academic goals. Milyavskaya et al., (2009) suggested that experiencing balance in need satisfaction among important domains might boost confidence in future pursuits. The opposite when experiencing an imbalance in need satisfaction chronic stress and role conflict (Donahue et al., 1993) may be the result (Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006), leading to diminished experienced well-being. Satisfaction of the three basic 36

37 psychological needs as well as the balance of need satisfaction has also been found to correlate negatively with athlete burnout (Perreault, Gaudreau, Lapointe, & Lacroix, 2007), and pursuant to The Basic Needs theory by Ryan & Deci (2002a) lower levels of athlete burnout is expected when the three basic psychological needs are simultaneously satisfied in sport. These questions the associations between well-being, need satisfaction, vitality and burnout, and whether total amount or balanced need satisfaction is most important, were investigated in the current study, by means of hypothesis I, II, and III; Hypothesis I - Well-being is associated with basic psychological need satisfaction, vitality and burnout. Need satisfaction in general are associated with well-being beyond the influence of balance in need satisfaction, vitality and burnout. Hypothesis II - Symptoms of burnout are negatively associated with well-being throughout an 11 week period of training. Hypothesis III - Fulfilment of the three basic psychological needs is positively associated to well-being throughout the training period. More specifically competence and autonomy would best predict changes in well-being. 37

38 Chapter 2 Method Participants Norwegian long-distance runners training for half marathon and marathon autumn 2011 (Fokus Bank Oslo Maraton 2011, New York City Marathon 2011, Frankfurt Marathon 2011, and Berlin Marathon 2011) were participants in this study. The competitions were arranged from until The study consists of a mapping including 72 runners from point of departure. 51 participants completed (aged years, average age years, sd ), 22 women (43.1 %, mean age year, sd 11.26) and 29 men (56.9 %, mean age 41.66, sd 10.78). The remaining 21 participants left because of injury, did not complete the mapping because of reasons including absence due to personal choice (participation was voluntary), or left because of unknown reasons. 2 participants didn t start the planned competition because of injury or illness, but still completed the mapping and were included in the analyses. 32 participants were training for half-marathon (17 women, 15 men), and 19 participants were training for marathon (5 women, 14 men). 21 participants have completed marathon and 41 participants have completed half-marathon earlier. During the 11-week mapping the participants rated 138 cases of injury (total N = 518), while 23 weeks were missing this measure. The injuries were e.g., cold-like symptoms, influenza, overload, and acute ankle injuries. Measures Need satisfaction. A Norwegian version of The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES; Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006) was used to measure participants need satisfaction. BPNES is a domain specific self-report instrument measuring need satisfaction in exercise settings. The scale consist of twelve items, four covering each of the three needs the need for autonomy (e.g., The exercise program I follow is highly 38

39 compatible with my choices and interests, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach s α; Cronbach, 1951) ranged from α=.74 to α=.92, week 1-11, respectively), the need for competence (e.g., I feel that exercise is an activity in which I do very well, α=.86 α=.93), and the need for relatedness (e.g., I feel very much at ease with the other exercise participants, α=.77 α=.95) (Deci & Ryan, 2000). These alpha coefficients were deemed acceptable on the basis of Nunnally s (1978) criterion of α=.70 for predictor tests or hypothesized measures of a construct. The stem for each question was Answer the contentions considering your running the last seven days. Athletes answered each question using a seven-point Likert-type scale ranging from (1) Not at all true to (7) Very true. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory for the total BPNES scale, week 1-11 (α=.87 α=.95). Balance of need satisfaction. To assess the balance of need satisfaction, a method recommended by Sheldon & Niemiec (2006) were used. In this method, the balance score is computed by means of calculating the three different needs mean values, and then calculating the variance between the three scores. Given the seven-point scale, the balance score could range from 0 (indicating equal satisfaction among the three needs and perfect balance) to 12 (indicating the maximum summed difference among the needs; e.g., as yielded by mean scores of 1, 1 and 7, interpreted as lower balance). To ease interpretation, the balance score were transformed by subtracting the participants score each week by the highest observed score (which for every week were 7). The balance score were like this inverted; a score of 7 indicated perfect balance whereas a score of -5 indicated minimal balance. Well-being. A Norwegian version of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) was used to assess participants positive (10 items; e.g., interested, strong, α=.83 α=.90) and negative (10 items; e.g., ashamed, irritable, α=.76 α=.89) affect. This measure asked participants if they had perceived these feelings the last seven days. Athletes answered each question using a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from (1) Extremely little to (5) Extremely much. Research by Crawford and Henry (2004) indicated high construct validity and reliability of this scale, and research by Crocker (1997) validated the scale in sport settings with youth populations, indicating that the PANAS is a functional instrument when examining runners emotions during training periods. A Norwegian version of the 39

40 Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) were used to assess participants life satisfaction (five items; e.g., I am satisfied with my life, α=.79 α=.95). This measure asked participants about the perception of their life the last seven days. The questions were answered using a seven-point Likert-type scale ranging from (1) Strongly disagree to (7) Strongly agree. Together, the PANAS and SWLS assessed both the emotional and cognitive facets of well-being. When summing the Positive Affect (scale 1-5) and Satisfaction With Life Scale items (scale 1-7), and subtracting the Negative Affect (scale 1-5), the computed well-being scale ranged from -3 to 11. This procedure was put forward by Diener & Lucas (1999) and used by Sheldon & Elliot (1999) and Sheldon and Kasser (1998, 2001). The internal consistency reliability for each measure on the computed Wellbeing scale week 1-11, ranged from α=.76 to α=.86. Athlete burnout. A Norwegian version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001) was used to assess athlete burnout. The ABQ is a sportspecific 15-item multidimensional measure of burnout composed of three five-item subscales measuring emotional and physical exhaustion (ABQ-EX; e.g., I feel so tired from my training that I have trouble finding energy to do other things, α=.59 and α=.93, week 1 and 11, respective ly), reduced sense of accomplishment (ABQ-RA; e.g., It seems that no matter what I do, I don t perform as well as I should, α=.74 and α=.78), and sport devaluation (ABQ-DV; e.g., I have negative feelings toward my sport, α=.62 and α=.67). Although three subscales were below the α=.70 acceptance criterion (Nunnally, 1978), these were still included in further analyses based on conceptual arguments. The stem for each question was Answer the contentions considering your running at the present point in time. Athletes answered each question using a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from (1) Almost Never to (5) Almost always. A total summed score for the ABQ (ABQ-T) were achieved by averaging all three subscale scores (α=.75 α=.90). Subjective vitality. A Norwegian version of the Subjective vitality scale (Ryan & Frederick, 1997) was used to assess participants subjective vitality; which these authors found to relate both to psychological well-being and physical health, and was an aspect of personal experience. The scale included seven items (e.g., At this moment, I feel 40

