SOCIAL URBAN PLANNING SOCIAL MEDIA INTERVENTIONS IN THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

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1 SOCIAL URBAN PLANNING SOCIAL MEDIA INTERVENTIONS IN THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS GRADUATION MASTER RESEARCH, P5 REPORT. Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Urban Area Development Laboratory Mentor 1st : dr. ir. Gerard Wigmans Mentor 2nd : dr. ir. Alexander Koutamanis Student : Niraj Dewkisoen Sewraj Graduation firm : Development Corporation of the municipality of Amsterdam Date : 25th, January, 2013

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3 COLOPHON STUDENT INFORMATION Title : Social Urban Planning - Social Media interventions in the urban area development processes. Author : Niraj Dewkisoen Sewraj Student nr. : Adress : Mozartstraat XV Leiden Phone : Date proposal : MSc Lab : Urban Area Development UNIVERSITY INFORMATION University Faculty Master Department MSc Lab Address Website : Technical University of Delft : Architecture, Urbanism and Building Science : Real Estate & Housing : Real Estate Management : Urban Area Development : Julianalaan BL Delft The Netherlands : MENTOR INFORMATION Mentor 1 st Expertise field Mentor 2 nd Expertise field University Faculty Department MSc Lab Address Website : dr. ir. Gerard Wigmans : Urban Area Development : dr. ir. Alexander Koutamanis : Digital information systems and computational design : Technical University of Delft : Architecture, Urbanism and Building Science : Real Estate Management : Urban Area Development : Julianalaan BL Delft The Netherlands : GRADUATION FIRM INFORMATION Mentor Expertise field Firm Department Address Website : Jurgen Hoogendoorn : Policy advisor : Development Corporation of the municipality Amsterdam : Programma & Regie, Kaders en Fondsen : Weesperplein 8 Postbus BC Amsterdam The Netherlands : FOLLOW THE RESEARCH PROJECT ONLINE Facebook Linkedin Twitter Blog : : : https://twitter.com/#!/socialurbanplan :

4 PREFACE Voor u ligt een bijzondere publicatie van Niraj Sewraj; Social Urban Planning - Social Media interventions in the urban area development processes. De bouwkolom in Nederland en alle daarbij betrokken partijen zijn tot op heden bijzonder behoudend van aard. In de huidige crisis die een meer permanent karakter heeft dan menigeen vermoedt wreekt dit zich. Het grote aantal faillissementen onder bouwbedrijven, projectontwikkelaars maakt dit pijnlijk zichtbaar. In de wereld van gebiedsontwikkeling en bouwen is er sprake van een fundamentele identiteitscrisis. Niet alleen bij bedrijven maar ook bij overheden en onderwijsinstellingen. De grote vragen daarbij zijn Doen wij sociaalmaatschappelijk en economisch er nog toe? En op welke manier kunnen wij een sociaal-maatschappelijke en economische bijdrage of meerwaarde leveren? Desondanks de crisis vinden er in de Westerse wereld nog vele sociaal-maatschappelijke en economische innovaties plaats. Vele van deze innovaties zijn internet-technologisch (ICT) gedreven. Het einde van deze reeks innovaties is nog niet in zicht. Niraj heeft de moed gehad om zich te verdiepen in een onderwerp sociale media dat voor de bouw- en wereld van gebiedsontwikkeling tot voor kort nauwelijks bekend is. Sociale media,voor zover onderkend als van belang, wordt in deze wereld vooral gezien als een vorm van marketing. Niraj laat zien dat de betekenis van sociale media veel verder gaat dan marketing. In deze publicatie maakt hij duidelijk dat het een meerwaarde leverend instrument is. Een instrument waarbij burgers, eindgebruikers, de samenleving (of hoe u het ook wilt noemen) samen met ruimtelijke professionals tot betere ruimtelijke producten komt (co-productie). Buiten de wereld van bouwen en gebiedsontwikkeling is de instrumentele betekenis van sociale media al lang en al breed onderkend. Er worden inmiddels al weer verdergaande innovatieve stappen gezet. Sociale media gaan daarbij zelfs processen veranderen. Met andere woorden sociale media leiden tot fundamenteel andere processen en producten. Een mooi en recent voorbeeld hiervan is liquid feedback. Een op internet gebaseerde technologie; a free software for political opinion formation and decision making, blurring the boundaries between representative and direct democracy. Its most important feature is the implementation of a Delegated voting system ("Liquid Democracy") which is to establish a new form of political representation and participation that takes into account the knowledge disparity of its participants. Met deze publicatie brengt Niraj internet-technologische innovaties in de wereld van bouwen en gebiedsontwikkeling. Voor bestaande generaties is dit een nieuwe wereld die hen kan helpen verder te komen uit de huidige crisis. Voor komende generaties van ruimtelijke professionals is de publicatie een mooie en vooral inspirerende basis om nieuwe processen en producten te ontwikkelen. Mijn conclusie als één van de begeleiders is dat Niraj Sewraj een belangrijke bijdrage levert aan het scheppen van nieuwe toekomstperspectieven voor een bedrijfstak die momenteel in zeer zwaar weer verkeert. Het was mij een grote eer en genoegen om Niraj Sewraj hierin te mogen begeleiden. Jurgen Hoogendoorn Beleidsmedewerker Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Gemeente Amsterdam Januari 2013

5 MANAGERIAL SUMMARY The fundamental and radical changes in society like, i.e. the rise of the network society, the rise of Social Media, increased internet usage and the switch to the demand driven market forces everyone that is active in Urban Area Development in the Netherlands to think different about their profession. Traditional positions of power of the public and private sector are slowly breaking down. E. Scheurs (2011) refers in her graduation thesis to the three distinct processes of the network society, namely: Horizontalisation Deterritorialisation Virtualisation These processes are accelerating because of ICT developments, subsequently the rise of Social Media, and are strengthening each other. Horizontalisation is characterised by the breaking down of traditional and vertical relationships. There will always be a field of tension between functioning horizontal, de Rizoom or network society, and the necessity to organise vertically, de Boom, in order to keep progressing in the Urban Area Development process. In the essay of van der Steen et all., (2010) this dilemma is further elaborated. Tomlinson (1999) points out that deterritorialisation is characterised by losing the natural relations of culture with geographical locations and social areas. Deterritorialisation is visible in the network society when geographical locations or physical appearance is no longer a condition for interaction. This can be seen in our present-day society in developments like conference calls, Skype and the new way of working or flex working. Here is also the power of Social Media seen. With virtualisation it is about virtual realities in the present-day network society. According to Frissen (2001) these virtual realities do not replace the physical reality. All these processes are accelerating because of Social Media. Take for example the Arabic spring where Social Media facilitated the crowd to self-organize themselves in order to form a counter movement against the governmental powers. All news was enlarged on Social Media resulting to the rise of more counter movements in other countries. Another example is the movement known under the name Anonymous which operates on internet and is capable to have all kinds of sensitive information to be publically available. These developments influence the way we should develop urban areas in the Netherlands. Hopefully the public and private sector will understand that these fundamental changes in society will pressure their positions of power. It is time for change and adopting a different approach to develop urban areas. The growth of cities and the complexity that comes along is attended with many urban problems and several causes at the foundation of this phenomenon. Complexity in urban area development is increasing and the forming and implementation of a strategy or vision in the Urban Area Development process is challenging. Due to these urban problems future growth, accessibility and health of cities in the Netherlands is threatened. This also counts for the livelihood for the inhabitants. And the maintenance phase of the Urban Area Development process, where the biggest challenge lies, is not even mentioned yet. The old top-down or command and control model of urban governance does not suffice in a world of urban competition where cities and regions compete for inward investments, visitors, real estate development and inhabitants. (Wigmans and van Hoek, 2011). This also influences the planning of urban areas and the Urban Area Development process. As Kearns and Paddison (2000:847) put it, urban governance is not an attempt to regain control so much as an attempt to manage and regulate difference and to be creative in urban arenas which are themselves experiencing considerable change. Stoker (2006) argues that governance is about the capacity to get things done in the face of complexity, conflict and social change. Urban government needs to empower itself by using resources and skills from other organizations. Wigmans and van Hoek (2011) concluded from this that urban governance can provide new ways to achieve strength, creativity and resources. In this way Social Media is given room to improve the Urban Area Development process.

6 Important to consider is that communication which is part of the organising capacity as a development strategy of the EUR school, takes in an important role when developing urban areas. ( Van den Berg, Braun and Van der Meer, 1997). Good communication between all stakeholders helps to develop a broadly supported vision for urban developments. Through successful implementation and evaluation of this joint vision sustainable economic growth and an improved local context can be achieved. (Wigmans and van Hoek, 2011). With Social Media, which exceeds the traditional way internet is used, it is possible to create more efficient communication, transparency, and social and financial support, within the Urban Area Development process. Technological developments have resulted in the birth of Social Media which enable people to make connections, create relationships and share information. The strengths of Social Media cannot be neglected and should be integrated in order to improve the Urban Area Development process. Hopefully, this will lead to increased success regarding the urban area development project and the Urban Area Development process. Because there is a lack of knowledge regarding the use of Social Media in the Urban Area Development process it is needed to evaluate Social Media interventions in the Urban Area Development process, in the Netherlands, to see where there is room available to improve and how to improve the Urban Area Development process. There will be focussed on the creation of more efficient communication, transparency, and social and financial support, within Urban Area Development process to secure sustainable future developments. The relevance of this research is that there is room for Social Media to improve the Urban Area Development process. This can result in the decrease of the gap between what is planned and what is being built in practice, because of the creation of more efficient communication, transparency, and social and financial support, within Urban Area Development, securing a more sustainable future. The problem statement that is described sets the basis for this research which tries to answer the following main research question: How can Social Media be integrated within the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands, in order to improve the efficiency in communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support amongst stakeholders? Furthermore, the research sets out to answer the following sub-research questions as well: What are the aims of using Social Media as an intervention within the urban area development process? What measures were taken in implementing Social Media within the urban area development process and for what purpose? What are the effects of using Social Media within the urban area development process, regarding the efficiency of communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support from stakeholders? Which stakeholders were involved when the Social Media interventions were carried out? And in which specific phase of the urban area development process did this occur? How can Social Media improve the urban area development process regarding the efficiency of communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support from stakeholders?

7 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This research strives to achieve the following objectives: 1. Insights in improvement possibilities in the Urban Area Development process because of the opportunities of Social Media. 2. Interrelationship of Social Media and the Urban Area Development process. 3. Insights in applicability of Social Media. THE RESEARCH METHOD This research sets out as an explorative research using the ex-post evaluation method. A mix of methods was used to build both theory and empiricism. The methods used are; the case study, the literature review and qualitative research like interviews with case and experts. The research design is divided into five main phases which is illustrated underneath. Phase 1: In phase 1 there is an exploration of the research subject. Within this phase the first interviews are done. Also there should be an exploration done of Social Media and the use of Social Media in the field of Urban Area Development. An explorative scope for the research was formulated. Furthermore theory needs to be built within the research, the literature that will help in building this theory was defined. Phase 2: In phase 2 it should be clear how the cases will be evaluated, by defining the questions and the criteria within a research model. This means that the research design and methods used should be coherent and meet the demands in making the research feasible within the timespan set. Furthermore the cases need to be defined and an preliminary attempt should be done in evaluating the cases. The amount of cases was first set at 3 cases, but later on adjusted to 13 to cover enough ground. It is important that the theoretical framework should also be completed most of the part as this will be the basis for the criteria used and the research question for the theoretical framework are answered also. The theoretical framework functions as an fragmented reservoir of information from where there could be theory drawn. Introduction interviews with organizations that are interested in this research are desirable. So in short not only the objectives of the research should be clear but also the path that needs to be

8 followed in order to achieve the objectives. In this phase the Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Gemeente Amsterdam from the municipality of Amsterdam was chosen as the graduation company. Phase 3: In phase 3 the research starts with the evaluation of the cases within the timespan of this phase. Furthermore the cases needs to be judged upon application possibilities and improvements should be mapped. It is also important to increase the own knowledge. Therefore it is important to attend seminars and courses as well as finding more information about Social Media usage in the field of Urban Area Development. Phase 4: In phase 4 the analysed data will be processed in order to get an overview of the research results. Then all data is send back to the interviewees in order to have a double check. Phase 5: In phase 5 the last findings can be presented and changes can be done if needed. It is important to fine-tune the report. After this the final report will handed over and the final presentation will be given. In order to evaluate the cases and answering the research questions it was important to develop a research model. The research model is shown in below and consist out of the following aspects: The Urban Area Development phases The Stakeholders The Communication directions The Social Media approach The Social Media categories The community organizations All cases will be evaluated according to these aspects from now called the research model points. The theoretical framework will elaborate more on these points. It is possible to evaluate the cases when more in-depth information about these points are available.

