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1 STOP TO BE READ AND PUT ASIDE Practical Guide for Fabric Upholstery With Customer Service Postcard

2 Dear customer, Congratulations on your purchase of new furniture. Furniture fabric as a covering material for your upholstered furniture is always a good choice. This fabric is a wonderful material, plus it is -- almost always easy to care for and durable. Both because of the quality of the materials used as well as the care we take in the manufacturing process, we are sure that you will be satisfied with your choice for a long time to come. Should you, however, still find fault with our products, this practical guide is meant to help you deal with the source of your complaint quickly and without too much trouble on your part to your complete satisfaction. In addition, in this guide you will find descriptions of specific features of upholstered furniture, which may at first seem to be a reason to find fault with the product, but upon closer inspection may not be a fault in the product after all, since it may simply have to do with the construction or the type of materials used. This is also referred to as product typical or model and application related features. (See also pages 7 through 9) Please do take a quiet moment to read our guide in order to get to know your seating group a little better and to find tips on enjoying the use of your furniture for still many years. If you have any questions or problems, feel free to call us or browse our website online for some answers to your questions. In any event, we hope you will enjoy your new upholstery. 2

3 PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR FABRIC UPHOLSTERY In order for you to always be satisfied with your new upholstered furniture in your daily use of it, we would like to take the opportunity to use the following pages to provide you with information on the special characteristics of upholstered furniture. In addition, we will provide you with some information on different fabric cover types used for upholstery and their characteristics as well as some tips on how to care for the specific cover type you have chosen. Please have your sales advisor mark the upholstery fabric type you selected. You purchased: Velour Flock fabric flock goods Microfibre Fabric Flat woven fabric Textile Leather What you should know in general about upholstered furniture: When judging the quality of upholstered furniture a differentiation is made irrespective of the materials that were used between three different properties: A) Properties dependent on the model type Understood in this regard is the overall appearance of a sofa set. This may refer, for example, to the casual design or the construction-based differences in the firmness of the seats. B) Merchandise typical properties Merchandise typical properties describe the specific features of the individual materials used to produce a sofa set, for example the natural characteristics of a specific leather skin or how colours might fade when exposed to direct sunlight. C) Usage properties This term describes the way an upholstered piece of furniture changes with use. Usage properties do not allow any conclusion as to the selected quality or manufacturing of a piece of furniture. 3

4 UPHOLSTERY STRUCTURE In modern, industrial upholstery furniture manufacturing, a difference is made between two upholstery types: The loose upholstery cushioning and the firm upholstery padding 1. The loose upholstery cushioning This upholstery type can be recognized by its soft and cosy nature. With this type of upholstery, the covering fabric is not connected tightly with the padding throughout, which gives it the appearance of a wavy surface. The resulting creases on the seat, the back and the armrests are not a quality defict. Among experts, reference is made to a deliberate crease development due to the model design. Generally speaking, a loosefit design is at hand when the covers show crimps or waviness either on the back, the seats or the front end of the seat cushion, on the arm rests, at the skirt or at the clamping section. You should expect fabric of the seat cover to expand with use and the cover will in this way maintain its typical appearance. This change, however, in no way minimizes the furniture s service life in the least. Evenly smoothing the creases out from left / right on the seats prevents wrinkle creases from being formed if the seat is used on one side only. As a guideline value for how many additional creases are permissible, normally the following estimate can be used: On a normal seating width, when smoothing out the cover towards the centre, the crease that is created should not be any higher than 2 cm. For larger sized furniture pieces (such as, for example, a two-seater of approx. 100 cm width), this crease may be somewhat higher accordingly, namely around 4 cm. Irrespective of these values, creases formed in the upholstery for design reasons may of course exceed these dimensions. Principally, however, it can be said that as long as creases developed during normal use that can be smoothed out evenly, this can be considered normal. 4