41 alive and vital, and I don t feel very energetic right now (reverse-coded)). The stem for each question was Answer the contentions considering your running the last seven days. The athletes answered each question using a seven-point Likert-type scale ranging from (1) Strongly disagree to (7) Strongly agree. Internal consistency reliability estimates for the Vitality scale, week 1-11, ranged from α =.85 to α =.93. Although this vitality scale has high validity and reliability (Ryan & Frederick, 1997), research by Bostic, Rubio, and Hood (2000) disclosed an even more functional scale when excluding the reverse scored item number two. In this research, the scale showed overall a higher reliability when this item was included, and it was not excluded. Procedures Following approval by a human subjects research committee, Personvernombudet for forskning, Norsk samfunnsvitenskapelig datatjeneste A/S, standard procedures for the protection of research participants were followed. The participants, their coaches, teams, or societies were contacted making an inquiry for participation in the study. The study was also announced on the Internet page a Norwegian organization for endurance sport. Participants who already participated in the study also recruited new participants, and by this helping in the inquiring by mean of a snowball sampling (Wilson, Longley, Muon, Rodgers, & Murray, 2006). The information letter, declaration of consent, and the questionnaires were sent out and returned by way of post or . The mapping materials were also delivered participants on the teams training sessions. The Norwegian University of Sport Science (NIH) capitalized the mapping. Participants answered questionnaires in 11 weeks; 9 weeks during training before the competition and two weeks after the competition were executed. The first mapping included a demographic questionnaire, the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001), and The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES; Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006), the Positive and Negative 41

42 Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), and the Subjective Vitality Scale (Ryan & Frederick, 1997). The four latter were then answered once a week (Sundays) throughout the mapping. The last week of mapping, the ABQ in addition were answered. Data analysis The Predictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW) Statistics 19 were used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations (r), and Multivariate Regression Analyses were used to investigate the relationship between basic psychological needs, well-being, vitality and burnout (Howell, 2010). The Multivariate Regression Analyses exploit the hierarchically design of the dataset, in which dependent variables could be regressed on multiple independent variables. By means of using this method, permitting generalization to the population was legal, threating person as a random rather than fixed effect (Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe & Ryan, 2000). Missing Value Analysis (MVA) was completed in PASW prior to analysis. The results from this analysis displayed, for each variable, a missing value percent ranging from 3.9 to 4.6 % (missing count ranging from of 561 cases each variable). There were not run any further tests since the MVA percent were lesser than 5 % (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). The Little MCAR test during this analysis, was significant, χ 2 (1064)= (ρ<.000), indicating that the missing values were not random missing. Simple missing values were replaced by inserting the calculated mean value for the relevant variables prior to analysis. This method ensure that the mean for the distribution as a whole does not change, but the variance of the relevant variables are reduced because the mean is now closer to itself than to the missing values it replaces. By way of this method, the correlation to other variables is reduced (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). When participants answers were lacking throughout a week, these answers were not altered, but included in the analyses as missing values. 42

43 Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics displayed negative skewness for all variables, indicating that the majority of the answers were at the right end of the scale. The kurtosis displayed values below zero, indicating a too peaked distribution (Howell, 2010). The variables were further screened for normality, linearity and homoscedasticity. These analyses underlined some variations between weeks considering the questions of normality, and derogations in this regard. The Shapiro-Wilk test was significant (p<.01), indicating that the data were not normal distributed. Despite these findings, the analyses were still followed through; the design of the mapping, with 11 weeks where 51 participants completed resulting in 51 answers each question every week, and 561 answers each question totally, were considered satisfying. These sample characteristics ensure not to violate the assumption of normality because of its quantity; according to Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham (2006), samples with 200 participants diminish the impact of skewness. Howell (2007), supports these statements, when underlining assumptions for doing regression analyses although the assumption that the joint distribution is multivariate normal is necessary for many of the tests, substantial departures from a multivariate-normal distribution are likely to be tolerated, and also states that moderate departures from normality is tolerable. Considering the design of study, and because of the purpose of predicting the outcome in one variable holding the other variables constant/controlling for other variables, the multivariate regression analyses were considered an appropriate test to do. Log transformation were evaluated, but because of the possibility of unnecessary implications for interpreting data and the danger of addressing different constructs to the one originally measured (Field, 2009), this method were excluded. Field (2009) also states that the consequences of using wrong transformations could be worse than using the untransformed scores. (After executed appropriate transformations and then analyze the new variables by mean of multiple regression analyses, the results don t change the way to interpret the results, and the analyses and interpretations were continued with the original data material). 43

44 Chapter 3 Results Hypothesis I: Basic psychological needs, vitality and burnout predicting well-being To test the assumptions that well-being were associated to need satisfaction, vitality and burnout, and whether any of the variables proved greater predictions, regression analyses where well-being were regressed on the need satisfaction variables, vitality and burnout was directed. Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics and intercorrelations from these analyses. Preliminary analyses Well-being diminished a bit from the beginning until the end of mapping, and the trend in well-being reflected this change. Need satisfaction and its balance also declined at the end compared to the beginning of study, while vitality and burnout increased. All standard deviations were greater at the end of the mapping; well-being and the balance score were the overall greatest, and well-being displayed the greatest increase in this measure. 44

