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1 vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS iii xvii xix xxvii 1 INTRODUCTION GENERAL OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH SCOPE OF THE WORK 4 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE GENERAL HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE CORROSION Effect of Chloride Ingress in Concrete Mode and Mechanisms of Chloride Ion Ingress in Concrete IMPROVEMENT OF CONCRETE DURABILITY Effect of Concrete Cover on Durability Effect of Cement Replacement Materials on concrete Durability Effect of Cement Type on Concrete Durability 16

2 viii CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO Effect of Aggregate Properties on Concrete Durability Importance of Water Binder Ratio for a Durable Concrete Importance of Concrete Mix Effect of Curing Methods Effect of Concrete Cover Thickness on Corrosion Initiation Period CONCRETE DURABILITY TEST METHODS Test Methods for Determination of Durability Properties Steady State and Non Steady State Chloride Profile Durability Test Parameters Effect of Test Duration Effect of Accelerating Voltage on Chloride Profile Temperature Variations During the Test Period Chloride Profile and Chloride Bindings During the Test Period Concrete Diffusion Co-efficients Diffusion Co-efficient from Profile Method and the Migration Co-efficient from Colorimetric Method Diffusion Co-efficient Based on RCPT Initiation Period Based on Diffusion Co-efficient 28

3 ix CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO Corrosion Initiation Period Based on Chloride Diffusion Co-efficient RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHLORIDE DIFFUSION RATE AND CHARGE PASSED RATE Model for Concrete Cover Cracking due to Rebar Corrosion in RCC Structures Reinforcement Corrosion in Concrete Structures, its Monitoring and Service Life Prediction Effect of Chloride Binding on Service Life Predictions Critical Review about Service Life Concepts of Reinforced Concrete Structures CONCLUDING REMARKS 35 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS MATERIALS EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Diffusion Setup Rapid Chloride Permeability Test Setup Concrete Resistivity Test Water Permeability Test Polarization test SPECIMENS DETAILS AND EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Casting and Curing Methods of Concrete Specimens 54

4 x CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO Preparation of Specimen for Diffusion and RCPT Tests Preparation of Specimen for Chloride Diffusion and RCPT Tests Preparation of Specimen for Polarization Test Specimen Details for Studying the Effect of Cover Thickness under Accelerated Corrosion Test Specimens Preparation with Concrete Surface Coatings Application of Coatings on Specimens EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Diffusion Test Rapid Chloride Permeability Test Concrete Resistivity Test Polarization Test Depth of Chloride Penetration in Concretes at Marine Environment SUMMARY 72 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION GENERAL DIFFUSION TEST VALUES Chloride Profile Effect of Concrete Grades on Chloride Diffusion Effect of Fly Ash on Chloride Diffusion in Different Grades of Concrete 76

5 xi CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO Effect of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) on Chloride Diffusion in Different Grades of Concrete Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors (CI) on Chloride Diffusion in M40 Grade Concrete Compressive Strength Flexural Strength Split Tensile Strength Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors on Chloride Diffusion General Observations of Chloride Diffusion Values in Various Concrete Types RAPID CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION TEST VALUES Effect of Concrete Grades on RCPT Effect of Fly Ash in Concretes of Different Grades on RCPT Effect of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) in Concretes of Different Grades on RCPT Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors (CI) in Concretes of Different Grades on RCPT General Observations of RCPT Values in Different Concrete Types 96

6 xii CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 4.4 CONCRETE RESISTIVITY TEST VALUES Effect of Concrete Grades on Resistivity Effect of Fly Ash on Resistivity in Different Grades of Concretes Effect of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) on Resistivity in Different Grades of Concretes Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors (CI) on Resistivity in Different Grades of Concretes General Observations of Resistivity Values in Different Concrete Types WATER PERMEABILITY TEST VALUES Effect of Concrete Grades on Water Permeability Effect of Fly Ash on Water Permeability in Different Grades of Concretes Effect of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) on Water Permeability in Different Grades of Concretes Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors on Water Permeability General Observations of Water Permeability Values in Different Types of Concrete ACCELARATED CORROSION TEST VALUES 108