5 2. Firm upholstery padding For this type of upholstery, the cover is pulled tightly over the padding and connected. This prevents that while the furniture is used, not too many creases are created. In most cases, the creases that were formed while seated become taut again.however, even in this case it cannot be precluded that with a continued length of use even if only slightly creases will not develop. This should not be attributed to loss of resiliency in the cushioning, but rather it has to do with the stretching of the cover material. A typical identifying feature of this type of upholstered furniture is its straight-lined appearance. The seat s comfort level differs from other types upholstered furniture pieces in the fact that you do not sink very deeply into the cushion, but instead you have a firm seating position on the padded seat. ATTENTION! Even in this case, nothing can prevent the seat s firmness from softening depending on length of use and body weight. Upholstery Covering with Padding / Cushioning In this regard, we are referring to high-quality upholstery covering, which adjusts to the body form at certain points. This is achieved with a mixture of loose foam rods and feathers, which can shift as a whole based on the person and can then adjust to the body weight. To prevent the fill from shifting, the pads / cushions are stitched into individual cells. Depending on the cover type, the cells may become clearly visible on the surface. Optically, slight cavity formations during use are in this case evidence of the personalised adjustment of the cushion to the body. Even in such cases, this is referred to as behaviour typical to the product. By slightly fluffing the cushions (as you would a pillow) the original form can immediately be achieved. 5

6 Loose Back Cushions Attached Back Cushions Seat Cushion Back Cushions: For loose and attached back cushions, which are filled with feathers, foam rods or cotton, it is inevitable that these will need to be fluffed up after use to bring them back to their original form. Seat Cushions: The word loose means that the cushions can shift during use and then need to again be placed back to their original position. The advantage of this type of upholstery technology is that the cushions can in part be exchanged, which will in this way allow them to be worn in equal measure. Armrests, retractable or cushioned in firmly The armrests of upholstered furniture serve two very important functions: A) They serve to support a person s arms B) They are important for the appearance / the design of the furniture Depending on the design of the armrest, it is not suitable in its carrying capacity to hold bearing the weight of a grown person. This is why you should not sit on the armrest. The carrying capacity of an armrest is typically designed to hold up to 40 kg. Beyond that, depending on its wear and on the model type, varying degrees of damage can be caused with incorrect use. 6

7 THE CUSHIONING AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS A differentiation is made between two different types of seat firmness in upholstered furniture: 1. Design related differences in seat firmness 2. Use related differences in seat firmness 1. Design related differences in seat firmness are the result of different construction types of the upholstered furniture. This means that the seating comfort of the individual elements of a sofa suite can vary depending on which construction design is chosen for the spring base, for the padding and for the individual cushions. A) Padding B) Spring base The cushion of the upper part of the seat s construction is, depending on the design, the decisive factor for the firmness or the softness and cosiness of the seat. The springs are the lowermost part of the seat s construction. Depending on the design and how they are coordinated with the cushioning, the seat s firmness will result. If an upholstered piece of furniture has various different geometric forms, for design reasons, not every seat element will have the same spring type built in. Construction Related Seat Structure (Differences in Seat Firmness) Nosag Rubber Belts Spring Slats 7

8 This could result in that within the sofa suite there are differences in the seat firmness. This may apply especially to corner elements, interchangeable elements, ottomans or attached elements. So, it is very possible that the elements listed above,- despite equal cushioning layers are either softer or firmer than the other elements with a straight lined build type. As springs, the following is used most frequently: Steel coil springs, elastic belts, spring slats. fine padding core padding spring base 2. Use related differences in seat firmness In this regard, upholstered furniture has undergone a development throughout time, which is referred to as spring deflection. In this case, the entire cushioning will change during its use, depending on your body weight and depending on the length of use. This process can be most clearly observed if you use the upholstered furniture during the first few months only on one side. What is happening here is an entirely typical process, which takes place for every cushion. Once the cushion has gone through this process, it hardly goes through any more changes. In order to achieve an equally distributed firmness in the seating, it is important to change your seating position from time to time. Such changes in the seat firmness are normal and do not warrant any type of defect. Solid Wood Frames / Visible Wood Frames When solid wood is glued, optical variations in colour may result. For varnished woods or wood left in its natural state, this may be noticeable by significant differences in the colouring. Please keep in mind that wood is a naturally grown material and especially for this reason it appears alive. Small knobs, which do not impact the life of the furniture, may be processed into the frames. 8