45 The correlations were positive among all variables, except the relations to the burnout variables, who were negative. All correlations were greater at the end compared to the beginning of the mapping, and the correlations among all variables were strong and significant (p<.001) week 11, except correlations to the balance score. The relations between need satisfaction and vitality were strong and significant at both points in time, while the relations between the balance score and vitality showed a twofold increase week 11. Worth noticing; the relations between burnout and the other variables were approximately double week 11 compared to week 1. The burnout score was in addition weaker related to balance in need satisfaction, and reached significance week 11 only (p<.05). Looking at the variables week 1 vs. week 11, the correlations were; well-being r=.60, need satisfaction r=.67, balance need satisfaction r=.82, vitality r=.49, while burnout related with r=.30. The correlations were significant (p<.05). Primary analyses tests of Hypothesis I The primary analyses investigated whether the variables predicted changes in wellbeing and changes in the progress of this variable. Table 2 presents the results from the regression analyses when well-being were regressed on basic psychological needs and the balance in this variable, vitality and burnout. The results from week 1 proved that need satisfaction were the greatest and in addition a significant contributor predicting changes in well-being, accounting for 22.8 % of the variance. Balanced need satisfaction, vitality, and burnout accounted for 2.4, 0.8 % and 3.7 % of prediction, respectively, and were non-significant predictors. The results were somewhat changed week 11 the variables, except the balance score, were greater predictors for changes in well-being. Need satisfaction accounted for 33.0 %, and were the greatest and a significant predictor (p<.001). The balance in need satisfaction accounted for a insignificant percent of change ( R 2 =.08, p=ns), while vitality and burnout accounted for 6.7 and 6.8 %, respectively (p<.05). The last analyses, when the trend in well-being were regressed on the same variables, need satisfaction were a lesser predictor compared to previous analyses, but again accounted for a significant change (13.8 %, p<.01). The balance score were in this analyses a greater contributor, accounting for 11.3 % of the variance (p=.011). Vitality and burnout predicted 2.7 and 2.0 % of the variance in well-being, respectively (p=ns). The results from the regression analyses in 45

46 addition showed that the model significantly improved our ability to predict changes in well-being, with F>1.0 (p<.01). Running the analyses with distinguishing between the sexes, the results were different. The variables showed overall greater prediction when it comes to women, predicting a total of 37.0 and 78.7 % week 1 and 11, respectively, compared with the results among men, when the variables accounted for a total of 33.8 and 31.5 %, week 1 and 11, respectively. The main differences between the sexes were the greater prediction the women s burnout score accounted for week 11 and when analysing the trend in wellbeing. This score increased from predicting 0.5 to 21.5 % throughout the study, and compared with the men s reports, this variable decreased from 10.8 to 1.2 %. Need satisfaction was further accountable for the great gender differences in total prediction, accounting for 31.1 and 49.4 % among women, compared with 21.5 and 18.2 % for men, week 1 and 11, respectively. These gender differences were in addition obvious when analysing the trend in well-being, need satisfaction accounting for 32.1 and 1.1 %, women and men, respectively. 46

47 Preliminary analyses Table 1 Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of Well-being, Trend Well-being, Basic psychological needs, Balance in need satisfaction, Vitality and Burnout, week 1 and 11. n M SD Well-b. w Well-b. w *** - 3. Trend Well-b *** - 4. Needs w **.37* Needs w *.65***.52***.67*** - 6. Bal. Needs w ** Bal. Needs w *.41**.37*.47**.82*** - 8. Vitality w *.34*.11.65***.69***.29.35* - 9. Vitality w ***.56***.39**.66***.44**.66***.49** Burnout w * -.58*** ** -.34* * -.35* Burnout w *** -.38** *** * ***.30* - Note. Well-b.=Well-being, Trend=slope/progress, Needs=Basic Needs in Exercise Scale, Bal. Needs=Balance Basic Needs in Exercise Scale, Burnout=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, w=week, n=number participants, M=mean, SD=standard deviation. Scale; Well-being: -3 11, Needs: 1 7, Bal. Needs: -5 7, Vitality: 1 7, Burnout: 1 5. *p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<

48 Primary analyses Table 2 Multiple Regression predicting Well-being week 1 and 11, and Trend Well-being. Variables in Equation Mult R R 2 R 2 Cha Sig. Well-b. w1 Model 1 Needs w Model 2 Needs w Bal. Needs w Model 3 Needs w1 Bal. Needs w1 Vitality w Model 4 Needs w1 Bal. Needs w1 Vitality w1 Burnout w1 Well-b. w Model 1 Needs w Model 2 Needs w Bal. Needs w Model 3 Needs w11 Bal. Needs w11 Vitality w Model 4 Needs w11 Bal. Needs w11 Vitality w11 Burnout w11 Trend Well-b Model 1 Needs w Model 2 Needs w Bal. Needs w Model 3 Needs w11 Bal. Needs w11 Vitality w Model 4 Needs w11 Bal. Needs w11 Vitality w11 Burnout Note. Well-b.=Well-being, Trend=slope/progress, Needs=Basic Needs in Exercise Scale, Bal. Needs=Balance Basic Needs in Exercise Scale, Burnout=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, w=week. Mult R=multiple coefficient of correlation, R 2 =coefficient of determination, R 2 Cha=change R 2, =standardized coefficients/beta, Sig.=level of significance. 48