7 xiii CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO Effect of Concrete Grades on Re-bar Corrosion Effect of Fly Ash on Re-bar Corrosion in Different Grades of Concrete Effect of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) on Re-bar Corrosion in Different Grades of Concrete Effect of Corrosion Inhibitors in Concrete on Rebar Corrosion Effect of Concrete Surface Coatings on Corrosion Initiation Period Effect of Concrete Cover Thickness and Grades on Corrosion Initiation Time Effect of Fly ash, Cover Thickness and Grades of Concrete on Corrosion Initiation Time Effect of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Cover Thickness and Grades of Concrete on Corrosion Initiation Time Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Cover Thickness and Grades of Concrete on Corrosion Initiation Time DEPTH OF CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION IN DEFFERENT GRADES OF CONCRETE AT MARINE ENVIRONMENT SUMMARY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DURABILITY PROPERTIES AND SERVICE LIFE 130

8 xiv CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 5.1 GENERAL CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RCPT AND CHLORIDE DIFFUSION CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESISTIVITY AND RCPT CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WATER PERMEABILITY AND RCPT CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WATER PERMEABILITY AND RESISTIVITY CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORROSION INITIATION TIME AND RCPT WITH VARIOUS COVER THICKNESS CONSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORROSION INITIATION TIME AND RESISTIVITY SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION BASED ON CHLORIDE DIFFUSION CO-EFFICIENT SUMMARY MATHEMATICAL MODELLING FOR SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION GENERAL SOFTWARE HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS (MATLAB) 141

9 xv CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO Hardware Requirements Software Requirements INPUT PARAMETERS REQUIRED FOR MODELLING TO ESTIMATE SERVICE LIFE OF RCC STRUCTURE PREDICTING THE ACTUAL CORROSION INITIATION TIME ESTIMATION OF PROPAGATION PERIOD AND SERVICE LIFE EFFECT OF STEEL TYPES ON SERVICE LIFE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SERVICE LIFE DEVELOPEMENT OF SERVICE LIFE MODEL SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM DATA FLOW DIAGRAM Single Input Module Double Input Module Triple Input Module Four Input Module CONSTRUCTION OF INPUT TYPES IN THE MODULES USER MANUAL Service Life Estimation Model Display Pattern and Operation of Single Input Selection Display Pattern and Operation of Double Input Selection 160

10 xvi CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO Display Pattern and Operation of Triple Input Selection Display Pattern and Operation of Four Input Selection VALIDATION OF SOFTWARE MODEL WITH THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION CHLORIDE DIFFUSION RAPID CHLORIDE PENTRATION VALUE CONCRETE RESISTIVITY WATER PERMEABILITY ACCELERATED CORROSION INITIATION TIME DEPTH OF CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION IN TIDAL ZONE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN DURABILITTY PROPERTIES AND SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION SERVICE LIFE PREDICTION MODEL VALIDATION OF MODEL CONTRIBUTIONS SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 174 REFERENCES 176 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 184 VITAE 186

11 xvii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 2.1 Existing Durability Test Methods Test Carried Out on Raw Materials Physical and Engineering Properties of Raw Materials Chemical Composition of Fly Ash Chemical Composition of GGBS Properties of Superplasticizer (As per the Manufacturer) Details of Concrete Mixtures with out Admixtures Details of Concrete Mixtures with Fly Ash Details of Concrete Mixtures with GGBS Details of Concrete Mixtures with Corrosion Inhibitors Details of Mix Proportions With out Mineral Admixture Details of Mix Proportion with Fly Ash Details of Mix Proportion with GGBS Details of Mix Proportion with Corrosion Inhibitors Compressive Strength of Different Mixes Flexural and Split Tensile Strength of Mixes with Inhibitors (28 days) Corrosion Risk from Resistivity Parameters Monitored in Polarization Test Specimen Details for Studying the Effect of 60

12 xviii TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE NO. Cover Thickness Under Accelerated Corrosion Test 3.19 Properties of Coating Materials Consumption of Coating Materials Applied Over Concrete Specimen Surface Parameters Monitored for Diffusion Test Parameters Monitored for RCPT Test Details of Mixes Chosen for Preparation of Test Specimens Placing in Tidal Zone Depth of Chloride Penetration in Concretes of Different Types Exposed to Marine Environment Durability Properties of Concretes of Various Grades with Fly Ash and GGBS and Corrosion Inhibitors Service Life Estimation of Concrete of Different Mixtures Based on Chloride Diffusion Values Details of Mixes chosen for validation Durability Properties of Mixes studied for validation Purposes Comparison of Experimental Results of Mix- Val-1 with the Data Obtained from the Model Comparison of Experimental Results of Mix- Val-2 with the Data Obtained from the Model Comparison of Experimental Results of Mix- Val-2 with the Data Obtained from the Model 167