9 CONCLUSION THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK It can be stated that Social Media offers the players in the field of urban area development the possibility to improve certain parts within the Urban Area Development process in each of the four phases on different levels, both the product as well as the process. There are many possibilities to use Social Media as an intervention in the Urban Area Development process to increase the chance of successful Urban Area Development. But therefore it is needed to prepare properly before applying Social Media and there has to be thought how to manage and maintain the Social Media in order to create a sustainable character instead of wasting time and financial means. Thus it is important to have a proper Social Media strategy, clearly defined goals, creative solutions and execute social management. Still we must not forget as Hobma (2010) mentioned that the presence of a given success factor does not guarantees success but rather increases the likelihood of success. The theory acted as a guidance during the empirical research to fall back in order to formulate the conclusions. CASES The cases that are chosen can be found in the below mentioned table. All cases are chosen on basis of their data richness, accessibility, uniqueness and relation with Urban Area Development. This resulted in 13 cases that are applicable in this research. Case Luchtsingel, Rotterdam Wikaza Verbeterdebuurt.nl Nidoo Play the City Zelfbouw Amsterdam Hartje Eindhoven Wiener&Co Haarzicht Nobelhorst WoonApps Noord-Zuid lijn, Amsterdam Spoorzone Delft Company ZUS Wikaza Creative Crowds Nidoo.nl Play The City Municipality of Amsterdam Amvest Heijmans AM Dura Vermeer Dura Vermeer Municipality of Amsterdam Municipality of Delft & Prorail SOME INSIGHTS COMING FORTH OUT OF THE EMPIRICAL FINDINGS In short, the management of organisations needs to understand the power of Social Media and open their traditional thinking in order to adopt Social Media. Furthermore, not only Social Media but Urban Area Development as well, demand of everyone that is active in Urban Area Development to think constantly about (re-)positioning themselves and adapt intuitively to present-day and future developments that affect the field of Urban Area Development. Therefore it is of utmost importance to increase the knowledge concerning Social Media usage. This will help to achieve the objectives set and understand which conditions are to be taken into account to increase success. Organisations should not be led by fear but rather see Social Media as an opportunity to develop better projects both on the product and process level.

10 In the field of Urban Area Development it should be clear that stakeholders should strive for a mutual understanding between each other. There is time needed for other stakeholders to understand complex information and the meaning of the initiative. One needs to understand that not all opinions can be taken along in the process. This is not possible now nor in the future because of all the different interests. Social Media offer all stakeholders in the field of Urban Area Development the possibility to improve their information supply, which provides tremendous added value for the Urban Area Development process. However, this comes along with more complexity, because of the long-term of Urban Area Development projects, and the skill to translate information faster to solutions within all sorts of boundaries and conditions. Therefore experts with certain competences both in the area of Urban Area Development and in the area of Social Media will always be needed to understand the story behind the story. And when the experts are filtering the information it is important not to overrule information that does not fit within the personal conceptual framework, there needs to be filtered in the best interest of the project. Castells (1995, 2001) explains that the emergence of the network society under the influence of ICT possibilities increases the discrepancy between spatial territories in the physical sense and the scope of economic, social, and cultural networks. Burgess, Brenner (2004); Graham and Marvin, (2001) were pointing out that spatial fragmentation, social differentiation and inequalities between regions, countries, cities and social groups is taking place with a rapid pace. One of the biggest problems is the rise of digital fragmentation or in other words a digital divide in society. This digital divide will increase and further triggered with the increasing use of Social Media. There will be a division between the ones that can access the digital world and the ones that cannot. The groups can differ from old to poor or just somebody that is not able to use Social Media. Compare this when people without a car or telephone are excluded from the decision-making process for giving form to their own living environment. ANSWERING THE MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION Now the use and consequences of Social Media in the Urban Area Development process is explained, it is possible to answer the main research question: How can Social Media be integrated within the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands, in order to improve the efficiency in communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support amongst stakeholders? The main research question consists out of multiple parts, namely: How can Social Media be integrated within the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands? In order to improve efficiency in communication, regarding time reduction and transparency? And the creation of social and financial support amongst stakeholders? Answering the main research question will be done by elaborating on the aforementioned parts. The empirical results are the basis for answering the main research question. Furthermore, there will be concluded with a last word. INTEGRATE SOCIAL MEDIA WITHIN THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS It is clearly shown that Social Media offers a multitude of opportunities but also pitfalls. Social Media demands resources to be made available. But also the fine-tuning of the use, alignment, integration and management of these Social Media. By doing so, the interaction level and connectivity will be increased to enable the crowd to make better use of these Social Media. For the initiator of the Social Media initiative this will hopefully lead to a higher quality of information input, creating awareness

11 and support to increase the chance of achieving the Social Media objectives and successful Urban Area Development both on the product and process level. Social Media has proven to be more than merely a communication channel and surpasses many existing intervention tools in the Urban Area Development process. From the research done there can be concluded that there is no clear cut answer for the main research question. The question how can Social Media be integrated differs per project and depends on the objectives. However, this research provides insights on how to integrate Social Media and which set of basic conditions are needed to be taken into consideration to increase successful urban area development, when using Social Media in the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands. The range for using Social Media depends on the objectives and the context of the project rather than on the phases of the Urban Area Development process. However, the context and the objectives differ per phase of the Urban Area Development process and thus indirectly influences the use of Social Media. But caution needs to be taken when stating the latter, because empirical research shows that parts of the different Social Media interventions were present in each phase of the Urban Area Development process. However, the objectives of these Social Media interventions differed. The range for using Social Media is extensive. With Mobile Social Media the range is drastically increased, as it is now possible to be connected and interact at any given time and place with users of those Mobile Social Media. But Social Media should not be seen as a replacement of all activities within the Urban Area Development process. There will always be an expert needed with knowledge and know-how, to formulate a feasible plan. Another problem that comes forth is the increased digital divide, because it is impossible for everyone to access Social Media. So there will always be offline activities needed to take everyone into account in the Urban Area Development process. However, it would be desirable when Social Media could automate the facilitation of different stakeholders to enter and retreat from the Social Media initiative throughout the Urban Area Development process, i.e. like a Social Media lifecycle for the Urban Area Development process. To illustrate, the Social Media initiative starts in the initiative phase and proceeds all phases of the Urban Area Development process ending in the maintenance phase. During these transitions different stakeholders are entering and leaving the arena of the development, i.e. new residents should be able to join the Social Media and old residents should be able to leave the Social Media. This will however demand many conditions to be taken into consideration i.e. how do you decide who is responsible in each phase of the lifecycle for which activities and many more questions to come. Some Social Media already provides a likewise process. When this process could be fully facilitated from the Social Media initiative it will increase the sustainability of the initiative. The opportunities of Social Media comes along with lots of conditions and boundaries that need to be taken into consideration. Therefore, it is important to define a strategy and manage the Social Media properly. This demands certain measures to be taken, certain competences of the responsible persons and the availability of resources. It is about creating a common understanding, listening and communicating transparent, in other word being social. These and more activities are to be executed to increase the chance of success when using Social Media. This lays pressure on the management of organizations to provide the resources and right conditions. However, the resources should not be leading when using Social Media as an intervention tool. In other words, it is about finding the right balance between the resources and the right approach for using Social Media in order to increase the success. Social Media provides a multitude of opportunities that can be seized by all stakeholders in the Urban Area Development process from creating a voice, generating knowledge, improving information

12 supply to creating new business models and more. They aid in achieving traditional marketing objectives as well as social objectives. It is also shown that Social Media can be used at different levels of the Urban Area Development process from the fact related aspects to the organizational talent. The public and private sector are taking the risk to fall behind by not adopting Social Media when developing and maintaining the quality of urban area developments. The civic society already uses Social Media intensively enabling them to have an organized collective voice. Furthermore, future generations are going to be reached faster and easier with Social Media as they are going to make more use of these Social Media. These generations are growing up in a time of the digitalization of society, thus making it easier for these generations to understand and make use of Social Media. This needs to be a wake-up call for the public and private sector to start adopting Social Media and increase their Social Media knowledge. Social Media are reaching out to all players in the field of Urban Area Development to be creatively used as an useful intervention tool with a broad range of use. But still one needs to keep in mind that, as Hobma (2010) mentions, a given success factor does not guarantee success but rather increases the likelihood of success. IMPROVE EFFICIENCT COMMUNICATION, TIME REDUCTION AND TRANSPARENCY Regarding time reduction, it is shown that it is not obvious that efficient communication automatically leads to time reduction when using Social Media in the Urban Area Development process. This is true in some cases. Social Media enable to reach larger groups of people in a shorter time period but these groups of people supply huge amounts of information that need to be filtered. This increases the complexity of the project. And the filtering of these huge amounts of information is very time consuming. Thus Social Media provides on the one hand time reduction regarding reaching the crowd and on the other hand turns out to be very time consuming because of the huge amounts of information need to be filtered. Therefore, a team is needed to manage the Social Media and filter the information. Forming this team is also costly and very time consuming. Filtering information is a difficult problem now will always remain a problem. Nevertheless, it is important to adopt Social Media because it is now possible to have a better information supply from which there can be an improved Urban Area Development process on all levels from involving stakeholders to listening and anticipating better on the demand of the market. Listening and having patience is always time consuming but will hopefully lead to better solutions and developments in the field of Urban Area Development. Transparency is a difficult aspect when using Social Media. It is shown that it is expected to be totally transparent on Social Media. But be transparent regarding the information that is being generated. It is not obliged to communicate everything during the filtering process, so there can be chosen to wait what to communicate and what not. Which part of the process is made transparent should depend on the context and the objectives of the project. Sensitive information can be abused. After filtering the information, the half-time scores or the outcome can be published. Be clear and distinguish the official from the un-official Social Media to guarantee the correctness of information. One should be aware that making the Urban Area Development process both has advantages and disadvantages, i.e. the problems online anonymity brings and the crowd providing erroneous information, will always be present. Nevertheless, Social Media provides a range of solutions to make communication transparent for everyone. It is possible to choose which communication is publically available or only for a select group. Therefore there can be made use of different community organisations and Social Media channels to give form when it is needed to be or not be transparent. One should be aware that Social Media can be used by the crowd to enforce transparency. Being transparent on Social Media can increase the trust amongst stakeholders for a project, i.e. by showing the faults or how problems are solved. Social Media provide the possibility to reach larger groups of people and address large amounts of information whereby Social Media functions as an extra information channel. This contributes added value in Urban Area Development whereby on the one hand information should be generated and on the other hand information should be shared to keep stakeholders updated. Players in the field of Urban Area Development now have the possibility to be and keep others better informed. But at the

13 same time they need to face the increased complexity and the problem of filtering information that comes along. It is therefore wise to make use of Social Media management tools and spread the responsibilities amongst capable persons to achieve the goals and increase the success of the project. Furthermore, J. Zuidhof (2012) points out the importance of understanding the story behind the story referring to the competences needed to manage Social Media and filter the information. THE CREATION OF SOCIAL AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT AMONGST STAKEHOLDERS It is shown that both social and financial support can be attained through the use of Social Media. The cases show that the social support around the projects have increased by using Social Media as an intervention tool to get into dialogue and involve stakeholders by keeping them updated or making them co-responsible in the decision-making process of their own living environment, i.e. Verbeter de buurt or Nobelhorst. Also financial support can be attained by crowd funding projects, i.e. de Luchtbrug in Rotterdam. Wikaza also shows that bringing people together can create financial value namely a group of people wanting to invest in building their own home with other participants. So Social Media exceeds being merely a communication channel. Social Media is a must have as an intervention tool in the toolbox of everyone active in the Urban Area Development process. Social Media provide the possibility to create the both social and financial support of an individual or a group around a certain theme/project leading to the erection of an online collective. This collective is tangible and far more powerful than all fragmented individuals. The collective consisting out of individuals also reaches the network of all individuals making it possible for others to join the online collective, making the collective to grow. SOCIAL MEDIA A MUST-HAVE IN URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT OR NOT? Social Media can be integrated within the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands in order to improve the efficiency of communication and create both social and financial support amongst stakeholders. Integrating Social Media in the Urban Area Development process does not always lead to time reduction. As for transparency, there can be concluded that Social Media can enforce transparency but one has to be cautious when to be transparent and when not. There is no clear cut answer on how to integrate Social Media. As shown this depends on the objectives and the context of the project. Social Media are characterized by a range of integration possibilities within the Urban Area Development process on both the product and the process level. One should develop a strategy which integration possibilities fit the context of the project. There can be concluded that Social Media offer a range of opportunities and pitfalls but demand resources to be made available. Social Media can be seen as receptors or the extra pair of eyes and ears for all who are active in the field of Urban Area Development. Fine-tuning the use, alignment, integration and management of Social Media is needed. Social Media demand effort in order to achieve success. Social Media affect Urban Area Development and the influence of Social Media is already clearly shown. The use of Social Media will only increase in the future because of developments like, i.e. the network society. Social Media are no miracle tools, they have both positive and negative effects. One should not try to have total control over Social Media nor expect that they will provide a total overview. Social Media increases the digital divide. One should always take the digital divide into consideration. Not only the communication landscape of Urban Area Development is changing but the anarchy that is paired with Social Media is a fundamental conflict with the top-down approach of Urban Area Development as well. There will always be a field of tension between functioning horizontal, de Rizoom or network society, and the necessity to organise vertically, de Boom, in order to keep progressing. Social Media are to be made partially controllable in order to progress. Another

14 problem is that digital landscape will always develop faster than Urban Area Development and thus impeding to switch between both contexts. Furthermore, the digital urban professional is an urban professional that is active on the boarders of the digital world and reality. Furthermore, the urban professional is able to arbitral filter information and switch between both worlds in order to create feasible projects and increase the chance of success. There is no need for a new profession in Urban Area Development, but everyone who is active in Urban Area Development needs to think about (re-)positioning themselves, developing social competences and knowledge, be smart, creative, take the time and adapt intuitively to present-day and future developments that affect the field of Urban Area Development. Social Media are more than merely communication channels, they are must-have tools for everyone active in Urban Area Development. Social Media can best be seen as an exploration mission where it is not always clear what to do and not everything is within your grasp. Setting up a Social Media initiative costs money and time, without knowing whether it will be successful or not. It is about breaking from tradition and striving higher ambitions. Using Social Media is an iterative process of trial and error in order to achieve the goals that are set. We should not be led by fear but rather see Social Media as an opportunity to develop better projects in the future both on the product and process level.