9 FUNCTIONS OF UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE Every piece of upholstered furniture, which serves a function (for example sleeper sofas or bed sofas, recliners or TV sofas, couches with retractable arm rests and the like, have, depending on their value, different types of hardware fittings that generally have complex adjusting mechanisms. In order for each kind of mechanism, depending on the intensity of use and length of use, to remain functional, it is very important that they are well cared for. What is particularly important is the correct use of the individual fittings. For example, for an interchangeable sleeper sofa with a pullout bed or for a recliner sofa with a tilting function, the part in question should not be grasped, for example only from the right side or only from the left side and pulled out or tilted from that side. By only handling the furniture from the one side, the hardware may be damaged or it can be ripped out of its base -- typically the border of the frame. In order to prevent this, the extractable or tilting parts are best grasped from the centre or from the right and the left side at the same time and handled in this way. At the same time, when it comes to a recliner -- no matter whether it has an electric or a manual function the footrest or the adjustable backrest should not be used as a seat. This also applies to armrests of any kind most particularly if they are adjustable or retractable (see also the section Armrests ). Should this not be observed when using the furniture pieces, damage is inevitable, which is not the result of its quality or workmanship, but instead, without exception, the result of improper use or handling. This can usually be recognised by the furniture s twisted, broken or ripped out hardware. Because a piece of functional furniture is regularly subject to a flow of movement, the hardware joints should be checked for dirt from time to time, they should be cleaned and at the same time the screws, with which the hardware is attached, should be checked to see if they are still affixed tightly and, if necessary, they should be tightened. If you observe these simple rules, you will own a functional piece of furniture, which will continue to fulfil its purpose for a long time. For furniture with a sleeping function -- just as with real beds it is important to air out the mattress well to prevent any mildew from developing. Mildew development is never a result of the material used or the furniture s workmanship. It only develops if the furniture is not cared for properly, if it is improperly used or if there is too much humidity in the room. 9

10 THE UPHOLSTERY COVERS Some Points of Interest on the Subject of Upholstery Covers An Introduction: The price of your furniture is usually no indication on the longevity or robustness of a fabric, but instead it can be a reflection of other quality criteria, such as, for example, using (natural) materials exclusively, the sophistication of the design, the print or weaving process, high aesthetic value, particular refinement or lustre (for example silk: very expensive, yet unsuitable for furniture that is subject to wear). Velour This is a collective term for all fabrics for which yarns (whether natural fibres, originating from plants or chemical fibres, made synthetically or produced from cellulose) so-called nap is woven into the basic material. With this production process at good nap density the fabric can be made to be very wear resistant. This is why this type of covering type is well suited for furniture, which is used frequently. When impacted by pressure and body heat, slight changes may be the result so-called usage lustre, also known as seat sheen. In this case, it has to do with shadings (light/dark), caused by the shift in the nap from body pressure, body moisture and body temperature in day-to-day use. This is not considered a reduction in quality! Another typical characteristic of velour fabric is an iridescent effect, meaning, depending on how light falls on the surface, the fabric will seem either brighter or darker. With the play of colours, it may seem that the cover has varying degrees of colour. The reason for this iridescent effect has to do with the fact that velour fabric is generally processed in a single stroke direction onto upholstered furniture and that as a result, light depending on where the individual upholstered furniture pieces are placed, for example for a sectional group is reflected differently. 10 Window