49 Hypothesis II: The relations between the three subscales of burnout and well-being In the previous analyses burnout turned out to be a dual predictor week 11 compared to week 1, and especially the men reported increased average burnout scores throughout the study, while the women s score proved to be a greater prediction toward the end of mapping. The association between the burnout subscales and well-being were further investigated, examining whether one of the three subscales were more significant. Hypothesis II proposed that the three subscales of burnout would be negatively associated to well-being. The analysis additionally examined whether any of the three subscales proved to be greater predictors explaining changes in well-being. Table 3 presents the descriptive statistics and intercorrelations from these analyses. Preliminary analyses The mean values of the ABQ-EX and ABQ-DV were greater week 11 compared to week 1, while the ABQ-RA was reduced at the end of the mapping. The mean values were modest, ranging from 1.50 to The standard deviations increased for ABQ-EX and ABQ-RA, with overall greatest rise for ABQ-EX, which ends up with the highest standard deviation. The standard deviation for ABQ-DV decreased throughout the study. The correlations between well-being and the ABQ-subscales were negative well-being were significantly related to ABQ-RA week 1 (p<.01), and significantly related to all subscales week 11 (p<.001). This analysis further demonstrated the correlations between the ratings week 1 vs. week 11, and in addition to the variables analysed in previous analyses, this analysis presents correlations where ABQ-EX were correlated with r=.15, ABQ-RA with r=.58 (p<.001), and ABQ-DV with r=.27 (p<.05). These relations especially highlight the weak consistency among the ABQ-EX score week 1 and 11. The variables were further investigated by means of regression analyses, to reveal whether any of the subscales proved out to be more important predictors and to reveal the importance of emphasizing these factors during training periods. 49

50 Primary analyses tests of Hypothesis II Table 4 presents the results from the regression analyses, when well-being week 1 and 11, and the trend in well-being were regressed on the three subscales of the ABQ. ABQ- RA were the greatest predictor of changes in well-being week 1, and explained 16.2 % of the 20.3 % changes the ABQ subscales totally predicted. This total score increased to 43.1 % at the end of the mapping. At this point in time, the ABQ-EX predicted 30.5 % of the changes, increasing from 3.8 % from week 1, while ABQ-RA was reduced to 12.4 % of prediction. The ABQ-DV predicted 0.3 and 0.1 % of the changes, week 1 and 11, respectively. Considering the trend in well-being, ABQ-EX were the greatest predictor, predicting 9.9 % of the changes in well-being. The results from the regression analyses showed that the model did not improve our ability to predict how changes in ABQ-EX week 1 were associated with changes in well-being week 1, F(1, 43)=1.659, p=.205, but the rest of the analyses showed that the variables significantly improved our ability to predict changes in well-being based on changes in the ABQ-subscales total, F>3.3 (p<.05) for week 1, and F>11.3 (p<.001) week 11, and F>2.8 (p<.05) when analysing the trend in well-being throughout the study. Gender differences from the previous analyses were underlined when distinguishing between sexes. The main differences between women and men were the quantity of prediction displayed; the subscales demonstrated week 1 a total prediction of 4.9 and 43.9 %, women and men, respectively. At the end of the mapping, this genderdifference pattern were inverted, when a prediction of 77.8 and 33.7 % were displayed, women and men, respectively. In addition, the ABQ-EX was the greatest predictor among women, while the ABQ-RA was the greatest predictor considering the analysis for men. These results were somewhat underlined when investigating the trend in wellbeing throughout the study ABQ-EX was the greatest predictor viewing the women s reporting, while ABQ-DV was the greatest predictor viewing the men s reporting. 50

51 Preliminary analyses Table 3 Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of Well-being, Trend Well-being, and the three burnout subscales Emotional and Physical Exhaustion, Reduced Sense of Accomplishment, and Sport Devaluation, week 1 and 11. n M SD Well-b. w Well-b. w *** - 3. Trend Well-b *** - 4. ABQ-EX w * ABQ-EX w *** -.31* ABQ-RA w ** -.50*** ABQ-RA w * -.62*** -.35*.00.63***.58*** - 8. ABQ-DV w ** *** ABQ-DV w *** -.30*.05.71***.06.34*.27* - Note. Well-b.=Well-being, Trend=slope/progress, ABQ-EX=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire Emotional and Physical Exhaustion, ABQ-RA=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire Reduced Sense of Accomplishment, ABQ-DV=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire Sport Devaluation, w=week, n=number participants, M=mean, SD=standard deviation. Scale: Well-being: -3 11, ABQ: 1 5. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<

52 Primary analyses Table 4 Multiple Regression predicting Well-being and Trend Well-being, from the three burnout subscales, week 1 and 11. Variables in Equation Mult R R 2 R 2 Cha Sig. Well-b. w1 w1 Model 1 ABQ-EX Model 2 ABQ-EX ABQ-RA Model 3 ABQ-EX ABQ-RA ABQ-DV Well-b. w11 w11 Model 1 ABQ-EX Model 2 ABQ-EX ABQ-RA Model 3 ABQ-EX ABQ-RA ABQ-DV Trend Well-b. w11 Model 1 ABQ-EX Model 2 ABQ-EX ABQ-RA Model 3 ABQ-EX ABQ-RA ABQ-DV Note. Well-b.=Well-being, Trend=slope/progress, ABQ-EX=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire Emotional and Physical Exhaustion, ABQ-RA=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire Reduced Sense of Accomplishment, ABQ-DV=Athlete Burnout Questionnaire Sport Devaluation, w=week. Mult R=multiple coefficient of correlation, R 2 =coefficient of determination, R 2 Cha=change R 2, =standardized coefficients/beta, Sig.=level of significance. 52

53 Hypothesis III: The relations between the three basic psychological needs and well-being The athletes reported well-being and the influence of need satisfaction were further examined, when looking at well-being in coherence with the three basic psychological needs. Need satisfaction were in previous analyses (Table 2) positively associated with well-being, and in the coming analysis a further examination were accomplished to reveal whether the three needs were related to well-being in various degrees. Table 5 display the descriptive statistics and intercorrelations from these analyses. Preliminary analyses The mean values for autonomy and competence were lower week 11, while relatedness average score increased and were in addition the overall highest need satisfaction score. The standard deviation for autonomy and competence increased until the end of the study, competence showed the overall greatest standard deviation, and this value decreased considering the need for relatedness. The correlations were positive, and the relations between well-being and autonomy and competence increased from week 1 to 11, and the relations between well-being and relatedness displayed the opposite picture. All correlations between well-being and the three needs were significant (p<.05). The analysis in addition presents the correlations between the ratings week 1 vs. week 11, and revealed that autonomy were related with r=.73, competence with r=.68 and relatedness with r=.49. The correlations were significant (p<.05). To further examine the influence between well-being and need satisfaction, and whether the needs varied in importance, regression analyses were performed. 53