15 READERS GUIDE The report that lies before you is the result of a research conducted for my master thesis in the graduation track with the direction Real Estate & Housing at the faculty of Architecture at the Technical University of Delft. This research takes place within the Urban Area Development lab. The first chapter describes the introduction of the subject, the problem statement, the research questions, the research objectives, the relevance of the subject, the end result and target group, and the personal motivation. This chapter sets the basis for the rest of the research. In the second chapter the research method will be described. The research strategies and research design are described within this chapter, accompanied with an explanation of the phases of the research design and he research model. The third chapter consists out of the theoretical framework which aims to develop a framework with grounded theory about Urban Area Development and Social Media. In the urban area development part of the theoretical framework the process will be described accompanied with stakeholder identification and importance, the facet and sector related aspects of urban area development,and the success factors of urban area development. The importance of pointing out these aspects enables to relate where there is room to use Social Media in order to improve the Urban Area Development process. As for the Social Media part of the theoretical framework grounding theory needs to be found. It is important to point out the different types of Social Media and their applicability, the strengths and weaknesses, and the trends. The fourth chapter describes how the empirical research is built up and it also contains the results of the expert meeting and case studies. The fifth chapter begins with conclusions based upon the empirical results, the theoretical framework and my own reflection. There is distinction made between two levels; namely the level of the project or case and the level of the phases of the Urban Area Development process. Later the main research question is being answered. This chapter provide insights regarding Social Media usage in the Urban Area Development process. These insights helps decision-makers and all others that are curious about how to use Social Media, the opportunities and pitfalls when using Social Media and the conditions and dilemmas that are to be taken along to increase the chance of successful implementation. The sixth chapter reflects on the method and validity, the process and the usability of the results. The research ends with an epilogue on this journey and my sincere expression of gratitude to all that made this research possible and kept me motivated. Another path to read this research is by reading chapter 1, scan chapter 2 and dig into chapter 4. Chapter 4 provides many insights in how Social Media was implemented. From chapter 4 it is important to read chapter 5 thoroughly. Chapter 5 relates all findings and converges all the information into defined insights, conditions and dilemmas.

16 CONTENT COLOPHON 3 PREFACE 4 MANAGERIAL SUMMARY 5 READERS GUIDE 15 CONTENT 16 TERMINOLOGY INTRODUCTION GLOBALIZATION AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE NETHERLANDS: URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT TIME TO CHANGE SOCIAL MEDIA REVOLUTION PROBLEM ANALYSIS PROBLEM STATEMENT EMPIRICAL OBJECT & DELIMITATION RESEARCH QUESTIONS MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION SUB RESEARCH QUESTION RESEARCH RELEVANCE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES TARGET GROUP AND RESULT UTILISATION POTENTIAL MOTIVATION VISION FUTURE PROFILE RESEARCH METHOD RESEARCH STRATEGY RESEARCH DESIGN PHASES RESEARCH DESIGN RESEARCH MODEL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 36

17 3.3. SOCIAL MEDIA CONCLUSION RELATION CORNERSTONES THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK CONCLUSION THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK EMPIRICAL RESEARCH INTRODUCTION EXPERT MEETINGS INTERVIEWS WIT COMMUNICATIE, JAN JELLE VAN HASSELT COMMUNIESENSO, INGRID VAN FRANKENHUYZEN SYNERGIE, JANNEKE VAN ZUIDHOF INTERNET MARKETING NEDERLAND, WOUT GIJSBERS ONTWIKKELINGSBEDRIJF GEMEENTE AMSTERDAM, FRANCOISE KRAAIJENZANK TRIPYLON MEDIA, SIROUS KAVEHERCY MEDIAMATIC, WILLEM VAN VELTHOVEN SEMINARS VAKIMPULS SOCIAL MEDIA & INFRASTRUCTURELE PROJECTEN, LOGEION EN KING CROWDFUNDING AMSTERDAMSE INNOVATIE MOTOR CROWDFUNDING, ZUS HOW TO ENGAGE CITIZENS WITH SOCIAL MEDIA, THE MOBILE CITY INTERNET MARKETING CURSUS, INTERNET MARKETING NEDERLAND INTRODUCTION CASES CASES CASE A DE LUCHTSINGEL, ROTTERDAM CASE B WIKAZA CASE C VERBETER DE BUURT CASE D NIDOO CASE E PLAY THE CITY CASE F ZELFBOUW, MUNICPALITY AMSTERDAM CASE G HARTJE EINDHOVEN, AMVEST CASE H WIENER & CO, HEIJMANS CASE I HAARZICHT, AM CASE J NOBELHORST, DURA VERMEER CASE K WOONAPPS, DURA VERMEER CASE L NOORD/ZUIDLIJN, MUNICPALITY AMSTERDAM CASE M SPOORZONE, MUNICIPALITY DELFT CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS EMPIRICAL RESEARCH INTRODUCTION GENERAL CONCLUSIONS CASES AND SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE CASES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS STAKEHOLDERS DIALOGUE OR ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION? CASES AND THE DIFFERENT SOCIAL MEDIA APPROACHES CASES AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS CASES AND THE SOCIAL MEDIA CATEGORIES

18 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE STAKEHOLDERS SOCIAL MEDIA APPROACHES DIALOGUE OR ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION? COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONSASES SOCIAL MEDIA CATEGORIES 5.2. CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES PITFALLS CONTEXT OF URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT IMPEDING SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE THE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANISATIONS TOWARDS SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE SOCIAL MEDIA AND FILTERING THE INFORMATION SUPPLY THE INCREASING DIGITAL DIVIDE THE INTEGRATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS THE INITIATIVE PHASE THE PLANNING PHASE THE REALISATION PHASE THE MAINTENANCE PHASE OVERALL CONCLUSION SOCIAL MEDIA FORCING STAKEHOLDERS TO RETHINK THEIR POSITIONS USING SOCIAL MEDIA, AN ITERATIVE FILTERING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS NEW COMPETENCES AND THE SOCIAL MEDIA TEAM SOCIAL MEDIA MANAGEMENT SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY ANSWERING THE MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION INTEGRATE SOCIAL MEDIA WITHIN THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMET PROCESS IMPROVE EFFICIENCT COMMUNICATION, TIME REDUCTION AND TRANSPARENCY THE CREATION OF SOCIAL AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT AMONGST STAKEHOLDERS SOCIAL MEDIA A MUST-HAVE IN URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT OR NOT? 6. REFLECTION INTRODUCTION METHOD & VALIDITY METHOD VALIDITY PROCESS USABILLITY EPILOGUE LITERATURE APPENDICES 230

19 TERMINOLOGY Urban Area Development Urban area development can thus best be described as the sum of a large number of complex process performed by many individual stakeholders where they can claim a say at different scale levels, involving international competition between cities on an international stage and subject to the direct influence of events from far outside the region in question. Every stakeholder has their own definition of the problems involved, and the interests of the various factors may differ markedly. Stakeholders According to L. Bourne, (2005): Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interesto r some aspects of rights or ownership in the project, can contribute in the form of knowledge or support, or can impact or be impacted by, the project. Web 2.0 Utilising the World Wide Web as a platform whereby content and applications are no longer created and published by individuals, but instead are continuously modified by all users in a participatory and collaborative fashion. User Generated Content User Generated Content (UGC) can be seen as the sum of all ways in which people make use of Social Media. Social Media Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) the definition of Social Media can best be described as a group of Internet based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content. Return On Investment When an investment is done there should be benefits attained. Usability When the end-user can satisfied make use more efficient and effective of a product. Context Project features (stakeholders, location, politics etc.) The Crowd In this research the crowd is referred to as people that use the internet or Social Media. These people are assumed to be anyone. Expert A person with a high degree of skill in or knowledge of a certain subject; in this report the subject has to do with real estate development, the brief, user participation techniques and / or user centered tools.

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21 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 GLOBALIZATION AND URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT Today is different from yesterday and the future is changing faster than most of us can comprehend. Who would have thought decades ago that we could move ourselves within considerate timespan all over the world, communicate with people all over the world and being able to be most flexible because of technological innovations, surprising the world over and over again. Globalisation and the ICT developments gave rise to the network society consisting out of space of flows and space of places according to Castells (1995). Cities are forced to formulate a vision and strategy to give direction for the future development of the city to become part of this network as strategic nodes. Figure 1- Globalization, the real news journal.com. The rapid development of specialized financial services, telecommunications, infrastructure and industrial services, have stimulated global trade, investments, finance, technology transfer and labour flows. This has also stimulated the importance for major cities as locations for the management, servicing and financing of these greatly enhanced global economic circuits. According to Sassen (2000) Cities have become strategic nodes through which the new economy can be planned and facilitated. Castells (1995, 2001) refers to the informational city and Halfani (1996) to a symbolic economy. Here the role of architecture and design is important in the generation of added value, decreasing the role of capital inputs and increasing the role of social infrastructure, education, logistics and innovation. Sassen (2001) gives the examples of Tokio, New York and London as examples of cities which represent these aspects. It is then a Global City where cities are not a places anymore but are part, as strategic nodes, of a network of services and production lines (Sassen, 2001). The new global financial geography re-asserts the importance of large agglomerations and metropolitan regions, particularly since most governments in developing countries advocate globalization as the most promising way out of under-development (Toledo-Silva, 1995). According to Carmona (2009) the expectation is that under urban modernization and economic growth, globalization will ultimately lead to the spread of social and economic developments to all regions and all social groups. This means that boundaries, national and international, are rapidly losing their importance as regions and cities open up their production and financial services to international capital and are increasingly becoming the dominant economic units. The downside of globalization is that spatial fragmentation, social differentiation and inequalities between regions, countries, cities and social groups is taking place with a rapid pace (Burgess, 2004, 2005; Brenner, 2004; Graham and Marvin, 2001). Urban interventions are needed to manage the urban transformations in order to prevail urban problems from arising. Therefore urban areas need to be strategically planned keeping the context and future changes in mind. Improving the urban area development process and creating support amongst stakeholders can help to lessen the gap between what is planned and what is being built in practice.

22 1.2 THE NETHERLANDS: URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT TIME TO CHANGE The fundamental and radical changes in society like, i.e. the rise of the network society and the rise of an demand driven market forces everyone that is active in Urban Area Development in the Netherlands to think different about their profession. Traditional positions of power of the public and private sector are slowly breaking down. E. Scheurs (2011) refers in her graduation thesis to the three distinct processes of the network society, namely: Horizontalisation Deterritorialisation Virtualisation These processes are accelerating because of ICT developments, subsequently the rise of Social Media, and are strengthening each other. Horizontalisation is characterised by the breaking down of traditional and vertical relationships. There will always be a field of tension between functioning horizontal, de Rizoom or network society, and the necessity to organise vertically, de Boom, in order to keep progressing in the Urban Area Development process. In the essay of van der Steen et all., (2010) this dilemma is further elaborated. Tomlinson (1999) points out that deterritorialisation is characterised by losing the natural relations of culture with geographical locations and social areas. Deterritorialisation is visible in the network society when geographical locations or physical appearance is no longer a condition for interaction. This can be seen in our present-day society in developments like conference calls, Skype and the new way of working or flex working. Here is also the power of Social Media seen. With virtualisation it is about virtual realities in the present-day network society. According to Frissen (2001) these virtual realities do not replace the physical reality. All these processes are accelerating because of Social Media. Take for example the Arabic spring where Social Media facilitated the crowd to self-organize themselves in order to form a counter movement against the governmental powers. All news was enlarged on Social Media resulting to the rise of more counter movements in other countries. Another example is the movement known under the name Anonymous which operates on internet and is capable to have all kinds of sensitive information to be publically available. All these developments have influence on the way we should develop urban areas in the Netherlands. Hopefully the public and private sector will understand that these fundamental changes in society will pressure their positions of power. It is time to change and adopt a different approach to develop urban areas. 1.3 SOCIAL MEDIA REVOLUTION As mentioned before Social Media enable to create relations with people through digital networks and having the possibility to generate and share information. In the Netherlands there are already 7.4 million Twitter users and 6.6 million Facebook users. (Marketingfacts, 2012). The Social Media users are still increasing rapidly thanks to innovative technological developments like mobile phones and GPS technologies. This makes it possible to improve the connectivity and interaction with the crowd. The facts shows us that Social Media takes in an important position in the today s society. Furthermore, future generations will use Social Media more often because they are growing up midst these developments. In this way future generation can then be reached faster and easier, enabling them to participate in the decision-making process of their living and working environment.

