Preproduction STUDENTS

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1 Preproduction In this stage, students may not respond orally in the second language but there is receptive processing (listening). Students should be ACTIVELY included in ALL class activities but not forced to speak. As students progress they will begin to participate using non-verbal means and one-word responses. Adopted from Project Talk and Title VII v Are often verbally unresponsive v Are often hesitant and unsure v May use one word responses v Are developing listening skills v Need time to adjust to environment, procedures and activities v Respond non-verbally Listen Point Move Mime Match Draw Select Choose Act Identify v Encourage listening/do not force speech v Annunciate and emphasize key words v Model and demonstrate activities v Use visuals, graphic organizers v Use gestures/body language v Use multimedia v Use TPR v Modify work by time and content R. Show me the U. Draw/Illustrate a Ap. Point to examples of An. Can you draw the parts of? E. Show me what would happen if C. Move (object) if you agree

2 Early Production Students begin to respond verbally using one or two words and begin to understand high frequency words in familiar contexts. Students develop listening skills and build listening vocabulary. They will begin to group words together in short phrases to respond to a question or express an idea. Adopted from Project Talk and Title VII v Relate words to their environment v Begin to grasp main ideas of message v Begin to focus on context and clues v Use routine expressions independently v Demonstrate improved comprehension v Will repeat, or recite memorable lang. v Will use one or two word responses, advancing to two or three words v May not tell you if they do not understand v Will mispronounce words (Be a model) Name Label Discriminate Group Respond v Use cooperative learning and scaffolding techniques v Ask yes/no and directed choice questions v Ask wh questions v Ask for or give listing tasks v Use Think-Pair-Share techniques in whole group activities v Allow students to show knowledge using labeling and diagramming in illustration v Modify work by time and content List R. Where is the? Answer U. Draw and label the? Categorize Ap. Show me how you know? Tell/Say An. Show how you would sort? Chant E. Predict what comes next? C. Why did choose?

3 Speech Emergence Students begin to use simple sentences in safe environments where they are engaged in activities they understand. Ensure comprehensible input during instruction. Interaction with and between students should focus on communication more than form (but don t forget structure all together!). Encourage all attempts to communicate-verbal and non-verbal. Model correct usage, but do not correct errors. Adopted from Project Talk and Title VII v Begin to speak in simple sentences v Demonstrate expanded vocabulary v Show improved comprehension v May ask for clarification or meaning v Participate in small group discussions v May rely on native language to communicate complex ideas v Start to acquire basic communication skills and social language v May not tell you if they don t understand Recall Role play Retell Select Define Describe Explain Organize Compare Make up v Use cooperative grouping for instruction v Encourage efforts to communicate v Ask How and Why questions v Emphasize content area vocabulary v Provide picture rich content area text, trade books and magazine at level v Provide frequent opportunities to use Second Language v Provide opportunities for early reading and writing v Modify word based in need R. Can you recall? U. Can you explain what is happening? Ap. How would you use? An. How would you organize? E. What would happen if? C. What choice would you have made?

4 Intermediate Fluency Students generally make the transition to more elaborate speech. Students may begin to link familiar phrases and generate sentences to express their ideas. Teachers need to continually model language usage, extend receptive vocabulary, and provide frequent opportunities for students to produce language in comfortable situations. Adopted from Project Talk and Title VII v Begin to speak in more complex sentences v May use incorrect grammar and verb forms v Participate more often in large groups v Need context clues in content area instruction v Exhibit greater vocabulary development v Begin to think in the new language instead of translating from the native language Summarize Classify Restate Extend Contract Evaluate Predict Support Create Examine v Provide visually rich content instruction v Design content activities that focus on speech production, not grammatical form v Have students take on larger roles in cooperative group activities v Provide extra time or modify assignments v Introduce colloquialisms and idioms R. How would you describe? U. Which statements support? Ap. What questions would you ask about? An. What is the relationship between? E. Can you predict the outcome if? C. Compare and contrast the?

5 Advanced Fluency Students in this stage begin to engage in non-prompted conversation and to speak fluently using social and academic language. It is appropriate to begin to expect students to use correct grammar, idiomatic expressions, and reading comprehension skills. Activities should be designed to develop skills in higher order thinking, vocabulary development and cognitive processing. Students in this stage need deliberate instruction on reading and writing skills and frequent opportunities to practice them. Adopted from Project Talk and Title VII v Can interact extensively with native speakers v Make few grammatical errors v Participate in English literacy programs v Have high levels of comprehension but not understand all academic language v Read and write for a variety of purposes v Continue to need extensive vocabulary development in content areas Construct Debate Hypothesize Elaborate Justify Conclude Analyze Influence Defend Persuade v Emphasize content area vocabulary v Provide grammar instruction v Focus on reading and writing skills v Have students take on advanced cooperative learning roles v Continue to support content area instruction with visuals, realia and active learning strategies R. How would you explain? U. Will you interpret in your own words? Ap. What other way would you? An. What ideas justify? E. Can you think of an original way for? C. What would you cite to defend?

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