54 Primary analyses tests of Hypothesis III Table 6 presents the results from the regression analyses when well-being and the trend in well-being were regressed on autonomy, competence and relatedness, week 1 and 11. These results revealed that the three needs totally explained 25.6 and 44.1 % of the changes in well-being week 1 and 11, respectively and explained 35.4 % of the changes in the trend in well-being. Autonomy explained the greatest changes both weeks, while competence explained the greatest changes in the progress in well-being throughout the study. The needs displayed significant predictions, except competence week 1 and relatedness week 11. The results in addition revealed that the three needs significantly improved our ability to predict changes in well-being, F>4.1 (p<.05) week 1, F>12.0 (p<.001) week 11, and F>6.1 (p<.05) for the trend in the well-being analyses. When analysing the needs considering gender differences, the results revealed that competence demonstrated the largest prediction considering women week 1, while autonomy were largest among men. The last week, the results revealed that autonomy were the greatest predictor for both sexes, while autonomy in addition were the greatest predictor of trend in well-being among women and competence were greatest among men. The needs demonstrated significant predictions, except autonomy and competence week 1 among women, while only autonomy week 1 and competence week 11 were significant. 54

55 Preliminary analyses Table 5 Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of Well-being, Trend Well-being, Autonomy, Competence and relatedness, week 1 and 11. n M SD Well-b.w Well-b. w *** - 3. Trend Well-b *** - 4. Aut. w **.35* Aut. w **.53***.34*.73*** - 6. Comp. w * ***.53** - 7. Comp. w ***.56***.60***.64***.68*** - 8. Rel. w ** **.40** Rel w **.30*.12.45** ** - Note. Well-b.=Well-being, Trend=slope/progress, Aut.=autonomy, Comp.=competence, Rel.=relatedness, w=week, n=number participants, M=mean, SD=standard deviation. Scale; Well-being: -3 11, Aut., Comp., and Rel.: 1 7. *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<

56 Primary analyses Table 6 Multiple Regression predicting Well-being and Trend Well-being from Basic psychological needs Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness, week 1 and 11. Variables in Equation Mult R R 2 R 2 Cha Sig. Well-b. w1 Model 1 Aut. w Model 2 Aut. w Comp. w Model 3 Aut. w Comp. w Rel. w Well-b. w11 Model 1 Aut. w Model 2 Aut. w Comp. w Model 3 Aut. w Comp. w Rel. w Trend Well-b. Model 1 Aut. w Model 2 Aut. w Comp. w Model 3 Aut. w Comp. w Rel. w Note. Well-b.=Well-being, Trend=slope/progress, Aut.=Autonomy, Comp.=Competence, Rel.=Relatedness, w=week. Mult R=multiple coefficient of correlation, R 2 =coefficient of determination, R 2 Cha=change R 2, =standardized coefficients/beta, Sig.=level of significance. 56

57 Chapter 4 Discussion Basic psychological needs, vitality and burnout influencing perceived well-being The self-determination theory, proposed by Deci & Ryan (1985), differentiates between three innate psychological needs the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness, when making an understanding of human motivation. The theory claims that these innate psychological needs are essential for experiencing well-being and satisfaction with life (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Ryan, 1995), and must be satisfied for optimal and most effective functioning (Deci & Ryan, 2000). The current study was directed to investigate the associations between well-being, need satisfaction, burnout and vitality among marathon runners during training toward competitions autumn 2011, with the end of the survey two weeks after the competition. The link between well-being and these factors have been investigated in previous studies (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2000; Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan, 2000; Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis, 1996), and prove the fact that need satisfaction influences perceived well-being. An additional question investigated, was whether the athletes benefitted from balanced need satisfaction if it was beneficial that the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness was equally satisfied, or if this was of lesser importance as long as the total amount need satisfaction were satisfied to an appropriate extent. Balanced need satisfaction is a construct derived from SDT, representing the equilibrium in the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (Perreault, Gaudreau, Lapointe, & Lacroix, 2007). Hypothesis I examined the relations between well-being, basic psychological need satisfaction, vitality and burnout, and whether need satisfaction was associated with well-being beyond the influences of balance in need satisfaction, vitality and burnout. The results from the current study underlined the relationship between well-being and the aforementioned variables. During the training period the athletes need satisfaction were positively related to well-being, and were the greatest predictor when looking at 57

58 changes in this variable. The analyses in addition revealed that the model significantly improved prediction of the outcome variable, well-being, which enable generalization of the results. Need satisfaction were also an escalating predictor explaining changes in well-being throughout the mapping. These results are in line with SDTs proposition that the fulfilment of basic psychological needs satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness is necessary for well-being to be attained and maintained (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Reis et al., 2000; Sheldon & Elliot, 1999; Sheldon et al., 1996). This is consistent with former research, suggesting that greater need satisfaction promote well-being in sport (Gagnè, Ryan, & Bargmann, 2003; Reinboth & Duda, 2006; Reinboth, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2004). Wilson, Longley, Muon, Rodgers, & Murray (2006) also found evidence supporting this, when concluding with results suggesting that perceived psychological need satisfaction in exercise lead the participants to experiences of greater well-being, and also experiences of greater vitality. If the basic psychological needs are dissatisfied or thwarted, the result could be negative consequences, diminished well-being and psychological ill-being, further resulting in controlled motivation or amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000; 2008). Research by Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis (1996), and Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan (2000) revealed the close connection between psychological need satisfaction and well-being. Sheldon et al., (1996) examined the proposal that satisfaction of the need for autonomy and competence lead to daily well-being, and the results from their survey confirmed this suggestion the participants high in trait competence and trait autonomy tended to have better days, and vice versa good days were those were the participants felt that the satisfaction of the need for autonomy and competence were fulfilled to an appropriate extent. Interesting, Deci & Ryan (2000) state that when psychological needs are thwarted this will lead to compensatory satisfactions and accommodations, e.g., by valuing of materialism (Ryan & Deci, 2002b), instead of trying to achieve satisfaction as when physiologically needs are thwarted. 58