13 xix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 2.1 Corrosion of Steel in Concrete by Chloride 10 Attack 2.2 Service Life Model Design Details of One Half of the Test Cell Layout of Diffusion and RCPT Experiment 45 Unit 3.3 Resistivity Measurement German Water Permeability Apparatus Test 50 Setup 3.5 Test Set Up for Polarization Experiment Specimen Set for Polarization Study Concrete specimens Cast Using Cylindrical 55 Mould 3.8 Marking on the Specimen for Identity Concrete Cylinders after 28 Days of Curing Sizing of Specimen Using Diamond Saw 56 Concrete Cutter 3.11 Prepared Specimens with Markings for 57 RCPT and Chloride Diffusion Tests 3.12 Steel Bars with Insulation Tape and Coated 58 with Epoxy 3.13 Casting of Concrete Cylindrical Specimen with Re- Bars 58

14 xx FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO Typical Details of Test Specimen Specimens for Polarization Test Preparation of Putty by Mixing Different Ingredients Application of Putty Over Specimen Surface Specimens with Primer Coat Surface Coating in Progress Specimens with Three Types of Coating Diffusion Test Setup Rapid Chloride Permeability Test Setup Measurement of Concrete Resistivity Specimens Placed Under Polarization Test (TMT bars) Specimens Placed Under Polarization Test (CRS bars) Typical Chloride Profile of M25 Concrete Chloride Profile of M40 Grade Concrete Effect of Concrète Grades on Chloride Diffusion Effect of Fly Ash on Chloride Diffusion in Different Grades of Concretes Effect of GGBS on Chloride Diffusion in Different Grades of Concretes Compressive Strength of Concrete with Calcium Nitrate Inhibitors at Different Ages Compression Strength of Concrete with Sodium Nitrite Inhibitors at Different Ages 80

15 xxi FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 4.8 Compressive Strength of Concrete with Monothanolamine at Different Ages Flexural Strength of Concrete with Calcium Nitrate at the Age of 28 Days Flexural Strength of Concrete with Sodium Nitrite at the Age of 28 Days Flexural Strength of Concrete with Monothanolmine at the Age of 28 Days Split Tensile Strength of Concrete with and without Calcium Nitrate at the Age of 28 Days Split Tensile Strength of Concrete with Sodium Nitrite at the Age of 28 Days Split Tensile Strength of Concrete with Monoethanolamine at the Age of 28 Days Effect of Calcium Nitrate Inhibitors in Concrete on Chloride Diffusion Effect of Sodium Nitrite Inhibitors in Concrete on Chloride Diffusion Effect of Monoethanolamine Inhibitors in Concrete on Chloride Diffusion Effect of Concrete Grades on RCPT Effect of Fly Ash on RCPT in Different Grades of Concrete Effect of GGBS on RCPT in Different Grades of Concrete 93

16 xxii FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO Effect of Calcium Nitrate on RCPT in Concrete Effect of Sodium Nitrite on RCPT in Concrete (28 days) Effect of Monoethanolamine on RCPT in Concrete (28 days) Effect of Concrete Grades on Resistivity Effect of Fly Ash on Resistivity in Different Grades of Concrete Effect of GGBS on Resistivity in Different Grades of Concrete Effect of Calcium Nitrate on Resistivity in Concrete Effect of Sodium Nitrite on Resistivity in Concrete Effect of Monoethanolamine on Resistivity in Concrete Effect of Concrete Grades on Water Permeability Effect of Fly Ash on Water Permeability in Different Grades of Concretes Effect of GGBS on Water Permeability in Different Grades of Concretes Effect of Calcium Nitrate Inhibitor on Water Permeability in Concrete Effect of Sodium Nitrite Inhibitor on Water Permeability in Concrete 107

17 xxiii FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO Effect of Monoethanolamine Inhibitor on Water Permeability in Concrete Current Intensity for Concrete of M25 and M35 Under Accelerated Corrosion Test (29.5 mm cover thickness) Effect of Concrete Grades on Corrosion Initiation Time Current Intensity of Concrete of M25 and M35 with Fly Ash as CRM Under Accelerated Corrosion Test (29.5 mm cover thickness) Effect of Fly Ash on Corrosion initiation Time in Different Grades of Concrete Current Intensity of Concrete of M40 and M60 with 40% GGBS as CRM Under Accelerated Corrosion Test (29.5 mm cover thickness) Effect of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag on Corrosion Initiation Time in Different Grades of Concrete Effect of Calcium Nitrate on Corrosion Initiation Time in Concrete Effect of Sodium Nitrite on Corrosion Initiation Time in Concrete Effect of Monoethanolamine on Corrosion Initiation Time in Concrete Condition of Un-Coated Specimens at the End of Corrosion Initiation Period 116

