Data Breach Lessons Learned. June 11, 2015

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1 Data Breach Lessons Learned June 11, 2015

2 Introduction John Adams, CISM, CISA, CISSP Associate Director Security & Privacy Powerful Insights. Proven Delivery. Kevin Hsiao, CISSP, PCI QSA Manger Security & Privacy Powerful Insights. Proven Delivery Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

3 Table of Contents Key Statistics 4 Breach & Identity Theft Prevention 12 Incident Response Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

4 Key Statistics Data Breaches & Identity Theft

5 Top Government Data Breaches Source: Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

6 2015 In the News Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

7 Cost of Lost Records According to the Ponemon Cost of Data Breach Study, Danish and US entities experienced the higher costs at $195 and $201, respectively. Both countries paid the highest value per compromised record for data breaches caused by malicious and criminal attacks: nearly $246 and $215 per record. The costs of data breaches are very different for each sector. Heavily regulated industries such as healthcare, pharmaceutical and financial services had the highest per capita data breach cost ($145). Source: Per capita Cost Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

8 Data Breaches Statistics Data Breaches in United States during 2014 Source: Social Media Today Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

9 Identity Theft Data Breach Statistics 9% 2% 0% 7% 0% 10% 40% 1% 34% 97% 270 Breaches To Date 102,372,157 Records To Date Industry Business Medical/Healthcare Banking/Credit/Financial Educational Government/Military 2015 is seeing a significant increase in healthcare related breaches. Health data is more valuable because credit cards can be cancelled, most health data can not. Source: Identity Theft Resource Center (ITRC) as of April Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

10 Cause of Data Breaches Frequency of Incident Classification Patterns with Confirmed Data Breaches (n=1,598) pos intrusions 28.5% crimeware cyber-espionage 18.8% 18.0% insider misuse web app attacks miscellaneous errors 9.4% 8.1% 10.6% physical theft/loss payment card skimmers Denial of service 3.1% 1.0% 3.3% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% Source: Verizon Report Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

11 Data Breaches Consequences Data breaches have major consequences for both the corporations and consumers; companies in particular can face severe repercussions on their business. FINANCIAL LOSS - caused by the data breach, and reputational damages are another serious consequence of these incidents. Major data breaches usually are subject to extensive media coverage, and in some cases the victim organizations could be subject to a class action lawsuit filed by its clients. Further expenses related to a data breach cover detection, escalation, notification and incident response. LOSS OF TRUST - customers could lose trust in the company, choosing to change service providers that in some cases could also be a direct competitor. Customer Impact - customers are also impacted by incidents; clients in fact are probably most exposed to the cybercrime, which can use the victim s personal details for fraudulent activities (e.g. Spear phishing attack, banking frauds, social engineering, debit/credit frauds). Multiple Fraud Opportunities - Increasing the consequence of data breaches is a user s habit to use the same credentials over different accounts and web services. Private companies and government entities need to improve their cyber strategies to prevent these kind of incidents. Unfortunately, security is still perceived as a supplementary cost to reduce; the budget to execute an organization s security strategy and mission is usually far less than what it is needed Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

12 Breach & Identity Theft Prevention

13 Profiling Threat Actors Source: Verizon 2013 Report Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

14 Security Triad The CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability) triad of information security is an information security benchmark model used to evaluate the information security of an organization. The CIA triad of information security implements security using three key areas related to information systems including confidentiality, integrity and availability. Confidentiality Ensures privacy and that the data is only available to the trusted parties that require access to the data. Information is organized in terms of who should have access and what level of access should be granted. Integrity Data integrity refers to the certainty that the data are not tampered with during or after submission. It is the certainty that the data will not be modified or destroyed by unauthorized parties. Availability Stored information is available when it is needed. In order for a system to demonstrate availability, it must have ability to store, process, and transmit the data as required. Source: Techopedia, CIPP Guide Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

15 Top Government Data Breaches Source: Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

16 Endpoint Security Spending Forecast Doing more with what you have. The threats and attack vectors are growing, but your budget isn t. Source: Ponemon Institute 2014 State of the Endpoint Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

17 Data Discovery Leverage a high-risk data discovery strategy that is practical, efficient, and provides useful and valuable results. Engage the business units and the data owners in the data discovery process. Locate the data, determine what kind of information it is, identify its current storage state (that is, whether it is held in the clear, or stored in an obfuscated state such as encryption, truncation, or tokenization), and the risk it may present. Combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to add specificity to the known high-risk data areas, while also finding the unknown sensitive data risks. Use a wide variety of tools from leading applications to custom designed programs to find high-risk data stored in multiple locations as cost effectively, efficiently, and accurately as possible. Results from the high-risk data discovery process should help address information vulnerabilities with thorough details, customized reports, data categorization, and risk assessments that can be used to design improvements and remediation action plans. Source: PWC Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

18 Defense in Depth Compliance does not equal security! Defense in depth is the coordinated use of multiple security counter measures to protect the integrity of the information assets in an enterprise. Physical Security User Awareness Firewalls and IDS/IPS If a hacker gains access to a system, defense in depth minimizes the adverse impact and gives administrators and engineers time to deploy new or updated counter measures to prevent recurrence. Logical Access Anti-Virus Patch Management Device Configuration Source: Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