11 This is not a defect and is also not dependent on the price of the merchandise, but is instead exclusively dependent on the fabric itself (typical characteristic of the merchandise). If you would like to make sure that there really are no variations in the colour, turn the cushion in different directions while standing in front of a window. If you can detect different shadings depending on how light falls onto the cushion, you can be assured that in this case this is not a defect. Mohair Velour Mohair is won from the Angora goat. In this case, the fibre is a classic natural product. Should you find black and grey hairs in your mohair velour, these are hairs, which changed in nature before the dyeing process and which could not longer absorb the colour during the dyeing procedure. This does not have a negative impact on the fabric s lifespan or on the quality of this excellent material. Since, to reiterate, this is a typical characteristic of the product, these types of black hairs are not a legitimate reason for a product complaint. Flat woven fabric Flat woven fabric is a term used for fabric types constructed from two sets of threads crossed at right angles. Normal seating alone can result in pillings developing on the fabric s surface. In technical terminology this is called pilling formation. These can develop: 1. By the twirling of loose thread strands of the woven threads 2. By foreign threads (for example from pieces of clothing), which are absorbed into the cover. This is then referred to as external pilling. The pilling formation (knot formation) can easily be removed with a lint shaver without damaging the threads of the fabric. Doing this does not impact the fabric s longevity. For printed flat woven, printed colours may loose their intensity, meaning they may fade, with use or through exposure to light. Flat woven fabrics made with a high level of natural fibres should not be exposed to direct sunlight, because in sunlight, the cover fabric can very quickly fade out. 11

12 Chenille Flat Woven Fabrics One special fabric amongst flat woven fabrics is the chenille flat woven fabric, for which as opposed to other flat woven chenille yarns are woven into the fabric. Through this process, chenille is soft to the touch and has a smooth appearance. The smoother and softer a chenille fabric is, the less firmly the threads are twisted together and for this reason it will also be less wear resistant. As a result of this special weaving technique, the price of this product type does not necessarily reflect its wear resistance. A higher price can reflect the exclusiveness of the yarns processed in a fabric or, for example, the weaving technique used. Just as with velour, shadings or seat sheen as normal evidence of frequent use can be observed. A slight loss of the pile yarn on the areas used most is also very typical for the product. Microfibre Fabrics This type of covering material is made of a combination of microscopic fibres constructed in a confusing arrangement of the fibres of which 10,000 metres weighs somewhere between 0.8 and 1.2 grams. From these purely synthetic fibres both woven as well as knitted fabrics can be manufactured, as well as twisted fleece. Because of the manufacturing technique, a high level of wear resistance is achieved in the material. Belonging to some of the best known and highest quality materials are, for example, Alcantara, Amaretta, Lamous and Belleseime. But even usage of woven and knitted mircrofibre fabrics can lead to the development of pilling. However, the pillings mostly are made of external fibres (from clothing) and can in this case be removed with the use of a lint shaver. In addition, through usage, a certain amount of patina formation on the fabric comparable to nubuc leather can be expected. This, however, does not have a negative impact on the durability and usability of the fabric, but instead is viewed as a feature typical for the cover material product. Observe the special care instructions (see separate table). 12

13 Textile Leather This type of material is a textile carrier (cotton, blended fabric), which has a coated polyurethane useable surface. This material is very soft and has a pleasant, smooth feel. The structure is designed to be similar to leather. Care instructions for this type of material can be found in the special manufacturer recommendations. Flock Goods / Flock Velour This covering material does not belong to the category of woven fabrics and is manufactured using a special process. When it is manufactured, in an electrostatic process, a polyamide fibre is applied and attached to a strong carrier material. Flock goods are characterised by a high variety of colour and especially by its high level of usage durability and ease of care. It is especially well suitable for households with small children. Even for this covering material, though, during use a seat shimmer can develop. This is a product typical feature and does not have any impact on the fabric s durability. What is also typical for the product is the iridescence of the fabric just like with woven velour fabrics. Flock adhesion Adhesion of flock happens during normal use and can easily be eliminated. It is recognizable by the fact that the fibres stick together to form small dots. These areas can be cleaned without any problems whatsoever with a moist piece of wash-leather. It is important to observe the Note on page 17. The cause of this type of adhesion may have to do, among other things, with the fabric being in contact with sugary foodstuff (for example juices, sodas, etc.) or from small children s saliva or the like. A few short notes on fabric composition and the base materials used: In furniture manufacturing, these days only such materials are used, which are environmentally compatible and which are thus not harmful to health. Despite this, allergic reactions cannot be absolutely excluded for any kind of material. 13