59 Balance in need satisfaction vital or not? Past research, e.g. Sheldon & Niemiec (2006), have found that the balance of need satisfaction, in addition to the total amount need satisfaction, is important for psychological health and optimal well-being. The current study revealed that the balance score was of lesser importance when pointing out predictors for changes in well-being this score accounted for a small percentage of prediction in the weekly analyses, but were more important when looking at the trend in well-being throughout the study. When pointing out predictors for this trend, the balance score underlined its importance when accounting for about the same percentage prediction as need satisfaction in general. Milyavskaya, Gingras, Mageau, Koestner, Gagnon, Fang, & Boiché (2009) also found results that emphasized the importance of experiencing need fulfilment in different life contexts in a balanced manner, when identifying participants well-being and school adjustment. They proposed that this research illustrated and underlined the importance of consistency for psychological functioning. In the current survey, the participants were asked questions in the context of their running, and need fulfilment in different life contexts were not emphasized, even though the participants in several occasions reported that their life in general influenced their answers. Vitality and burnout worth emphasizing? The influences of vitality and burnout when explaining changes in well-being, were in the present study modest. These variables displayed a greater percentage of prediction at the end of mapping compared to at the beginning, pointing out greater importance in the period of competition. Considering Ryan & Frederick (1997) referring to subjective vitality as experiences and feelings of positive energy and aliveness, the importance of this factor will naturally be progressive in periods of large training loads and competitions, and could influence the athletes perceived well-being. Ryan & Frederick (1997) point out that when the basic psychological needs are satisfied, subjective vitality should be maintained or enhanced, as a converging of physical and psychological factors. Their research in addition revealed associations between well-being and vitality. This could explain the results from the current study 59

60 where need satisfaction were the greatest predictor while vitality were kind of insignificant, even though the runners vitality mean values were supreme as long as the association between need satisfaction and well-being were great, this may contribute to the athletes maintenance of vitality during the training period. Thayer s (1986) statements may additionally explain the low predictions vitality had on the athletes reported well-being moderate exercise increases energy level, while strenuous exercise results in the opposite suggesting that if the athletes training load were too big, this could diminish their energy level, leading vitality to a insignificant factor in the analyses. Thayer (1986) even though emphasized that decreased energy level were the immediate effects of exercising, while a program of endurance training would most often result in heightened experienced energy levels. Several researchers have in addition pointed out the connection between satisfaction of basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, self-actualization and vitality and conclude with, shortly speaking, the more of one, the more of the other (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996; Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Frederick, 1997). The athletes reported burnout score, were like vitality a greater predictor of well-being at the end compared to at the beginning of the current study, showing up to be a significant predictor at the end. The burnout score were even though a weak predictor when looking into the progress of well-being throughout the study. Looking at the participants burnout score, the mean value and standard deviation increases from week 1 to 11, pointing out both greater reported burnout and greater differentiation between the participants answers at the end of study. This is in line with Lehman, Gastmann, Petersen, Bachl, Seidel, Khalaf, Fischer, & Keul (1992), stating that when athletes in periods are exposed to increases in training load (volume and intensity), they are vulnerable to experience conditions like overtraining and burnout as a consequence. Looking at the subscales of the burnout score, both the exhaustion and devaluation variables increases throughout the current study, emphasizing that when experiencing conditions of burnout, the motivation to participate in a formerly enjoyable activity would be reduced (Lemyre, 2005; Smith, 1986; Weinberg & Gould, 2007). The relations between need satisfaction, balance in need satisfaction, and burnout, were negative, and greater week 11 compared to week 1. The relationship between these 60

61 variables were investigated by Perreault, Gaudreau, Lapointe, & Lacroix (2007), who found that balanced need satisfaction contributed, in addition to the contribution of the three needs in general, to the prediction of athlete burnout. Experiences of less selfdetermination have also displayed greater ratings of burnout (Lemyre, Treasure, & Roberts, 2006), and even though these analyses did not reveal prediction between the variables, the increased association points out the importance of emphasizing satisfaction of basic psychological needs in sport to reduce the exposure of burnout. Based on these results, Hypothesis I were confirmed the importance of need satisfaction was illuminated when this variable were the greatest predictor of well-being during training period. This signifies that athletes with appropriate need fulfilment, transfer the benefits from this satisfaction and achieve greater well-being, which thereafter may influence perceived vitality and burnout. The importance of the burnout subscales and the relationship between perceived wellbeing and burnout were further investigated, when regressing well-being on the three subscales of burnout; Emotional and physical exhaustion, Reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation. The results from these analyses are discussed in the next session. The relations between the three subscales of burnout and well-being Experiences of burnout could be a consequence of the discrepancy between expectations and actuality (Gold & Roth, 1993: Pines 1996), and may be promoted of physiological and psychological strains above the individuals capacity (Smith, 1986). When athletes meet with strains and stresses above capacity, these challenges could lead to maladaption, further governed by inhibited need satisfaction (Ryan & Deci, 2002a). These achievements will most likely not favour the individuals well-being (Ryan, Sheldon, Kasser, & Deci, 1996) the individuals experiences of optimal psychological functioning and experiences (Ryan & Deci, 2001). 61

