Ground Water Surveys and Investigation

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1 Ground Water Surveys and Investigation By Gautam Mahajan ASHISH PUBLISHING HOUSE 8/81, PUNJABI BAGH, NEW DELHI

2 - Contents Preface List of Abbrivations (v) (vii) INTRODUCTION History Drainage The Punjab Doabs Irrigation Man Made Changes in Drainage of Punjab Land Forms Climate Vegetation 2. GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY Introduction Geology of Area lying between Ravi & Beas Siwaliks Kandi Zone Sirowal Zone Alluvium Sub Surface Geology of UBDC Tract Ground Water Geology of Bist Doab Siwaliks Kandi Zone, Sirowal Zone Alluvium Aeolian Deposits

3 (x) Sub Surface Geology of BistDoab Occurrance of Ground Water in Bist Doab Area lying South of Satluj Sirowal Zone Alluvium Sub-surface Geology of Area South of Satluj Occurrance of Ground Water in South of Satluj Mineral Resources of Punjab GROUND WATER STUDY 3.1 Introduction : Ground Water Study in Bist Doab Behaviour of Water Table During 1927 to Behaviour of Water Table During Behaviour of Water Table During Behaviour of Water Table Behaviour of Water Table During Ground Water Study in Upper Ban Doab Ground Water Study in Area South of Sutlej Fluctuation of Water Table Yearly Fluctuation in Water Table June 85- June Ground Water Zones HYDROGEOLOGICAL SURVEYS AND INVESTIGATIONS 4.1 Infiltration Peromeability or Hydraulic Conductivity Water Logging and Skimming of Fresh Water Lying over Saline Water Pollution Study v Remote Sensing INFILTRATION Introduction Factors Affecting Infiltration k 135

4 (xi) Rainfall Characteristics Soil Surface Conditions ' Surface Cover Conditions Transmissivity of the Soil Mass Other factors Characteristics of Infiltrating Water Equipment required for Infiltration Tests & Theory Infiltration Determination Case Study-I Cast Study-II Tracer Technique The Hydraulic Continuity, Direction and Velocity of Ground Water Determination of the Effective Porosity & Dilution Technique for the Determination of Direction & Velocity of Ground Water Environmental Radio-Isotope in Ground Investigation Tritium in the Hydrological Cycle Carbon Isotopes in Hydrological Cycle Case Study-I (Tritium) PERMEABIITY OR HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY Factors affecting Hydraulic Conductivity Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity Inverse Auger Hole Method Auger Hole Method Determining Aquifer Hydraulic Conductivity WATER LOGGING AND SKIMMING OF FRESH WATER LYING OVER SALINE WATER Historical Back Ground Water Logging in South West of Punjab Water Resources of Region Factors causing Water Logging 224

5 (xii) Measures to Check Rise of Water table Preventing Excessive Water going into the Underground Stopping Additional Water to Underground Reservoir from flooding of rivers, Malas and Torrents Preventing the Hill Water from Entering the Plains Opening of Blocked Drains and Constructing New Storm Drains Lining of channels for reducing seepage water Pumping out water from depressions & low lying areas Withdrawal of Water Going into the Underground Installation of Shallow Tubewells Sub Surface Drains Skimming Wells Interface and Upconing Optimum Pentration of Well Use of Ground Water at Shallow depth in Saline Ground Water Areas POLLUTION STUDY Introduction Hydrogeology of Ground Water Pollution Access to the Aquifer Sewage and Industrial Water Sewage Study in Punjab Solid Waste Problem in Punjab Industrial Effluents Distillery Pulp & Paper Industry Dairy Electroplating Dyeing Wastes Tannery Wastes 281

6 (xiii) 4.5 REMOTE SENSING Introduction Water Resources Studies Case Studies Colour Aerial Photography Multiple Techniques Case Study WELLS & TUBEWELLS 5.1 Wells Tubewells Deterioration of Tubewells, Design of Tubewell Necessity of Design Well Design ' Gradation Analysis of Aquifer Determination of Depth of Well & Housing Pipe Selecting the Strata to be Screened and Fixing the Length of Screen Well Screen Diameter Well Screen Slot Size Determination of Size of Gravel for Shrouding Screen Entrance Velocity Well Development Dewatering Determining Aquifer Characteristics Dewatering Equation Factors in Selecting a Dewatering System Spacing of Tubewells 6. PUMP TEST Introduction Purpose of Pump Test Coefficient of Permeability & Transmissivity

7 (xiv) Coefficient of Storage Artesian Case The Water Table Case Aquifer Pump Test Pumping Wells Observation Wells Placement of Observation Wells Number of Observation Wells Prepration for Pumping tests Running of Pumping Wells Water Level Measurements Electric Sounder Wetted Tape Method Air Line Method Measurement of Discharge Determinating Duration of a test Recovery test for Transmissivity Advantages and Disadvantages of Pumping Test Aquifer Pump Test on Shallow Wells Aquifer Pump Test on Deep Tubewells ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE 7.1 Introduction Methods of Artificial Recharge Artificial Recharge in the State of Punjab Infiltration Rate Dimentions of Infiltration Area Aquifer Parameters Duration of Infiltration Method of Calculation Effects of Infiltration Basins of Water Level Below Choe Effects of Infiltration Basins on Water Level Adjecent to Choe 458

8 (xv) 7.4 Effect of Artificial Recharge on DTW Costs and Irrigated Area Surface Spreading Scheme Basin Scheme Recharge Study by Wells " Recharge from a River Effect of Recharge on Draw down in Observation Wells Wells along the Sutlej '' Injection Wells WATER QUALITY 8.1 Introduction Water Quality of Punjab Water Quality of Punjab by Panjab Agriculture University Systematic Ground Water Study Fit Water Marginal Water Unfit Water/Saline Water Distribution of State Area on the Basis of E.C Alkali Hazards Distribution of State Area on the Basis of R.S.C Broad Distribution on the Basis of E.C. & R.S.C. 517

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