23 1.4 PROBLEM ANALYSIS PROBLEM STATEMENT The growth of cities and the complexity that comes along is attended with many urban problems and several causes at the foundation of this phenomenon. Complexity in urban area development is increasing and the forming and implementation of a strategy or vision in the Urban Area Development process is challenging. Due to these urban problems future growth, accessibility and health of cities in the Netherlands is threatened. This also counts for the livelihood for the inhabitants. And the maintenance phase, where the biggest challenge is, of the Urban Area Development process is not even mentioned yet. The old top-down or command and control model of urban governance does not suffice in a world of urban competition where cities and regions compete for inward investments, visitors, real estate development and inhabitants. (Wigmans and van Hoek, 2011). This also influences the planning of urban areas and the Urban Area Development process. As Kearns and Paddison (2000:847) put it, urban governance is not an attempt to regain control so much as an attempt to manage and regulate difference and to be creative in urban arenas which are themselves experiencing considerable change. Stoker (2006) argues that Figure 2 www. crosscollaborate.com governance is about the capacity to get things done in the face of complexity, conflict and social change. Urban government needs to empower itself by using resources and skills from other organizations. Wigmans and van Hoek (2011) concluded from this that urban governance can provide new ways to achieve strength, creativity and resources. In this way Social Media is given room to improve the Urban Area Development process. Social Media offers many opportunities in the Urban Area Development process because they can be deployed as an extra tool for interactive dialogue with the civic society, urban professionals and other stakeholders. Social Media can for example help by facilitating participation of stakeholders and to create social and financial support and transparency with lower costs, if managed properly. Think of crowdsourcing and crowd funding. It is important not only to focus on the input of the civic society but on the input of urban professionals as well. Reaching the professional crowd with relevant information also provides added value. Where some think the civic society or crowd knows more, it is important to have professionals to filter what is relevant and reliable information and what is not. The crowd does not possess all knowledge necessary for developing urban areas. To illustrate, citizens of a village that oppose to a highway through their village are not aware that the goal is to increase the connectivity helping their village to prosper. Facilitating the participation of urban professionals and the civic society is important and needs to be balanced. Furthermore the results and progress can also be spread through Social Media in order to reach more people. Social Media can aid in the Urban Area Development process and can contribute even more when looking at the marketing potentials of Social Media. Furthermore, support can be gained from stakeholders through Social Media. In this way the Urban Area Development process can be a dynamic almost living system that is able to continuously evolve and updated. Important is that the digital urban professional should act as a regulator that filters and judge the divergent and unequal qualitative sources in different phases of the Urban Area Development process. This gives rise to questions like; Who has influence and how to manage this digital process? How to judge sources? What is the range of the digital environment? Who is involved in this process?, and more questions. Communication is part of the organising capacity as a development strategy of the EUR school. ( Van den Berg, Braun and Van der Meer, 1997). Good communication between all stakeholders helps to develop a broadly supported vision for urban developments. Through successful implementation and

24 evaluation of this joint vision sustainable economic growth and an improved local context can be achieved. (Wigmans and van Hoek, 2011). With Social Media, which exceeds the traditional way internet is used, it is possible to use Social Media as a tool in order to create more efficient communication, transparency, and social and financial support, within urban area development To prevent or reduce these problems research has to be done to understand the Urban Area Development process and the influence of the stakeholders. Furthermore, technological developments have resulted in the birth of Social Media which enable people to make connections, create relationships and share information. The strengths of Social Media cannot be neglected and should be integrated in order to improve the Urban Area Development process. Hopefully, this will lead to increased success regarding the urban area development project and the Urban Area Development process. Because there is a lack of knowledge regarding the use of Social Media in the Urban Area Development process it is needed to evaluate Social Media interventions in the Urban Area Development process, in the Netherlands, to see where there is room available to improve and how to improve the Urban Area Development process. There will be focussed on the creation of more efficient communication, transparency, and social and financial support, within Urban Area Development process to secure sustainable future developments EMPIRICAL OBJECT AND DELIMITATION In this case the urban area development process with Social Media interventions, in the Netherlands, will be the empirical object. The focus lies at Social Media interventions to improve the Urban Area Development process. Understanding of the context, content, actors and means for realisation of urban management are important to judge in the light of the context. This is visualized in Figure 4. This research seeks for improvements of the Urban Area Development process, with the use of Social Media, in order to lessen the gap between what is planned and what is being built in reality. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION Figure 4 Empirical object and delimitation MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION How can Social Media be integrated within the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands, in order to improve the efficiency in communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support amongst stakeholders? SUB RESEARCH QUESTIONS What are the aims of using Social Media as an intervention within the urban area development process? What measures were taken in implementing Social Media within the urban area development process and for what purpose? What are the effects of using Social Media within the urban area development process, regarding the efficiency of communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support from stakeholders? Which stakeholders were involved when the Social Media interventions were carried out? And in which specific phase of the urban area development process did this occur? How can Social Media improve the urban area development process regarding the efficiency of communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support from stakeholders?

25 1.6 RESEARCH RELEVANCE THE SOCIAL RELEVANCE The social relevance is that many urban problems are arising with several causes at the foundation. Complexity in urban area development is increasing and the forming and implementation of a strategy or vision in the planning process is challenging. The vision or strategy gives direction for the future urban area developments of cities and are often not overlapping with what is actually being built in reality. The mismatch between planning and practice is visible all over the world on different scales. This results in all kind of spatial, social and economic problems arising in these areas. The problems arising impedes the growth of cities. To prevent or reduce these problems research has to be done to comprehend the Urban Area Development process and the influence of the stakeholders. Further the technological developments have resulted in the birth of Social Media which enable people to make connections, create relationships and share information. The strengths of Social Media cannot be neglected and should be taken into consideration within the Urban Area Development process. There is room for Social Media to improve the Urban Area Development process. This can result in the decrease of the gap between what is planned and what is being built in practice, because of the creation of more efficient communication, transparency, and social and financial support, within Urban Area Development, securing a more sustainable future THE SCIENTIFIC RELEVANCE The scientific relevance is that information is added to the domain of Urban Area Development regarding the improvement of the Urban Area Development process with Social Media interventions in the Netherland. Nevertheless the gap between urban planning and practice will always exist because of the complexity of Urban Area Development. The influence of Social Media is new and not thoroughly researched yet EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM RELEVANCE The educational curriculum relevance is that the broad domain of Urban Area Development and Social Media is explored. The rise of Social Media influences the way we work, communicate and think. This research lays down a starting point for future researches. There is a demand for insights in how Social Media can aid in the Urban Area Development process. This demand will increase as Social Media and other technological developments will change over time and have more influence. The same counts for Urban Area Development. 1.7 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research objectives which are strived to accomplish consist out of three objectives. 4. Insights in improvement possibilities in the Urban Area Development process because of the opportunities of Social Media. 5. Interrelationship of Social Media and the Urban Area Development process. 6. Insights in applicability of Social Media. Figure 5 Research objectives 1.8 TARGET GROUP & RESULT The end result is that there will be insights provided about the added value of Social Media integration in the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands. This can result in a manual for using Social Media as an intervention in the Urban Area Development process.

26 The target group consist out of the public sector, the governmental bodies, which are involved in Urban Area Development and the planning sector, and the private sector. For the private sector it is most interesting because they need to search for new opportunities within Urban Area Development. Furthermore other professionals active in the urban area development domain can benefit from these insights. 1.9 UTILISATION POTENTIAL The utilisation potential is interesting because these insights and integration possibilities are an overview of the lessons learned. This overview can act as a guidance for implementing Social Media interventions in certain phases of Urban Area Development process, in order to improve this process. The overview will consist out of multiple parts from the do s and don ts to the tools needed for successfully implementation of Social Media. Maybe it is possible for future researches on the same topic to the test what is now empirically found in order to create new theory for stakeholders in Urban Area Development MOTIVATION My motivation for doing research within the context of Urban Area Development is related to the fascination of the growth of cities and the complexity that comes forth out of this growth. This growth is attended by many urban problems arising. These problems can be dealt with by planning the developments of urban area. In the planning phase there is direction given for the future development of the city. One of the urban problems is that there is always a gap between what is planned and what is being realised in practice. Then there is the phenomenon that what is being realised does not necessarily corresponds with what was planned or what was realised or planned does not correspond with the demand of the civic society. Social Media can aid in this process because it is an extra channel that can be used for interactive dialogue with the civic society, urban planning professionals or other stakeholders. Social Media can help with the participation of stakeholders and to create support with lower costs if it is managed properly. Think of crowdsourcing and crowd funding. The rise of Social Media is seen in many other business sectors where using Social Media as a tool provided added value. But we as urban area developers are lacking behind. Social Media exceeds the traditional way internet is used and enables to break through the traditional approach of urban area development. Is it for example possible to use these Social Media as a tool in the communication repertoire? Or to create more efficient communication? improved transparency? or social and financial support? All within Urban Area Development. The complexity of the urban area development domain and the question, where can Social Media aid within this process?, attracts me enormously. It is challenging to see whether Social Media interventions lead to better urban planning. Further I am personally hoping to be involved in business activities regarding the development of Social Media strategies for the Urban Area Development sector as well as other business sectors VISION ABOUT THE RESEARCH SUBJECT The existing gap between urban planning and practice is no surprise becasue what people think is good now can be interpreted as bad 10 years later. This phenomenon is not odd as realising urban area developments takes a considerate timespan to be realised. Furthermore there are a lot of other factors which contribute the always existing gap, as mentioned by Wigmans (2005). The old top-down or command and control model of urban governance does not suffice in a world of urban competition where cities and regions compete for inward investments, visitors, real estate development and inhabitants (Wigmans and van Hoek, 2011). As Kearns and Paddison (2000:847) put it, urban governance is not an attempt to regain control so much as an attempt to manage and regulate difference and to be creative in urban arenas which are themselves experiencing considerable

27 change. Stoker (2006) argues that governance is about the capacity to get things done in the face of complexity, conflict and social change. Urban government needs to empower itself by using resources and skills from other organizations. Wigmans (2011) concluded from this that urban governance can provide new ways to achieve strength, creativity and resources. This is very important as this is the link for facilitating participation in the planning process. It is important not only to focus on the input of the civic society but also on the input of other urban planning professionals. Where some think the crowd knows more, it is important to have professionals to filter what is relevant and reliable information and what is not. Also the output of information is important, as reaching many people, and providing information/output of a certain project, can generate support also. It is all about finding the balance between output and input, but also the facilitating this transfer of information among stakeholders. Social Media can aid in this process and can contribute even more looking at the marketing potentials of Social Media and the way support can be gained from stakeholders through Social Media. Look at some crowd funding projects, creating new financial models, to realise urban area development projects i.e. De Luchtsingel in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Important is that as mentioned before Social Media can be used in the communication repertoire in order to create more efficient communication, transparency, and social and financial support, within urban area development This research will focus on the evaluation of multiple cases where there was made use of Social Media interventions in the Urban Area Development process. The Urban Area Development process with the stakeholders and Social Media applications are used as the reference frame. Important is to do a case analysis where the goals, measures and effects can be evaluated. The end result focusses on generating insights in the added value of Social Media interventions and the applicability within the urban area development process of cities in the Netherlands PROFILE FOR THE FUTURE ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY This research will help me to develop skills needed in the field of Urban Area Development. Wanting to be a developer in the future, insights are needed in the field of Urban Area Development. As a developer insights in the Urban Area Development process, the communication repertoire, and the stakeholders involved brings many advantages. Understanding this process adds value when developing in a complex social and economic context. The use of new technologies, communication tools and urban planning approaches ( bottom-up, top-down) are important as they will help with the urban planning and development of urban areas in the future.

28 2. RESEARCH METHOD 2.1 RESEARCH STRATEGY As methodology the literature review will help in gaining insight to create grounding theory to evaluate the cases. Then an evaluation table can be set up, based upon grounding theory, to evaluate the cases in a consistent manner. There will also be made use of qualitative research by doing interviews and an expert panel. The ex post evaluation method will be used for the case analysis. By conducting preliminary research enough comprehension is created to set up an experiment for a case. This experiment will be an improved Social Media intervention in the urban area development process. A case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. (R. Yin, 1994). A literature review is the totality of activities the researcher undertakes to use that body of information in such a way that a topic of inquiry can be competently defined and addresses. A literature review only exist after the general material has been arranged into a coherent system, one that has been customized to fit the research question. (D. Wang, 2002). Qualitative research is multi method in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials. (N.Denzin, Y. Lincoln, 1998). The evaluation method will be used for the cases that will help in gathering information and gaining insights in the process. Evaluating is value determination, for example a news article or television program that is interesting will be given attention, when found that It is not interesting people will look for something else. When conducting scientific research, with evaluation-research there is meant: A clear formulated problem statement A clear research design A systematic way of gathering data and doing analysis A report that shows how the problem statement is solved or not D.I Stufflebeam noticed: The most important purpose of evaluation is not to prove, but to improve. So evaluation-research finds it place within practical aimed research. The gathering, analysing and reporting of data is a direct goal of evaluation-research. In most of these researches collaboration is needed with target groups or persons because it is the only way to measure different visions. Being independent is a very important aspect of the research process. In short an evaluation-research is thus aiming at the identification of the success or failure of an intervention. The term intervention is broadly interpreted by Swanborn (2007). Important is to define the intervention as good as possible so that there is no ambiguous interpretation what does and what does not belong to the intervention. Also important is to know who executes the intervention and what is the intervention aimed at. With these interventions certain effects are aimed at to achieve, in other words changes in scores on aimed variables. There are diverse aimed variables. These can be competing with each other. So there are different effects (Swanborn, 2007). The ex post evaluation method is an evaluation of already executed interventions. Choosing case studies should be done by looking at the following criteria mentioned by Swanborn (2008); No criteria, Random sampling, Pragmatic criteria, Content criteria, and in each case the first criteria is data richness.