62 The analyses in the present study therefore investigated to what extent the different subscales of burnout were associated with and predicted perceived well-being, and whether any of the three subscales showed a greater association with and prediction of well-being. Thomas, Dyrbye, Huntington, Lawson, Novotny, Sloan, & Shanafelt (2007) found that well-being and burnout were negatively associated. Well-being and burnout were related to participants empathy, and they conclude by stating that when lowering distress you promote well-being. The analyses in the present study showed a negative correlation between well-being and the three burnout subscales, and the relations were stronger at the end compared to at the beginning. The results revealed that the athletes rated exhaustion were an expanding predictor throughout the study, explaining a ten times higher prediction at the end of the training period. This variable were the greatest predictor explaining changes in well-being, and displayed in addition increased mean values. This may point out poor restitution and rest in the period of mapping, with large training loads toward the competition. The analyses further revealed that this exhaustion were quite small in the beginning of the study, and were a non significant predictor concerning changes in well-being. In this analysis, the reduced sense of accomplishment variable proved out to be the greatest and a significant predictor. These results could be linked to theories regarding goal achievement (Nicholls, 1989), pointing out the perceived importance of being either ego or task oriented, and the consequences of this choice. The analyses in addition peaked out poor correlations between exhaustion ratings week 1 and 11, underlining that this variable were changing throughout the study. Gold & Roth (1993) pointed out that when athletes did not adapt the physical and psychological strains exposed to, when they could not absorb the challenges ahead, the result could be exhaustion leading to decreased performance and lesser joy during the participation. This could moreover influence experienced accomplishment, and affect the athletes sense of accomplishment. The results from this survey confirmed Hypothesis II the three subscales of burnout were negatively related to well-being, but varied in degree and part of prediction from week 1 and 11. These results replicated Silva s (1990) findings which emphasized the athletes experienced exhaustion as one of the most frequently rated symptoms of burnout. 62

63 Perreault et al. (2007) argues that athletes who feel autonomous by mean of initiation of own action (autonomy), athletes who cope effectively (competence) and feel understood by significant others (relatedness), should rate more well-being and be less postponed to experience ill-being (e.g., burnout). In regard of these findings, the athletes need satisfaction was further investigated emphasizing the importance of each of the three needs on perceived well-being. The relations between the three basic psychological needs and well-being The self-determination theory suggests that the fulfilment of the need for autonomy, competence and relatedness are antecedents of achieving optimal psychological health and reach ones fullest potential (Reis et al., 2000; Ryan, 1995). Numerous studies have in addition examined the connection between satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and well-being, whereas Deci & Ryan (2000) refer to needs as nutriments essential for well-being, among other factors. To test these proposals, these circumstances were examined, and Hypothesis III suggested that competence and autonomy would best predict changes in well-being. The preliminary analyses showed that both autonomy and relatedness decreased from the beginning to the end of the current study, while reported relatedness displayed opposite pattern. Even though each need was proportionally satisfactorily fulfilled, the decline could within SDT be explained with the aid of having a closer look toward each need in general. The decline in autonomy at the end compared to the beginning of the training period reflects a decrease in feelings of self-determination, of choosing one s activities, and may indicate the participants lower belief in running (Milyavskaya, Gingras, Mageau, Koestner, Gagnon, Fang, & Boichè, 2009; Sheldon & Krieger, 2007). The individuals actions could be guided of acting in accord with pressure and controlling forces, either as emanating from the self or others (Deci & Ryan, 1985). If completing the training period and the competition at the end of this period, would promote a decrease in autonomy, people may experience feelings of loosing locus of causality considering their training, not having that high score on being the origin of their actions (decharms, 1968). When looking for explanations in regard of the lowered 63

64 competence during the training period, this may reflect the participants achievements and control of desired outcomes (Milyavskaya et al., 2009; Deci & Ryan, 1991) considering the competition. Worth noticing in this regard, is the small decrease in the mean value for both autonomy and competence, and the overall high ratings. Finally, looking at the increase in the need for relatedness, this may refer to the participants feeling connected to a team, club, society or just their co-partners during training sessions in sum, feeling connected to significant others (Milyavskaya et al., 2009; Sheldon & Krieger, 2007). The participants reported satisfaction of the need for autonomy and competence were strongly correlated week 1 and 11, while relatedness was moderately correlated, pointing out that the participants answers not necessarily were in accordance throughout the period. The three needs displayed somewhat different predictions for well-being, and the trend in well-being. During the analysis from the first week, autonomy proved out to be the greatest predictor concerning explanations for changes in well-being, and relatedness were the second greatest predictor. During the last week of mapping, autonomy confirmed its importance when replicating the results from week 1, turning out to be the greatest predictor. Here, competence was the second best predictor. Looking at the progress in or trend in well-being, competence were the greatest predictor, and autonomy the second, while relatedness again were the third and lowest predictor. These results were in accordance with Reinboth, Duda, & Ntoumanis (2004) study who conclude by saying that the athletes in their study rated autonomy and competence as the dominant predictors of well-being, although this relationship appeared to fluctuate by age (Reinboth & Duda, 2006). Several others have in addiction pointed out that autonomy display positive contributions to psychological well-being (Daley & Maynard, 2003; Parfitt & Gledhill, 2004; Wilson, Rodgers, & Fraser, 2002). The need for relatedness may display greater influence on the athletes perceived well-being, and Wilson et al. (2006) emphasized that Daley & Maynard (2003) and Parfitt & Gledhill (2004) did not examine the need for relatedness in their studies. The results from the current study, with autonomy and competence pointed out as the greatest predictors for well-being in exercise, confirmed Hypothesis III, and supports Ryan & Deci s (2002a) statements that satisfaction or thwarting of basic psychological needs must have a direct relation to well-being (p. 22). Wilson et al. (2006) underlined 64

65 this proposal, when revealing weak to strong associations between need satisfaction and well-being autonomy, competence and well-being had the strongest associations. They conducted two studies, and their results from study 1 showed that elevated basic psychological need satisfaction were associated with more positive than negative affect in exercise settings. The results from their study pointed out that this conclusion was not affected of self-actualization, security, popularity, and physical thriving. These results suggests that the participants in the present study, rated self-determination and autonomy, ability and competence, as most important considering perceived wellbeing during training sessions. Relatedness was of lower importance the athletes may exercise alone, or do not perceive relations to significant others as valuable. 65