14 The most frequently used basic materials are the following: Mohair, wool, polyacrylics, polyester, polyamide, silk, linen and cotton. Each material has its own advantages, which is why during weaving oftentimes fibres are combined (professional term: blended fabric) in order to achieve the highest quality covering material by combining many positive characteristics. The structure of natural fibres is very intricate and tedious, but as a result, the fibre has a sophisticated appearance and is very friendly to the skin and pleasantly dry to the touch. The synthetic fibres are easier to manufacture because of today s technical developments. These fibres are typically much more agreeable for those who suffer from allergies. Light Fastness Generally speaking, every covering fabric will more or less fade out if exposed to direct sunrays. Synthetic fibres, however, do show a higher degree of light fastness than natural fibres. Keep in mind that, in an age when environmental protection is playing a larger role, in time the materials process will also to a greater extent be made from natural fibres and as a result the problem having to do with light fastness will become even greater. TIP: Do whatever you can to avoid your upholstered furniture from being exposed to direct sunrays. 14

15 Static Electricity in Upholstery Covers This is a consequence of heated living space in modern times. As a result of central heating combined with sealed windows, the relative humidity in a room is reduced to 30% to 40%. Because of this, a natural electrostatic discharge is no longer possible. Especially during heating periods that last particularly long, covers do tend to dry out and then to become statically charged. In such cases, the humidity in a room should be raised, for example, by potted plants, by placing moist towels on the heating elements, by using a humidifier or by spraying the sofa suite itself with an antistatic spray. (Please remember to first try this spray on a hidden spot on your furniture to make sure that the fabric can tolerate it!) Care and Cleaning of the Fabric Types Described Above Just like with all materials used daily, even furniture cover fabrics do require to be cared for regularly, since they are also exposed to continuous soiling from dust and skin contact. Generally, furniture should not be exposed to soiling over longer periods of time, which would make cleaning measures more difficult and in order to prevent the soiling from being absorbed into the cover fabric. Properly cleaning and caring for your upholstered furniture maintains its use value. A differentiation is made between care maintenance and cleaning! Care maintenance (applicable for all cover types). This can be compared with the daily personal hygiene for humans. This means, soiling that takes place through daily use (dust, soiling from skin contact, etc.) is removed, namely through regular vacuuming using an upholstery attachment (low vacuum strength) and by subsequently brushing the fabric with a soft brush in stroke direction. In addition, cover fabrics should from time to time be wiped off with a moist not too wet wash-leather, since, especially in centrally heated living space, the humidity is often too low. The moisture helps keep the fibres elastic and as a result this has a positive effect on the fabric s longevity. Please make sure that the wash-leather has first been rinsed out with clear water thoroughly and that there is no residue of any type of household cleaner on it. Cleaning: This is only necessary for unusual soiling, such as after small accidents, which can take place in any household (spilled drinks, food, blood, etc.). 15

16 STAIN REMOVAL (see the following table) Basically, stain removal is a task to be performed by a professional upholstery cleaner. If, however, you would still like to do this yourself, you should take note of the following: Chunky residue, for example food residue, should be removed with a spoon or with the blunt side of a knife. Dried stains should never be scratched off with your fingernail, since this may damage the fibres of the fabric. Fluids should be removed using an absorbable rag, and should, however, only be dapped not rubbed. After that, first try cleaning using lukewarm water (30 C) and a ph neutral shampoo or a mild detergent. Under no circumstances should you attempt cleaning with a household cleaner, since these are acidic and as such, they attack the fabric s fibres. What is of great importance is that you always work from the outside to centre so that the stain does not become larger and to avoid rings from forming. If you want to use a cleaning agent, never work directly on the stained spot. First, check on a hidden spot of the upholstery cover, whether the fabric is colour fast using a white, soft, clean rag that has been soaked with the cleaning agent or the stain remover. If the agent has special cleaning instructions (for example if the material includes a stain protectant), these instructions are in any case important for the cleaning process. Cleaning should generally be carried out by lightly dabbing and not using too much pressure. After removing the stain, the entire surface should always be wiped off using a moist cloth from seam to seam to avoid rings from forming. After that, using a dry cloth, the applied cleaning agent is to be removed and then, finally, the nap should be brushed out. Before the cleaned piece of furniture can be used again, it must be completely dry. After it has dried, the nap can be vacuumed with a vacuum cleaner, and using a soft brush, can be brushed off again. Stain removal from textile covers Water Soluble Stains A = using cold water, possibly with a solution made of ph-neutral shampoo and water treat the stain. Never use hot water, since proteins coagulate. B = treat the stain using a lukewarm solution made of ph-neutral shampoo and water If the stains cannot be removed in this manner, these spots can later be treated after they have dried using a cleaning solvent or a stain remover. C = Do not let the stain dry! Treat the stain immediately using a lukewarm solution made of ph-neutral shampoo and water. Water Insoluble Stains D = treat the stain using a solvent, such as benzene, grain alcohol or a stain remover that can be purchased in stores. E = do not work with an iron! As far as possible, crumble it and carefully lift it off. Careful for velour, there is a risk of damage to the surface. F = ask an expert. G = Moisten a white rag with a citric acid solution (1 tablespoon to 100 ml of cold water) and apply this to the stain. Remove the stain from its edge to the centre. 16