29 The interviews will be structured with the same subjects so later on the interviews can be processed in a structured. It is important to validate the interviews. So after the data analysis the interviews and result will be send to the interviewee to double check the results. 2.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The research design is made visible in Figure 6. The research design consist out of different phases, from phase 1 till phase 5. After the phases are elaborated the evaluation method will be explained. Figure 6 Phases of the research design PHASES RESEARCH DESIGN The phases are visualized in Figure 6. Phase 1: In phase 1 there is an exploration of the research subject. Within this phase the first interviews are done. Also there should be an exploration done of Social Media and the use of Social Media in the urban area development terrain. An explorative scope for the research has to be formulated. Furthermore theory needs to be built within the research, the literature that will help in building this theory needs to be defined. Phase 2: In phase 2 it should be clear how the cases will be evaluated, by defining the questions and the criteria within a research model. This means that the research design and methods used should be coherent and meet the demands in making the research feasible within the timespan set. Furthermore the cases need to be defined and an preliminary attempt should be done in evaluating the cases. The amount of cases was first set at 3 cases, but later on adjusted to 13 to cover enough ground. It is important that the theoretical framework should also be completed most of the part as this will be the basis for the criteria used and the research question for the theoretical framework are answered also. The theoretical framework functions as an fragmented reservoir of information from where there could be theory drawn. Introduction interviews with organizations that are interested in this research are desirable. So in short not only the objectives of the research should be clear but also the path that needs to be followed in order to achieve the objectives. In this phase the Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Gemeente Amsterdam from the municipality of Amsterdam showed interest in the research.

30 Phase 3: In phase 3 the research starts with the evaluation of the cases within the timespan of this phase. Furthermore the cases needs to be judged upon application possibilities and improvements should be mapped. It is also important to increase the own knowledge. Therefore it is important to attend seminars and courses as well as finding more information about Social Media usage in the field of Urban Area Development. Phase 4: In phase 4 the analysed data will be processed in order to get an overview of the research results. Then all data is send back to the interviewees in order to have a double check. Phase 5: In phase 5 the last findings can be presented and changes can be done if needed. It is important to fine-tune the report. After this the final report will handed over and the final presentation will be given THE RESARCH MODEL The case analysis will be conducted by using the evaluation method. The evaluation will be conducted with the help of the research model seen in Figure 6, data analysis and an interview with the keypersons of the Social Media initiative. The criteria and the importance of mapping these criteria will be explained in the theoretical framework. The remarks cells are made to give extra information that is important to that specific subject. A full description of the cases will be given according to the evaluation questions mentioned in the research strategy. The questions that will be the basis of the evaluation-research of each of these cases are : What are the objectives? What are the interventions? What are the results? What could be improved? Who was involved? In which phase of the process was the Social Media initiative launched? In order to answer the first question there will be an interview done with the initiator of the Social Media intervention to make clear what the objectives were for launching this Social Media intervention. While filtering what the objectives are it is also important to understand the reasons for using Social Media. If there were interventions done regarding improvement of the efficiency of communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support from stakeholders, this needs to be mentioned explicitly. As for the second question it is important to identify the interventions. In the evaluation table there is a distinction made for different types of Social Media and other technologies that closely relates to Social Media i.e. Augmented Reality and Mobile devices. These different types or classifications should be described more in-depth in the case analysis. For example, there is made use of a Social Networking site called Facebook, where it was possible get into contact with other users of this Social Networking site. Therefore, distinction is to be made between the different types or of Social Media classifications. In the world of Social Media there are lots of different sub types and overlapping functions. This makes it important to categorize the Social Media according to their functions as well. For example in a Social Networking site, Facebook, it is possible to integrate a virtual social world with a blog. The example reflects a possible problem that can occur during the case analysis. Therefore also during this stage, not only distinction is to be made between types or classifications of Social Media but also on the sub types and possible multiple function usage. By covering this accurately in the case analysis the risk for concluding that i.e. only a Social Network site will help in the active participation of residents through dialogue only, can be reduced.

31 The integration of other technologies like Augmented Reality and Mobile devices in the evaluation is important as these technologies strengthens Social Media enormously. This can be seen in the theoretical framework. The importance of these technologies are becoming more important and the possibilities are endless. Mobile technologies are interwoven in our society and there is made use of these technologies by most of the people nowadays and this amount will increase even more in the future. For example connecting a mobile device with Augmented Reality and Social Media can lead to a person being able to see instantly with their mobile device in 3D what is going to be realised when arriving at a certain area where GPS delivers information on the location. The mobile device loads the information making this 3D environment or Augmented Reality, visible for the mobile user. The mobile user can post their opinion, information, with one-click, in the same program, on a crowdsourcing platform. In this relative simple example the usage of different interventions leads to a complex process. In this situation it is easy to address certain effects to one intervention if this process is not mapped accurately. If it is done accurately the effects can be addressed to a combination of interventions. Then there can be reflected whether it was a good combination or not. In this way not only describing the usage of Social Media but also relevant technologies is important. It is also important to know which Social Media approach was used, or which Social Media approach fits the manner the initiator used Social Media. There should be mapped which communication directions and which community organizations were used when using Social Media. These three criteria will be able to give more body to the conclusion as they relate to the opportunities and conditions that Social Media brings along. To answer the question what the success or results were, it is needed to do an interview with involved stakeholders and most importantly the initiator of the intervention. Furthermore there will be an evaluation done of the current situation of the initiative. For example how is the Social Network site functioning now, are there many followers, was there enough participation, was there enough interest, what was the influence on the process. It could be that the design or planning process went easier and with less defaults. The results for this research needs to be expressed in the efficiency of communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support from stakeholders To put everything in the right context it is important to know who was involved in this specific initiative. There is distinction made between the public sector, private sector and the civic society. Mapping the stakeholders is important and also mentioning whether there was input or output of these stakeholders. For example it could be the case that the government and a developer wanted to develop wasteland next to an old neighbourhood of the mid 50 s with specific characteristics and flora and fauna. There can be made use of Social Media to generate output of information only keeping stakeholders informed or there could be a platform opened where all stakeholders including new residents can give input on the plan or the design of this neighbourhood, this is then a dialogue with input and output of information between stakeholders. Another example could be that a project is realised and stakeholders are willing to be informed about the process i.e. Noord-Zuid lijn in Amsterdam. The identification of these stakeholders is important because in relation with the objectives the decisions are made for using certain Social Media. Furthermore there has to be identified in which phase of the urban area development phase the Social Media initiative was launched. This because each phase of the urban area development phase has an own context with different stakeholders and the fact that the boundaries between the phases of the urban area development process are not that strict. By taking this into consideration it is possible to see which Social Media interventions are very useful in for example the maintenance phase where

32 residents and urban professionals can provide input for improvement or maintenance of a certain area. For example, the maintenance phase can proceed and relative simple actions i.e. placing more lighting points to increase the safety or residents or create a platform where residents can report on unsafe situations. Eventually this can lead to redevelopment of an area where the initiative phase starts once again. In this situation is could be possible to set up a crowdsourcing platform where stakeholders can post their ideas or a crowdfund platform where all stakeholders also financially support the redevelopment of an area. So relating Social Media interventions with the different phases of the urban area development process can show which Social Media intervention can bring a positive or a negative outcome in that specific phase of the urban area development process. These are relevant aspects that need to be mapped in the evaluation table in order to see relations later on, by filling in the blank spaces. It is then possible to see in different cases or within the same case the different phases of the urban area development process with different objectives, Social Media interventions, and results. A comparison can then be made between all cases, and between the phases of the urban area development process in order to see relations and generate recommendations out of these findings. Not only the aforementioned aspects are needed to be evaluated. For example, the urban area development process can be a dynamic almost living system that could be able to continuously evolve and updated because of the use of Social Media. Important is that there is a digital urban professional needed to function as a regulator that needs to filter and judge the divergent and qualitative unequal sources in different phases of the process. This gives rise to questions like; Who has influence and how to manage this digital process? How to judge sources? What is the range of the digital environment? Who is involved in this process? Not less important is the fact that there is a contradiction between the shift towards a less hierarchal system but there is still a digital professional needed to decide which information is important and which is not. These questions will help to form an overview of the forming of a process. When all cases are evaluated the data needs to be processed and compared. These findings will lead to insights in the usage of Social Media and relevant technologies in the urban area development process. Insights will help decision-makers in their decision-making process regarding the use of Social Media. During the empirical research there needs to be speculated about possible relationships and input created for simultaneously developing an overview. The research model is shown in Figure 7, and consist out of the following aspects: The Urban Area Development phases The Stakeholders The Communication directions The Social Media approach The Social Media categories The community organizations All cases will be evaluated according to these aspects from now called the research model points. The theoretical framework will elaborate more on these points. It is possible to evaluate the cases when more in-depth information about these points are available.

33 Figure 7- Research model, in this research called the evaluation table. Enabling consistently evaluation of cases.

34

35 3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION The theoretical framework is needed as stated by Yin (1994) because the simple goal is to have a sufficient blueprint for your study, and this requires theoretical propositions, usefully noted by two authors as a [hypothetical] story about why acts, events, structure, and thoughts occur (Sutton & Saw, 1995, p. 378). This makes theory development, prior to the collection of any case study data, an essential step in doing case studies. Claire van Enk (2011) formulated the definition of the theoretical framework according to R.E. Khan (2007) as follow: The theoretical framework of the study is a structure that can hold or support a theory of a research work. It presents the theory which explains why the problem under study exists. Thus, the theoretical framework is but a theory that serves as a basis for conducting research. The theoretical framework is visually presented below RELATION CORNERSTONES THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Figure 3 Cornerstones of the research The cornerstones of the theoretical framework consists out of the urban area development process on the one hand and Social Media on the other hand. In Figure 9 the translation from the empirical object towards the two cornerstones is shown. The urban area development process is spread amongst many disciplines and copes with complexity. Social Media on the other hand brings endless possibilities to be used by many disciplines next to the expertise of urban area development. There is an overlap lap seen between Social Media, shown as a green dashed block, and the urban area development process, which is the purple block. This overlap shows the room for improvement of the urban area development process with the use of Social Media. In this research the overlap shows the improvement in the efficiency in communication and the social and financial support from stakeholders in the urban area development process. Therefore it is needed to gain insights in both the urban area development process and the possibilities of Social Media. These will be explored in the theoretical framework, which will end with a preliminary conclusion of the improvements for the urban area development process because of Social Media interventions. The theoretical framework will function as an information reservoir that can provide guidance throughout the research. This means that this research is more guided through empirical findings than by theory.

36 3.2 URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS The exploration of the urban area development and planning process is important to see where there is room for improvement. In order to structure the gathering of data, the following sub-research questions are to be answered: 1. What is urban management and what is urban area development? 2. What is the urban area development process and the different stages? 3. Which stakeholders are involved? How do these stakeholders influence the urban area development and planning process? 4. What factors contribute to successful urban area development? These research questions will give insights where there is room for improvement because of the opportunities Social Media provides. This will be helpful in placing Social Media and possible Social Media interventions in the right context within the urban area development process URBAN MANAGEMENT AND URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT Urban Management looks at the strategic decision making process for the development and improvement of urban regions. This strategic decision making process is by definition a multidimensional, multi stakeholder process, consisting of several stages: analysis, vision and strategy, implementation and evaluation. Urban Management is applied to several levels of abstraction: The functional Urban Region or Metropolitan scale; This development is not confined to the administrative boundaries of the city and its suburb, but this depends on the existing or future functional relations between the city, suburbs and rural areas in the surrounding region. Looking for example at economic relations in the region and how t improve this with i.e. infrastructure investments. Development Areas/sectors; This development aims to develop certain general policies or guidelines. Examples are specific development visions for inner-city or waterfront, or guidelines for housing, environment and investment. Urban area development; project level. Here it is about city development strategies and sectoral policies. Urban area development is defining, developing and implementing a development vision or strategy for a certain district/neighbourhood or project area. As urban area development is about developing these particular areas it is more than advisable to involve the stakeholders within the process. The process of urban area development is not just concerned with the spatial development but should also be in relation with economic, social and various other developments. In Figure 8 there is an schematic overview of urban area development. Figure 4- Van t Verlaat,2008, Schematic overview urban area development. The context has a huge influence on the urban area development, comprehension of this context is very important as this can lead to success or failure. Social developments are an integral part of this context. Economic and social-economic developments are influential especially when it comes to the urban area development. Furthermore there is the policy context, which affects urban area development on a higher level, and various other peripheral conditions, such as the juridical frameworks where urban area development is the playfield of multiple stakeholders, which wants to influence the process.