19 Defense in Depth (Continued) Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

20 Breach Kill Chain Breach Kill Chain Initial Attack Vector Establish Foothold Identify Interesting Data Malware Propagation Exfiltrate Data Persistent Attack The attack can be disrupted at any point in the kill chain. Ideally, a company will have controls at each point to create a defense in depth strategy. Breach Kill Chain model shows, cyber attacks can and do incorporate a broad range of malevolent actions, from spear phishing and espionage to malware and data exfiltration that may persist undetected for an indefinite period Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

21 Security Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Security Governance External Vulnerability Internal Vulnerability Physical Security 5) World Class ROI realized Management dashboard of KPI s Continuous external monitoring Annual IRP testing Network Access Control (NAC) DLP tools fine-tuned Biometric access controls 4) Well Managed Security strategy Active monitoring 2-Factor authentication Internal IDS/IPS DLP tools implemented Breach notification Background checks 3) Controlled Employee awareness Security policies VA and penetration testing IDS/IPS monitoring Network segmentation Centralized patch management Key-card access controls Perimeter fencing 2) Due Diligence Defined security requirements, roles, procedures and policies Firewalls, ACL, DMZ Encrypted connections Network authentication Restricted file shares Security cameras Data center environmental controls Locked consoles 1) Ad-Hoc Lack of defined policies and standards Unrestricted Internet access Insecure protocols Little or no restrictions between key internal resources Little to no physical controls in place Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

22 Keep in Mind Focus on the Fundamentals Simple or intermediate controls will prevent many attacks Expensive tools and large initiatives are often not required How effectively does the team block and tackle? Industry and Business Specific Risk Assessments Determine what threats are most relevant to the consumer organization Is the sensitive data a target of interest or opportunity? What security incidents or frauds have occurred at competitors or business partners? Layer Defenses Many breaches involve several vulnerabilities Maintain a defense-in-depth posture Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

23 Keep in Mind (Continued) Focus on the Fundamentals Bring the not on my watch mentality every day Information security and fraud risk management programs are continuous and on-going functions Security and fraud risk management programs must have a Plan Do Check Act approach ACT CHECK PLAN DO Awareness and Training Must extend beyond traditional topics such as password sharing to also include: Current industry-specific threat vectors Phishing Social engineering tactics Privacy Technical as well as non-technical audiences Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

24 Incident Response

25 Develop an Incident Response Plan These days it is popular to say not if, but when, it is more prudent to say if it happens, how will we respond An Incident Response Plan (IRP) should be the process that guides your actions through a potential breach Source: Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

26 Develop an Incident Response Plan Preparation Define what an incident is and how to proceed based on severity IR Team - IS, IT, Legal, PR, Execs, Loss Prevention Define roles and responsibilities, assign primary & backup, all contact info Communication who needs to be contacted, prepare public statements, legal must review all communication Detection & Analysis Develop an information security program conduct risk assessments Stay abreast of latest security threats Implement security controls to detect & prevent breaches (AV, IPS, DLP, SIEM, Vulnerability Scans, Encryption) Validate incidents and assign severity Containment & Recovery Determine how to contain and minimize an incident before it happens Use tools to collect evidence to learn and to prepare for litigation Understand how to recover systems through malware removal, system reimaging, reviewing & resetting user and administrator accounts Reconcile the integrity of data from pre and post incident Post Incident Review entire incident and conduct a Lessons Learned training Improve security posture, incident plan & procedures Source: emrisk.com Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

27 Act Quickly and Sensibly The First 24 Hours Record the date and time when the breach was discovered, as well as the current date and time when response efforts begin, i.e. when someone on the response team is alerted to the breach. Alert and activate everyone on the response team, including external resources, to begin executing the consumer preparedness plan. Secure the premises around the area where the data breach occurred to help preserve evidence. Stop additional data loss. Take affected machines offline but do not turn them off or start probing into the computer until the consumer forensics team arrives. Document everything known thus far about the breach: Who discovered it, who reported it, to whom was it reported, who else knows about it, what type of breach occurred, what was stolen, how was it stolen, what systems are affected, what devices are missing, etc. Interview those involved in discovering the breach and anyone else who may know about it. Document the consumer investigation. Review protocols regarding disseminating information about the breach for everyone involved in this early stage. Assess priorities and risks based on what the consumer know about the breach Notify law enforcement, if needed, after consulting with legal counsel and upper management. Bring in forensics firm to begin an in-depth investigation. Source: Experian Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

28 Cyber Insurance A way to transfer breach risk Mitigate catastrophic loss Not intended to cover all costs Match policy to needs Understand your risk tolerance Insurance not intended to replace security controls Conduct due diligence to match policy with needs Consider policies that include services Some policies only cover costs Insurance providers are now offering other services customer notification, forensic analysis, legal services Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

29 Questions John Adams, CISM, CISA, CISSP Associate Director Security & Privacy Powerful Insights. Proven Delivery. Kevin Hsiao, CISSP, PCI QSA Manger Security & Privacy Powerful Insights. Proven Delivery Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

30 Confidentiality Statement and Restriction for Use This document contains confidential material proprietary to Protiviti Inc. ("Protiviti"), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Robert Half ("RHI"). RHI is a publicly-traded company and as such, the materials, information, ideas, and concepts contained herein are non-public, should be used solely and exclusively to evaluate the capabilities of Protiviti to provide assistance to the consumer Company, and should not be used in any inappropriate manner or in violation of applicable securities laws. The contents are intended for the use of the consumer Company and may not be distributed to third parties Protiviti Inc. An Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/Disability/Vet.

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