18 xxiv FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO Condition of Un-Coated Specimens Continued Till the Coated Specimens to Reach the End of Corrosion Initiation Period Condition of Coated Specimens at the End of Corrosion Initiation Period Current Vs Rime for Coated and Un-Coated Specimens Corrosion Initiation Period for Concrete Specimens with and with out Coating Effect of Concrete Cover Thickness on Corrosion Initiation Time Effect of Concrete Cover Thickness on Corrosion Initiation Time in Different Grades Effect of Fly Ash and Concrete Cover Thickness on Corrosion Initiation Time Effect of Fly Ash on Corrosion Initiation Time in Concrete of Different Grades and Cover Thickness Effect of GGBS in Concrete and Cover Thickness on Corrosion Initiation Time Effect of GGBS on Corrosion Initiation Time in Concrete of Different Grades and Cover Thickness Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor and Concrete Cover Thickness on Corrosion Initiation Time 123

19 xxv FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO Effect of Various Corrosion Inhibitors in Concrete and Cover Thickness on Accelerated Corrosion Initiation Time Chloride Ion Penetration Depth of Concretes Placed in Tidal Zone Comparison of Chloride Diffusion Values Arrived Based on Marine and Accelerated Tests Conditions Relationship Between RCPT and Chloride Diffusion Values Relationship Between RCPT and Resistivity Values Relationship Between Water Permeability and RCPT Relationship Between Water Permeability and Resistivity Relationship Between Corrosion Initiation Time and RCPT Relationship Between Corrosion Initiation Time and Resistivity Relation Between RCPT and the Corrosion Initiation Time Modules Pattern Flow Diagram of Single Input Module for Service Life Prediction of RCC Structures Flow Diagram of Double Input Module for Service Life Prediction of RCC Structures 150

20 xxvi FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 6.4 Flow Diagram of Triple Input Module for Service Life Prediction of RCC Structures Flow Diagram of Four Input Module for Service Life Prediction of RCC Structures Starting Screen of the Service Life Prediction Model Selection Screen for Input Data Display Screen for the RCPT Selection Mode Display Screen After Entering the RCPT, Cover Thickness, Steel Type and the Environmental Condition Graphical and Numerical Results Display Screen for the RCPT and Diffusion Values Selection Graphical and Numerical Results Display Screen for the RCPT, Diffusion and Resistivity Values Selection Graphical and Numerical Results Display Screen for the RCPT, Diffusion, Resistivity and Water Permeability Values Selection Graphical and Numerical Results 165

21 xxvii LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS A - Ampere ASTM - American Society for Testing Materials BS - Black Steel Bar cm - Centimeter cm 2 - Square centimeter cm 2 / sec - Square centimetre per second CRM - Cement Replacement Materials EC - Epoxy Coated Bar CR - Corrosion Resistant Bar D C(Q) - Chloride Diffusion based on RCPT D C(R) - Chloride Diffusion based on Resistivity D C(P) - Chloride Diffusion based on Permeability Dc - Diffusion Coefficient Env. - Environment FA - Fly ash Fig. - Figure g - Gram GGBS - Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag HPC - High Performance Concrete kg - Kilogram M - Molarity m 2 / s - Square meter per second Max. - Maximum ma - milli Ampère Min. - Minimum

22 xxviii mm - milli metre mmol/cm 3 - milli mole per cubic centimeter mmol/ cm 3 s - milli mole per cubic centimeter second mol/l - mole per liter MA - Mineral Admixture N - Normality OPC - Ordinary Portland Cement P - Permeability Q - RCPT RCPT - Rapid Chloride Permeability Test R - Resistivity SCM - Supplementary Cementing Materials SP - Superplasticizer SF - Silica Fume SS - Stainless Steel Bar T i - Accelerated Corrosion Initiation Time ACIT - Actual Corrosion Initiation Time t p - Propagation Period S l - Service Life T a (Q) - Actual Corrosion Initiation Time based on RCPT T a (D) - Actual Corrosion Initiation Time based on Chloride Diffusion T a (R) - Actual Corrosion Initiation Time based on Resistivity T a (P) - Actual Corrosion Initiation Time based on Permeability V - Volt w/b Ratio - Water-Binder ratio w/c Ratio - Water-Cement ratio

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