66 Limitations Sample bias. Recruitment in this study was based on voluntary participation. Using this recruitment method, participants may in the first place be positively related to training, competitions and participation in surveys, and may be those who usually come forward when required. The participants were also recruited without offering any rewards. This could result in a sample bias, because rewards can augment participation and heterogeneity of sample characteristics (Sharp, Pelletier, & Lévesque, 2006). Sharp et al. (2006) examined participation rates and sample characteristics of participants recruited with and without offer of course credit, and found that offering rewards augment participation, and removing rewards resulted in a significant drop in participation. This underlined that the motivational characteristics of participants could influence attendance and representativeness of samples, and generalizability is weakened. Instantaneous data. The analyses investigating the variables from week 1 and 11, displayed instantaneous data, which could be a limitation when inquiring into these measurements showing modifications week by week. Therefore just looking at week 1 and 11 could give a complementary picture of the situation and represent a limitation. Day of the week effect. The research design didn t leave the investigator control concerning the when and where (Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis, 1996) the respondents replied the questionnaires. The mapping should, in principle, take place on Sundays, and this may bias the answers because of the weekend effect (Ryan, Bernstein, & Brown, 2010). Sometimes the participants were incidentally sending their answers by mail e.g., Wednesday the following week instead of Sunday, and some of the participants reported that they sometimes were answering other days than Sundays e.g., by mistake. The day of the week can cause variations in the answers, stated by Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan (2000), who found that daily variations in emotional well-being take place throughout a two week period. They also found weekly cycles 66

67 concerning positive and negative affect, and the satisfaction of the need for relatedness and autonomy. Ryan et al. (2010) in addition found weekend effects regarding vitality, physical symptoms and the PA-part of the well-being measure. These researchers therefore underline the importance of ensuring that data are collected from all participants on the same day. Carry over effets. This survey does not have the possibility to control for possible carryover effects discovered in other studies (e.g., Marco & Suls, 1993; Sheldon, Ryan, & Reis, 1996), because this study has got only one measurement each week. To control for carryover effects, one could use the prior days measurement for one variable compared to today s measurement for the other variable (Reis, Sheldon, Gable, Roscoe, & Ryan). Other influences. Although the survey included questions concerning the runners status quo concerning injuries, the mapping didn t include objective ratings concerning health status, or other questions influencing perceived well-being, need satisfaction, vitality and burnout. The reverse causal ordering could in addition be accounted for as one limitation one doesn t conclude whether e.g., subjective well-being influences need satisfaction or vice versa. Most probably there would be evidence supporting causal orientations both ways, regarding all variables investigated the variables may serve as both causes and effects. 67

68 Conclusion The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate relationships between basic psychological need satisfaction, well-being, vitality and burnout in marathon runners over a period of 11 weeks. It was hypothesized that well-being was associated with need satisfaction, vitality, and burnout. This hypothesis was confirmed, and need satisfaction proved to be the most important and an escalating predictor of well-being throughout the study s 11 weeks period. It was further hypothesized a negative association between burnout and well-being, and that the need for autonomy and competence were the most important predictors of well-being among the three basic psychological needs. These hypotheses were verified and symptoms of burnout were negatively related to wellbeing, while the basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence were the strongest predictors. Additionally, the relative contribution of the burnout subscales were examined, and both reduced sense of accomplishment and emotional and physical exhaustion were proved as important. Most striking, the exhaustion variable displayed significant progressions during the 11-week training period, and were an especially important predictor of well-being for women-participants. These results suggest that satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and especially the need for autonomy and competence, are important antecedents of higher levels of wellbeing during an 11-week training period leading to a half marathon or marathon race. Further, findings suggest that when investigating marathon runners, indicators of perceived emotional and physical exhaustion are important symptoms of burnout likely to appear during the training period leading to an important competition. Monitoring these symptoms may yield important information to help athletes avoid the pitfalls potentially leading to athlete burnout (Lemyre, Roberts, & Stray-Gundersen, 2007). Future research Future studies are needed to further investigate the longitudinal relationship between well-being, need satisfaction, vitality and burnout in sport participants. Study designs allowing for a better control of carryover effects are warranted. Data collection methods, using web-based tools or telephone interviews, would allow to register the patterns of dates and times as too which the data is collected. A replication of this study 68

69 with different populations would also help generalize the findings of the current study. It is possible that marathon running attract individuals that already have specific psychological dispositions likely to influence the relationship between motivation and well-being over time (Summers et al., 1982). Finally, larger populations in addition to longer periods of data collection would again allow for a better understanding of the relationships between motivation, satisfaction of psychological needs, well-being and burnout over time, and better evaluate the role of training and competition as a possible mediator of these relations throughout a longer period of life. 69

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76 (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press. Watson, D., Clark, L., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2007). Foundations of sport and exercise physiology. (4 th Ed.). Champaign, III. : Human Kinetics White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered. Psychological Review, 66, White, R. W. (1960). Competence and the psychosexual stages of development. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 8. Perspectives on motivation (pp ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Wilson, P. M., Rodgers, W. M., & Fraser, S. N. (2002). Examining the psychometric properties of the behavioural regulation in exercise questionnaire. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 6, Wilson, P. M., Longley, K., Muon, S., Rodgers, W. M., & Murray, T. C. (2006). Examining the contributions of perceived psychological need satisfaction to well-being in exercise. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 11, World Health Organization (1997). Programme on mental health. WHOQOL: Measuring quality of life. Division of mental health and prevention of substance abuse. World Health Organization. Retrieved from 76

77 Appendixes Appendix A: Approval by Personvernombudet for forskning, Norsk samfunnsvitenskapelig datatjeneste A/S Appendic B: Information sheet sent to participants Appendix C: Information sheet kondis.no Appendix D: Demographic data questionnaire Appendix E: Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001) Appendix F: The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES; Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006) Appendix G: Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Watson, Tellegen & Clark, 1988) Appendix H: Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985) Appendix I: Subjective Vitality Scale (Ryan & Frederick, 1997) 77

78 Appendix A 78

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