37 The content of urban area development aims at creating spatial constellations wherein various functions, like residential areas with working, can develop in harmony. The context has a strong influence on the contents of urban area development. Not only the spatial aspects must be given attention but also the social, political, economic, ecological, and social cultural aspects. These aspects should lead to sufficient spatial and market quality. The means for realisation are needed in order to lead to a desired result in urban area development. There is not only a need for financial means, land, and policy documents but also for knowledge and skills. The actors, or better said stakeholders, in order to keep the same choice of terms throughout this research, are need in order to come to an urban area development. This is because urban area development cope with many stakeholders and their interests. Timely involving these stakeholders is very important to create support for the urban area development. All of these elements need to converge in the process of urban area development, which evolves through various phases, which will be elaborated in the next chapter. The presence of organisational talent is an essential condition for achieving the objectives of the urban area development. All these elements adds to the complexity of urban area development. The scope of urban area development also has influence on the complexity as the scope is significantly enlarged: they often significantly transgress the area concerned and even the city itself. Furthermore there is the important change that urban area development nowadays often relates to the redevelopment of existing urban areas, which is more complex than traditional developments where agrarian areas were transformed into urban areas CONCLUSION Now the first sub research question can be answered. Van t Verlaat and Wigmans (2010) concluded: Urban area development occurs in a complex context and is a long term process that may takes a considerate timespan to be realised. The development process brings far reaching changes within the area. The physical measures alters the structure of the area. This new spatial structure and the new buildings that will be erected or redeveloped will influence the use to which the area can be put, the way it is perceived by residents and others and its economic potentials for decades. Urban area development can thus best be described as the sum of a large number of complex process performed by many individual stakeholders where they can claim a say at different scale levels, involving international competition between cities on an international stage and subject to the direct influence of events from far outside the region in question. Every stakeholder has their own definition of the problems involved, and the interests of the various factors may differ markedly.

38 3.2.2 URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Figure 5 Van t Verlaat and Wigmans (2010), Phases of Urban Area Development. The initiatory phase is the phase wherein an initiative is born to proceed in a certain area for urban area development. This can be a reaction to problems (such as a dilapidated district), to new opportunities that arise (for instance the arrival of the high-speed train with a local station) or to other kinds of urban transformation that trigger off active interference (see section 1). This first initiative for urban area development can originate in both the private and the public sector. In this phase, the ambition (including ambition level) of the urban area development must be laid down. To determine a realistic ambition, it is essential to take good stock of the various contexts. The positioning of the area, as desired in future, must be indicated and seen within the light of these contexts. The results of relevant social developments for the area concerned must be analysed and determined, the relevant policy at higher levels for the area must be recognised, the level and the way in which the area is (or can be) opened up through infrastructure must be determined and translated into the possible functions for the area, and the hard peripheral conditions must be laid down. These contexts determine the elbowroom for imaginable future possibilities in the area. The achievement of this ambition is the subject of a process, wherein support will have to be found for the ambition with parties that are important in this phase but possibly in other phases as well. It must become a common born ambition. The organisational talent comes to the fore in this phase, especially in the skill to achieve the latter, in other words: in turning everyone s nose in the same direction". The planning phase starts after a common ambition has been set and is continuous to the actual start of the realisation phase. The sectoral and facet related aspects should be integrated in a plan having the objective to achieve the best possible spatial and functional quality. Feasibility in terms of available means should also be taken into consideration. This phase is important because of the important influence on the subsequent success of the following phases. Each situation has different stakeholders who are involved in the process. Thus different collaboration models and agreements are used. Determining the collaboration model and agreements in this phase is important in order to begin the realisation phase. The organisational talent form the directing party or parties determines the success of this part of the phase. The realisation phase elaborates the plan that was discussed during the planning phase. The realisation phase will be realised by stakeholders that entered the planning phase. This is not usually a simple execution of what was thought up earlier. During this phase problems can arise that demand a

39 (actually) solution. The importance of the organisational talent is once more addressed. There are certain legislation rules which applies to this phase that need to be taken into consideration. Urban area development takes a considerate timespan and can often be implemented the way it was planned in the plan layout. There is tension between the laid out outline of the plan on the one hand and the need for flexibility during the execution phase on the other. The skill needed to find creative solutions for all kinds of problems that pop up during the realisation phase is especially called upon during this phase. Many practical problems must be tackled decisively. All kinds of reasons of the most diverse nature can result in delay (for instance, an archaeological finding in the development area, a threatened animal species living there, the discovery of soil pollution, etc.). The process must keep pace. However, at the same time there is heavily called upon the organisational talent to tackle these tensions in an appropriate way. The management phase or maintenance phase follows after completion of the realisation of the area. There is difference made between management of the public space and management of the buildings, also called building exploitation. The responsibilities can be spread amongst stakeholders and can be done in creative ways. The maintenance phase of the UAD process is about managing both the public space and the buildings. During this phase organisational talent is needed to cope with the complexity in this phase. Creative solutions are to be found in a tensed arena where financial means, political priorities and cultural aspects all want to dominate. Therefore it is important to have an offensive management approach to create a continuous process, aimed at maintenance and exploitation, timely signalling of shortcomings and opportunities, and the initiating and steering of improvements. Maintenance can lead to renovations of (sub) areas; this is called restructuring. restructuring of housing or industrial areas whereby technical or economic dilapidated buildings are being demolished and rebuilt in substantial quantities within an area, sometimes in combination with adaptations to the public space, new access routes, extra green areas and more are examples of restructuring projects. When more thorough renewals are to be made i.e. the restructuring of the urban development structure, the circle starts one again. Important is to filter whether redevelopment of the area is needed in an early stage. It is important to know which indicators must be given attention. At last it is difficult to identify the boundaries between management, restructuring and redevelopment CONCLUSION Now the second sub research question can be answered. It is important to look for the relation with the previous chapter. The following can be said: This whole process of the four different phases can be called the urban area development process. In practice the boundaries between the four different phases is not always that clear. Furthermore, part of this urban area development process is the sum of a large number of complex processes performed by many individual stakeholders in order to develop and urban area STAKEHOLDERS The urban area development process is not only contents-determined. It also encompasses the way in which the various stakeholders are involved in the process (P. Franzen, 2007). There are many stakeholders involved in urban area development, with very diverse interest and different roles and influence. The complexity increases with the existence of these actors, but cannot exist without these stakeholders being involved in this process. The stakeholders can be divided generally in the public sector, private sector and civic society DEFINITION STAKEHOLDER

40 The definition of a stakeholder according to L. Bourne, (2005): Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interesto r some aspects of rights or ownership in the project, can contribute in the form of knowledge or support, or can impact or be impacted by, the project. In the theory by L. Bourne (2005) A stakeholders significance and support depends on the situation and the issues; continuing support cannot be assumed (Savage, et al., 1991). Categorising stakeholders is based on assessing the stakeholder s power to influence the outcomes of the project, the legitimacy of each stakeholder s relationship with the project, and the urgency of that stakeholder s claim on the project, leading to specific managerial actions (Mitchell, et al., 1997). The concepts of power, legitimacy and urgency, social network theory, (Mitchell, et all., 1997) are valuable for identifying important stakeholders, as is the idea of centrality and density (Rowley, 1997) for attempting to recognise and show the power and communication ties within the stakeholder community. Communication is both a process and an activity. It is a process for information exchange using a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviour (Cleland, 1994, PMI, 2004). Important is to understand that culture differs in each context in which an event is happening. An project i.e. in China needs a different approach than a project in the Netherlands. But difference is also found on a local level because of the people living in i.e. a multicultural and dense area. Culture is a set of assumptions about how the world is, and ought to be, shared by society through patterns of shared meaning manifested by stories, rituals, formal and informal practices, jargon and physical arrangements (Martin, 2002). When engaging stakeholders it is important to take the aforementioned aspects in mind PUBLIC SECTOR There is the municipality in whose territory the specific urban area development takes place. In urban area redevelopment, the municipality has power because of the public law (zoning plans, building permits, etc), but can also be utilised in private law, namely when an approach for municipal land development is pursued (also called active land policy). In Dutch practice, this situation is fairly usual for municipal land or development companies. This makes the public sector a strategic partner for urban area development. The municipality can also play part as a (co)building developer (when significant municipal interests are involved). Apart from this, the so called role of director" of urban area development can reside with the municipality as well; in other words, the process management of the urban area development. Within the municipality itself various professional departments such as the town and country planning department, the municipal real estate department, the department for economic affairs, the traffic and transport department, the department of public works and more, can be identified. The titles differ per municipality, but the disciplines exist everywhere. For example larger municipalities house these disciplines in-house and provide the services themselves; smaller municipalities often lease these services. In case of leasing the services, external consultants are involved in the process. Sometimes a larger municipality can lease these services that can act as a second opinion for a specific specialised field i.e. an underground tunnel complex. The role of the municipality is often unclear but can differ from initiator, role of director, risk participant, costs bearing and power to facilitator. (Wolting, 2008). All of these different disciplines represent the equal amounts of internal-municipal interests that must be placed on the correct track for urban area development. The administrative interests should be recognised for what they are. There is a risk if there are more administrators involved in an urban area development that their interests will fundamentally diverge.

41 In many cases multiple municipalities are involved in urban area development when the area transgresses the boundaries of the municipality. It can also occur when a municipality asks another (for instance, neighbouring) municipality to participate as risk bearer in an urban area development within its territory. Within larger municipalities there are sometimes sub-municipalities or urban district councils. When a municipal area development falls within the territory of such a submunicipality then both this sub municipality and the "central" municipality bear the responsibilities. Agreements of the responsibilities can differ per situation and municipality. Important to note is that there can be contradictions between the interest of different municipalities and various governmental levels. Important is to manage these interest well. Higher authorities are involved in urban area development in the case of larger area developments with a supra-local interest. These higher levels can lay down policy principles, which are very determining for the urban area development. Higher authorities, such as the central government, can moreover be involved financially in actual area developments. This may occur because subsidies are granted for i.e. a key project. In this case, they are important actors in the urban area development. If multiple ministries are involved in this extra attention is demanded in the form of mutual attuning PRIVATE SECTOR There are many actors in the private sector within the terrain of urban area development. Often the private project developers takes an important place in the urban area development process. The private developers develop at their own expense and risk, they create projects for the market. The role they take upon themselves concerns the realisation of the buildings and are thus relatively short term financial risks. There can be many developers identified, including a range of combinations with investors, builders, banks, and sometimes also architects. The developer can be seen as the spider in the web. The developer represents the transition from the planning phase to the realisation phase. Realising the plan and creating turnover with an as high possible margin and a small capital is the most important objective of the developers. The art of working together is thus crucial for the developer. (Putman, 2010). In other words, the organisational talent of the developers needs to be effective and efficient in order to achieve success. The trend now is that more stakeholders in the private sector are more involved and sometimes taking leading roles in integrated urban area developments. Investors are also important stakeholders. These are financial institutions that invest money on a long term basis as a necessary part of their primary task; the management of pension or insurance funds. When investing, the realisation of a real estate project is not their prime concern. Their investment in real estate is only one element within the overall framework of their core business. Their aim is to gain a sound return on the long-term investment. Within the category of investors, there are also various types of entity: institutional investors (e.g. pension funds), investment companies, investment funds), etc. In addition, there are the builders, not only of buildings but also of public works (such as roads, viaducts, etc.). In the first situation, the builders usually operate by order of private parties, except when government buildings are involved or when the government has interests in the realisation of certain buildings. In the latter case, builders usually operate by order of the municipality, except when it concerns infrastructure within an area for private land (re)development, for instance. Housing corporations play an intermediary role in housing construction. Housing complexes were often outsourced to housing corporations, which took on the property management of the residences. Subsidies made this financially feasible. In urban area development the housing corporation can be involved in several ways i.e. because of their (land) property position, as customer of future real estate or the formulation of a demand of the housing corporation to own a certain area. The position of a

42 housing corporation is difficult to identify in the field of the public and private sector or the civic society. The housing corporation has a social mission and is also active in the market by behaving as a company.(van Dijk e.a., 2002). As corporations must now "paddle their own financial canoe," they have in reality become private parties in urban area development and increasingly focus on more integral area development. This does not only signify a total conversion to and a regulating of this new function within the corporations, but it also means that all other actors involved in area development and house construction must get used to this and have to adapt their own roles accordingly. Municipalities must now often negotiate sharply with these organisations on the feasibility of plans; they are essentially confronted with their former daughters. Architects and urban planners have a huge impact on the total urban area development. These stakeholders are also part of the private sector. Estate agents also play a part in urban area development, namely in the realisation phase as an intermediary for selling buildings; this is true in the property management phase as well. Estate agents can also play a part in the pre-trajectory of urban area developments: when determining the market potentials of an area. The reason for this is that they have a high degree of market knowledge, even though this is seldom long-term oriented CITIZENS AND INTEREST GROUPS (CIVIC SOCIETY) The citizens and other (current) users or representatives of the urban area, where urban area development takes place, are an important group that needs to be addressed. Important is to consider that the interests of these groups and future groups can be contradictive. This can also occur between owners and users of the plots or buildings. These differences are to be mapped. There is a direct link between the citizens and the local authorities because the citizens elect the local authorities. In urban area development, it is important to recognise that there are many more users in an area than the citizens who participate in the local elections. The entrepreneurs, workforce, shoppers, owners, etc. often reside elsewhere. It is not odd that this makes urban area development more complex, insofar that authorities only take the direct (partial) interests of their inhabitants into account. Creating support amongst these groups is important when developing an urban area. The organised civic society represented by interest groups among the other affected parties, such as local inhabitants, owners, and shopkeepers organisations should also be taken into account. These organizations often represents the interest of many. This can also men that there are certain pressure groups that are active at a national level. Not to forget the environmental organisations that have had a particular presence lately in urban area developments and can cause long delays for projects because of legislation and negative media attention that can be created. Nature-preservation organisations are now often included in processes of urban area development as co-actors in order to prevent future problems CONCLUSION In Figure 10 there is an overview of the stakeholders. There can be seen that these stakeholders all relate and communicate with each other. There are more stakeholders that can be included in the aforementioned division of stakeholders, and seen in Figure 10. For example now the different institutions of the public sector and private sector are not taken into consideration for this research. It is important to recognize that the major challenge of urban area development is to involve all of these stakeholders appropriately within the urban area development process. If this is done properly this will create support for the urban area development and will contribute to the success of the development. Each stakeholder will protect their own interests and try to push these interest through the process.