17 Stain Velour Flat woven fabric Microfibres Beer C C C Butter D D D Blood (aged) G G G Blood A A A Egg white/egg yolk A A A Vomit B B B Paint (Latex) D D D Paint (oil based) D D D Grease D D D Felt marker D D D Drinks/Juices C C C Cocoa/Milk B B B Coffee with milk B B B Chewing gum F F F Charcoal D D D Feces/Urine A A A Ballpoint Pen B B B Lipstick B B B Nail Polish D D D Perfume B B B Rust G G G Soot B B B Shoe Polish B B B Salad Dressing B B B Food B B B Liquor C C C Tea C C C Ink B B B Wax E E E Wine B/C B/C B/C Flock Fabric: Under no circumstances should you use any solvents, since these can ruin the cover! Clotted or hardened spots may never be scratched off with a fingernail neither in a dry nor in a wet condition or be rubbed off using a brush, since this could lead to possible damage in the nap. All stains should be removed using distilled water and soap while applying light pressure and working in a circular motion. For especially tough stains, please contact a cleaning service or POS GmbH in Hausen, Germany. 17

18 COMPLAINTS Should you, despite everything else, still have any complaints which we would very much regret we ask you to make note of the following: Please fill out the customer service postcard attached completely and send it to us. Please do your best to describe the damage as precisely as possible. A customer service employee will contact you as soon as possible and, if necessary, will coordinate an appointment to visit you. Should you loose the post card, please contact your furniture store or: POS POLSTERSERVICE GmbH [ The Value Keepers] Mühlenpfad Hausen Telephone 0049 (0) Telefax 0049 (0) All rights reserved. Any duplication or the reproduction of the text at hand, even only in excerpts, and their circulation are subject to the express approval of POS POLSTERSER- VICE GmbH located in Hausen-Solscheid, Germany. POS Polsterservice GmbH as a service company of the furniture branch and a supporting member of the community of value Deutsche Möbel is geared in its work on reclamations and the used materials to the quality and testing assessments RAL-GZ 430. Quality assured furniture 18

19 Customer Service Card: Important information on your complaint The damage is located on: Three-seated sofa Single-seat element Recliner Motorised recliner Chair Loveseat Massage chair Cushioned bed Ottoman Chaise Round corner section Sleeper sofa Armchair Sectional Two-seated sofa Other Description of the damage / notes: Cover type: Fabric Leather Other Furniture store: Model: Delivery date: photos included with the postcard or I sent these by as JPEG files to Manufacturer: Date of purchase: Purchase price approx.: Euros City/Date: Signature:

20 Sender First Name/Last Name: Street: POSTAL CODE/City: Telephone (personal): Telephone (workplace): Optional Mobile Phone: address: GFABRIC REPLY POS POLSTERSERVICE GmbH [ The Value Keepers] Department Private Customers Mühlenpfad Hausen, Germany Please add postage, if available

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