43 This is done in several ways, sometimes through the juridical system and sometimes by negotiation, as seen in the practical examples that were given. Figure 6- Overview of stakeholders SECTORAL AND FACET RELATED ASPECTS REGARDING URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT As mentioned before, urban area development is factually redevelopment. The contents of urban area development aims at creating or re-creating spatial constellations wherein various functions residential, business, recreational, etc.) can develop appropriately. A difference can be made between sectoral and facet-related aspects. The sectoral aspects relate to the individual functions. Within these general functions, such as living, working, and relaxing, more specific sub-functions can be identified, including shopping, education, etc. Within the spatial context, these functions are expressed in a wide range of built entities, such as residences, companies, etc. Furthermore, within these individual sectors, there are also various sub-sectors that can be distinguished, such as types, residences, for example, can be subdivided into high-rise apartment buildings, singlefamily houses, etc. Figure 7 - Van t Verlaat and Wigmans (2010), Sectors and Facets. Almost all of these sectors represent markets of supply and demand. In this respect, there is a residential market, an industrial market, and a "leisure-market". Sub-markets can be distinguished herein, such as the market for expensive residential apartments, the office market, the retail market, etc. These markets are sometimes the subject of fundamental changes that influences the markets enormously. So what will be realised in a certain area as a function, also depends on the possibilities offered by the aforementioned (sub) markets. In turn, these possibilities result from the context of social developments. The facet related aspects concerns aspects that, seen from a specifc point of view (facet), occur within the all aforementioned sectors. These facet related aspects run through all sectors. A distinction can be made between the physical, the economic, the ecological, the social, and the cultural facets.

44 The physical facet relates to the realisation of functions within the area, such as buildings and the physical infrastructure. The economic facet relates to the structure of mutually connected economic activities in the area, of which employment is a part. The ecological facet relates to durable environmental quality, including environmental aspects such as air, water, and soil quality. The social facet relates to the structure of mutually connected social relationships in the area, of which social stability is an aspect. The (socio-)cultural facet relates to the degree to which the previously mentioned social structure is based on a common culture (or cultures), in the sense of commonly used standards, values, expectations, etc; ultimately, this can be expressed through a commonly held feeling of identity within the area. Not only the physical facet is important for urban area development but the other facets as well. The other facets contain important peripheral conditions for the success of urban area development. For example the influence of ICT-innovations and globalisation can undermine the whole point of developing a specific business park at a specific location. Therefore an integral approach is always witnessed in urban area development, whereby these various facets (can) play an important part CONCLUSION The economic, ecological, social and cultural facets will not be limited to one single area, certainly not to the specific territory that is the focus of urban area development. The wider structures that are related to these facets will often have an affect beyond the designated area. The emergence of the network society under the influence of ICT possibilities increases the discrepancy between spatial territories in the physical sense and the scope of economic, social, and cultural networks. Local condensations will still be present and giving these condensations attention, will still be important. The meaning of physical space changes for that matters under the influence of these developments, as based on Castells concept of the network society. Keeping these sectoral and facet related aspects in mind will help in achieving successful urban area development. As for this research there can be stated that the relation with Social Media interventions can be of use throughout all sectoral aspects. And for the facet related aspects, Social Media interventions can help in mapping data for setting the context of all facet related aspects. Purely using Social Media as an intervention the Social and (Socio) Cultural facet are relevant THREE ANGLES OF APPROACH AND ORGANISATIONAL TALENT The three angels of approach consists out of the spatial quality, market quality and the means. The three angels of approach are of equal importance. The optimisation process must lead to justice being done to all three angular points in mutual relation. The organisational talent comes forth out of the manner optimisation between the three angels of approach takes place. This is not only important in the planning phase of the urban area development process. The realisation phase is maybe even more important to keep the three angels of approach standing, because of the fact that unforeseen circumstances can occur. This will be often the case in the means section. Figure 8- Van t Verlaat and Wigmans (2010), Optimisation of three angels of approach CONCLUSION Interesting is the fact that the organisational talent is an important part of the success of the urban area development project. However it is important to keep the optimized three angels of approach standing during the different phases of the urban area development process. Social Media interventions can help in the optimisation of the three angels of approach.

45 For example when planners need to know what the market demands, or the developer wants to know what the government wants for a certain area and the developer can find out what the market wants. In the means section Social Media can help with crowdsourcing to gain knowledge and crowdfunding to receive financial means. With the help of Augmented Reality and Social Media the spatial quality of an area can be tested and adjusted if necessary. These are just possible examples in a range of possibilities that are available in order to have Social Media interventions aid in the optimisation of the three angels of approach, in order to increase the organisational talent ORGANISING CAPACITY IN URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT The EUR-school defines organising capacity as follow: Organising capacity is defined as the ability to enlist all actors involved, and with their help generate new ideas and develop and implement a policy designed to respond to fundamental developments and create conditions for sustainable growth (Van den Berg et al., 1996). The definition of the organising capacity can be divided into a number of characteristics that helps to improve the capacity, namely: The involvement of all stakeholders, as already mentioned before The generation of new ideas The development and introduction of an adequate policy The future prosperity of the metropolitan regions depends to a high degree on its organising capacity. It is important to be able to adequately and on the proper spatial economic scale, to anticipate, respond to and cope with changing intra and inter metropolitan relations due to internal and external processes of change. Figure 16 shows the theoretical framework of organising capacity of the EUR school. The hypothesis is that the performance is the result of the interaction of all elements shown, which form a dynamic system, but coherence between them is very important. The different elements will be described and are: Figure 10 R.M. van Hoek (2010), Organising capacity as development strategy Figure 9 Van den Berg et al. (1997), Organising capacity framework The Vision: A sound vision should be able to gain broad support. Thus such a vision needs will have to be sufficiently realistic and well-oriented to the opportunities and problems of the urban region. Furthermore the vision need to have integrated the interest and targets of all stakeholders, in a balanced way. The vision needs to be the basis for formulating objectives and strategies. Therefore, the vision can, if accepted as a common reference framework, help to guide the relevant stakeholders in their behaviour.

46 Strategic networks: Strategic networks can be seen as patterns between mutually dependent stakeholders that evolve in response to policy problems or projects. A network consists of the total relations linking (public and private) organisations, such relations being marked by a degree of two-way dynamics (Van den Berg et al., 1997:11) networks among and within organisations have to be identified. The aim is to create transparency about who cooperates with whom in the development and implementation of urban policies, and how, and to what extent, this cooperation takes place. Leadership: Leadership is a necessity, whether relying on specific competencies (the position in the administrative hierarchy, financial capabilities, specific know-how or other powers) or on the charisma of public or private individuals who successfully drive the project forward (Van den Berg et al., 1997:12). Political support: Political support is a prerequisite for organising capacity, since political relations and financial pre-conditions are decisive for the opportunities to initiate and implement new security policies (Van den Berg et al., 1997). Societal support: Support from those directly involved, like the clients and the customers, is needed to increase the success of the implementation (Van den Berg et al., 1997: 13). Communication: Good communication helps in developing a broadly supported vision amongst all relevant stakeholders. Communication is needed to bring the message of the vision and related policies to the networks involved, the potential leaders, the politicians and society, including the very important target groups. Much of the communication proceeds through the use of regular media channels like newspapers, regional/local television and radio, and the Internet. In Figure 15 the elements of the Organising Capacity are described in the city development process as a development tool. The identification of the joint threats and opportunities leads to the need for the stakeholders to interact. This can lead to a joint vision and strategy. Through successful implementation and evaluation, sustainable economic growth and an improved local context can be created. The process will continue with the identification of the joint threats and opportunities to start the development process CONCLUSION It is very interesting what the influence of the organising capacity is on the urban area development process. Looking at the organisational talent certain aspects are also relevant in the organising capacity. It is about optimizing the elements in order to achieve successful urban area development. As to the organising capacity Social Media interventions can be useful in the forming of the Vision and enable the Vision to guide the stakeholders in their behaviour. Think for example of an online master plan where ideas could be dropped and when finished all the relevant information is available online and everywhere, enabling business deals all over the world for a certain urban area development. Social Media can also aid in creation and maintenance of Strategic networks. Think for example about a customized Facebook or LinkedIn look-a-like, especially for certain urban area developments. This will create transparency about whom is involved in which phase and whom cooperates with each other, possibly enabling the increase of support amongst stakeholders. Furthermore it is then possible to manage the strategic network more efficiently at one place. As to leadership, I am not aware or able to think of a possible way to use Social Media interventions to help in improving leadership. Social Media interventions in the other elements can help to lessen the difficulties at the other elements enabling the leadership to perform better. Communication is obviously related to Social Media, not only because of the Internet aspect, but more because of the fact that Social Media is used as a communication channel. Take Twitter, Facebook, or

47 blogs for example. The most Social Media interventions in urban area developments nowadays focusses on using Social Media as a communication channel not only for the output of information but also for the input. For example participation process can take place in an online environment. There are many possibilities for using Social Media as an intervention to improve parts of the urban area development process, and thus the urban area development process as a whole SUCCES CRITERIA FOR URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT Hobma (2010) describes aspects of successful urban area development. Difficult to answer is when the project is a success? Success is an unambiguous concept. If success is achieved in terms of the process, is it teamwork? Or if success is achieved in terms of the product, is it a finished development? Also different stakeholders understand success differently. There is success for; Users, Project people/groups with a direct interest and Indirect interest groups. Hobma (2010) concluded that there is no simple answer to these questions. Success is not a simple or unambiguous concept. There are no objective criteria that can be used to ensure or to measure the success of an urban area development project. Important for the public and private sector is to make clear what they mutually understand about the meaning of success for that specific project. There can be distinction made between success factors and failure factors. Important to note is that the opposite of the success factor is a failure factor. So well planned communication will most likely lead to success instead of badly planned communication. This is why Hobma (2010) only points out the success factors that occur in each project. The success factors are classified on the following three levels: Context variables Necessary conditions Critical success factors The Context variables help to determine the success of the urban area development project, but cannot be influenced by (individual) players. The Context variables embraces the following: Economic climate Political climate Cultural climate Demographics Changes in legislation and regulations The Necessary conditions, also known as veto criteria, are necessary but not sufficient for success. The Necessary conditions can be driven or modified by the players. The Necessary conditions embraces the following: Timely acquisition of land Project scope Economic feasibility Realistic cost estimates Clear strategy for dealing with soil pollution Independent subprojects Robust financial engineering Involving and identifying stakeholders The Critical success factors, also known as progression criteria, have a major bearing on the success of failure of the project in question, but are relatively difficult for the actors to influence. The Critical success factors embraces the following: Trust and openness between the parties Leadership, in particular the presence of an entrepreneur Changing the image of the development site

48 Reduction of complexity Proactive policy makers Designers who adopt a modern approach to their task CONCLUSION Hobma (2010) points out some interesting aspects which needs to be taken into consideration when using Social Media as an intervention to improve the urban area development process. Firstly, the three levels of success factors distinguished can interact with each other. A change at the context variable can have influence on the critical success factors i.e. a political change. Secondly, the boundaries between the necessary conditions and the critical success factor is not always clearly defined. Thirdly, it can be stated that the presence of a given success factor does not guarantees success but rather increases the likelihood of success. Furthermore the list of success factors given is not exhaustive and it is not able to make definitive statements about the relative weight of the various success factors. 3.3 SOCIAL MEDIA The exploration of Social Media based upon grounding theory is important because there is more than enough information available, each interpreting the term Social Media differently. So defining Social Media and the strengths and weaknesses is important. In order to structure the gathering of data, the following sub-research questions are to be answered: 1. What are Social Media? 2. What types of Social Media are available? And for which objectives can these Social Media be used? 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Social Media? 4. What are the trends regarding Social Media? 5. How can Social Media be applied in the urban area development process? These research questions will give insights where there is room for improvement because the opportunities Social Media provides will be elaborated. This will be helpful in placing Social Media and possible Social Media interventions in the right context within the urban area development process. Furthermore the exploration of related developments regarding Social Media will be done pure out of curiosity and see whether there are relations to be found for the implementation in the urban area developments process, i.e. mobile devices and augmented reality INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY SOCIAL MEDIA According to Forrester Research, 75% of Internet surfers used Social Media in the second quarter of 2008 by joining social networks, reading blogs, or contributing reviews to shopping sites; this represents a significant rise from 56% in The growth is not limited to teenagers, either; members of Generation X, now years old, increasingly populate the ranks of joiners, spectators, and critics. Today, however, firms have been increasingly relegated to the side-lines as mere observers, having neither the knowledge nor the chance or, sometimes, even the right to alter publicly posted comments provided by their customers. Wikipedia, for example, expressly forbids the participation of firms on their online community. Such an evolution may not be surprising. After all, the Internet started out as nothing more than a giant Bulletin Board System (BBS) that allowed users to exchange software, data, messages, and news with each other. The late 1990s saw a popularity surge in homepages, whereby the Average Joe could share information about his private life; today s equivalent would be the weblog, or blog. The era of corporate web pages and e-commerce started relatively recently with the launch of Amazon and ebay

49 in 1995, and got a right ticking-off only 6 years later when the dot-com bubble burst in The current trend toward Social Media can therefore be seen as an evolution back to the Internet s roots, since it retransforms the World Wide Web to what it was initially created for: a platform to facilitate information exchange between users. But the technological advances that have been made throughout the 20 years made it possible to enable virtual context sharing that is fundamentally different from, and more powerful than, the BBS of the late 1970s. In 1979 the Usenet, a worldwide discussion system that allowed internet users to post public messages was created by Tum Truscott and Jim Ellis from the Duke University. The founding of Open Diary, 20 years earlier, probably started the Social Media era. This social networking site brought together online diary writers into one community. This was also the first time the term weblog was used and then truncated to blog a year later. The growing availability of high-speed Internet access further added to the popularity of the concept, leading to the creation of bigger social networking sites such as Facebook (in 2004). This, in turn, coined the term Social Media, and contributed to the prominence it has today. The most recent addition to this glamorous grouping has been so-called virtual worlds : computer based simulated environments inhabited by three-dimensional avatars. Perhaps the best known virtual world is that of Linden Lab s Second Life (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2009c). Figuur 12 Screenshot Second Life WEB 2.0 AND USER GENERATED CONTENT Figuur 11 Overview Social Media logos For a formal definition of the term it is required to draw a line to two related concepts that are frequently named in conjunction with it namely Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Web 2.0 is a term that was first used in 2004 to describe a new way in which software developers and end users started to utilize the World Wide Web; that is, as a platform whereby content and applications are no longer created and published by individuals, but instead are continuously modified by all users in a participatory and collaborative fashion. While applications such as personal web pages, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, and the idea of content publishing belong to the era of Web 1.0, they are replaced by blogs, wikis, and collaborative projects in Web 2.0. Although Web 2.0 does not refer to any specific technical update of the World Wide Web, there is a set of basic functionalities that are necessary for its functioning. Among them are Adobe Flash (a popular method for adding animation, interactivity, and audio/video streams to web pages), RSS (Really Simple Syndication, a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content, such as blog entries or news headlines, in a standardized format), and AJAX (Asynchronous Java Script, a technique to retrieve data from web servers asynchronously, allowing the update of web content without interfering with the display and behaviour of the whole page). Web 2.0 is considered as the platform for the evolution of Social Media. (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).

50 When Web 2.0 represents the ideological and technological foundation, User Generated Content (UGC) can be seen as the sum of all ways in which people make use of Social Media. The term, which achieved broad popularity in 2005, is usually applied to describe the various forms of media content that are publicly available and created by end-users. According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2007), UGC needs to fulfil three basic requirements in order to be considered as such: - First, it needs to be published either on a publicly accessible website or on a social networking site accessible to a selected group of people; - Second, it needs to show a certain amount of creative effort; - Finally, it needs to have been created outside of professional routines and practices. The first condition excludes content exchanged in s or instant messages; the second, mere replications of already existing content (e.g., posting a copy of an existing newspaper article on a personal blog without any modifications or commenting); and the third, all content that has been created with a commercial market context in mind. While UGC has already been available prior to Web 2.0, as discussed above, the combination of technological drivers (e.g., increased broadband availability and hardware capacity), economic drivers (e.g., increased availability of tools for the creation of UGC), and social drivers (e.g., rise of a generation of digital natives and screenagers : younger age groups with substantial technical knowledge and willingness to engage online) make UGC nowadays fundamentally different from what was observed in the early 1980s SOCIAL MEDIA DEFINED The first research question, What are Social Media?, can be answered: According to Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) the definition of Social Media can best be described as a group of Internet based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content SOCIAL MEDIA CLASSIFIED There are various types of Social Media that can be distinguished further. In order to create a classification scheme in a systematic manner Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) relied on a set of theories in the field of media research (social presence, media richness) and social processes (self-presentation, self-disclosure), the two key elements of Social Media. Regarding the media related component of Social Media, social presence theory (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976) states that media differ in the degree of social presence defined as the acoustic, visual, and physical contact that can be achieved they allow to emerge between two communication partners. Social presence is influenced by the intimacy (interpersonal vs. mediated) and immediacy (asynchronous vs. synchronous) of the medium, and can be expected to be lower for mediated (e.g., telephone conversation) than interpersonal (e.g., face to face discussion) and for asynchronous (e.g., e mail) than synchronous (e.g., live chat) communications. The higher the social presence, the larger the social influence that the communication partners have on each other's behaviour. Media richness is closely related to the idea of social presence. Media richness theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986) is based on the assumption that the goal of any communication is the resolution of ambiguity and the reduction of uncertainty. It states that media differ in the degree of richness they possess that is, the amount of information they allow to be transmitted in a given time interval and that therefore some media are more effective than others in resolving ambiguity and uncertainty. Out of this theory Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) assumed that there can be a classification made based upon the richness of the medium and the degree of social presence it allows.

51 With respect to the social dimension of Social Media, the concept of self-presentation states that in any type of social interaction people have the desire to control the impressions other people form of them (Goffman, 1959). On the one hand, this is done with the objective of influencing others to gain rewards (e.g., make a positive impression on your future in-laws); on the other hand, it is driven by a wish to create an image that is consistent with one's personal identity (e.g., wearing a fashionable outfit in order to be perceived as young and trendy). The key reason why people decide to create a personal webpage is, for example, the wish to present themselves in cyberspace (Schau & Gilly, 2003). Usually, such a presentation is done through self-disclosure; that is, the conscious or unconscious revelation of personal information (e.g., thoughts, feelings, likes, dislikes) that is consistent with the image one would like to give. Self-disclosure is a critical step in the development of close relationships (e.g., during dating) but can also occur between complete strangers; for example, when speaking about personal problems with the person seated next to you on an airplane. Out of this theory Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) assumed that there can be a classification made based upon the degree of selfdisclosure it requires and the type of self-presentation it allows. Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) have combined these dimensions which lead to a classification of Social media which is visualized in Table 2. With respect to social presence and media richness, applications such as collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia) and blogs score lowest, as they are often text-based and hence only allow for a relatively simple exchange. On the next level are content communities (e.g., YouTube) and social networking sites (e.g., Facebook) which, in addition to text-based communication, enable the sharing of pictures, videos, and other forms of media. On the highest level are virtual game and social worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft, Second Life), which try to replicate all dimensions of faceto-face interactions in a virtual environment. Regarding self-presentation and self-disclosure, blogs usually score higher than collaborative projects, as the latter tend to be focused on specific content domains. In a similar spirit, social networking sites allow for more self-disclosure than content communities. Finally, virtual social worlds require a higher level of self-disclosure than virtual game worlds, as the latter are ruled by strict guidelines that force users to behave in a certain way (e.g., as warriors in an imaginary fantasy land). We will now provide more detail on each of these six different types of Social Media, and discuss the challenges and opportunities they offer companies. Table 1- Kaplan & Haenlein (2010), Social Media classification Kaplan & Haenlein (2010), have classified six Social Media namely: Collaborative projects, Blogs, Social networking sites, Content communities, Virtual social worlds, and Virtual game worlds COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS Collaborative projects enable the joint and simultaneous creation of content by many end-users and are, in this sense, probably the most democratic manifestation of UGC. Within collaborative projects, differences can be made between wikis websites which allow users to add, remove, and change text-based content and social bookmarking applications which enable the group-based collection and rating of Internet links or media content. Examples within this category include the online encyclopaedia Wikipedia, a wiki currently available in more than 230 different languages, and the social bookmarking web service Delicious, which allows the storage and sharing of web bookmarks.

52 The main idea underlying collaborative projects is that the joint effort of many actors leads to a better outcome than any actor could achieve individually this is similar to the efficient market hypothesis in behavioural finance (Fama, 1970). Firms must be aware that collaborative projects are trending toward becoming the main source of information for many consumers. As such, although not everything written on Wikipedia may actually be true, it is believed to be true by more and more Internet users. This is crucial regarding corporate crises. For example, when online book retailer Amazon started to test the idea of dynamic pricing, comments declaring such a practice as unfair showed up instantaneously under the Wikipedia entry on time-based pricing. But collaborative projects also brings unique possibilities for firm to improve or scavenge other areas. For example finnish handset manufacturer Nokia, for instance, uses internal wikis to update employees on project status and to trade ideas, which are used by about 20% of its 68,000 staff members BLOGS Blogs are the earliest form of Social Media. They are special types of websites that usually display date stamped entries in reverse chronological order (OECD, 2007). They are the Social Media equivalent of personal web pages and can come in a multitude of different variations, from personal diaries describing the author's life to summaries of all relevant information in one specific content area. Blogs are usually managed by one person only, but provide the possibility of interaction with visitors by enabling them to comment on articles. Text-based blogs are still by far the most common used. Nevertheless the march of other media blogs are rising. For example it is now easy to post video s or pictures and share them. Blogs can also be used to improve transparency of firms by for example getting the CEO to blog. Yet, as is the case with collaborative projects, blogs do not come without risks. These generally present in two fashions. First, customers who for one reason or another turn out to be dissatisfied with or disappointed by the company's offerings may decide to engage in virtual complaints in the form of protest websites or blogs (Ward & Ostrom, 2006), which results in the availability of potentially damaging information in online space. Second, once firms encourage employees to be active on blogs, they may need to live with the consequences of staff members writing negatively about the firm CONTENT COMMUNITIES In content communities the sharing of media content between users takes in a central place. Content communities exist for a wide range of different media types, including text (e.g., BookCrossing, via which 750,000+ people from over 130 countries share books), photos (e.g., Flickr), videos (e.g., YouTube), and PowerPoint presentations (e.g., Slideshare). Users on content communities are not required to create a personal profile page if they do, these pages usually only contain basic information, such as the date they joined the community and the number of media shared. From a corporate viewpoint, content communities carry the risk of being used as platforms for the sharing of copyright-protected materials. On the other side it is positive to use content communities as a contact channel SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Social networking sites are applications that enable users to connect by creating personal information profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to have access to those profiles, and sending e mails and instant messages between each other. These personal profiles can include any type of information, including photos, video, audio files, and blogs.

53 Social networking sites are of such high popularity, specifically among younger Internet users. Several companies are already using social networking sites to support the creation of brand communities (Muniz & O Guinn, 2001) or for marketing research in the context of netnography (Kozinets, 2002) VIRTUAL GAME WORLDS Virtual worlds are platforms that replicate a three dimensional environment in which users can appear in the form of personalized avatars and interact with each other as they would in real life. In this sense, virtual worlds are probably the ultimate manifestation of Social Media, as they provide the highest level of social presence and media richness of all applications discussed thus far. Virtual worlds come in two forms. The first, virtual game worlds, require their users to behave according to strict rules in the context of a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010) The rules of such games usually limit the degree of self-presentation and self-disclosure possible, although some users spend so much time with these applications that their character be it a warrior, a wizard, or a dragon hunter starts to more and more closely resemble their real life personality. The use for in-game advertising (similar in idea to product placement in blockbuster movies) and the high popularity of virtual game worlds can also be leveraged in more traditional communication campaigns. For example Toyota, used pictures and mechanics from the World of Warcraft application in its latest Tundra commercial to reach the 2.5 million players in the U.S. alone VIRTUAL SOCIAL WORLDS The second group of virtual worlds, often referred to as virtual social worlds, allows inhabitants to choose their behaviour more freely and essentially live a virtual life similar to their real life. As in virtual game worlds, virtual social world users appear in the form of avatars and interact in a three dimensional virtual environment; however, in this realm, there are no rules restricting the range of possible interactions, except for basic physical laws such as gravity. This allows for an unlimited range of self presentation strategies, and it has been shown that with increasing usage intensity and consumption experience, users of virtual social worlds or residents, as they prefer to be called show behaviour that more and more closely mirrors the one observed in real life settings ( [Haenlein and Kaplan, 2009], [Kaplan and Haenlein, 2009a] and [Kaplan and Haenlein, 2009b]). A good example is the virtual social world Second Life application which enables the participant doing everything that is possible in real life in a digital environment (e.g., speaking to other avatars, taking a walk, enjoying the virtual sunshine). Second Life also allows users to create content (e.g., to design virtual clothing or furniture items) and to sell this content to others in exchange for Linden Dollars, a virtual currency traded against the U.S. Dollar on the Second Life Exchange. Some residents are so successful in this task that the virtual money earned that way complements their real life income. Virtual social worlds offer a multitude of opportunities for companies in marketing (advertising/communication, virtual product sales/v-commerce, marketing research), and human resource and internal process management; for a more detailed discussion, see Kaplan and Haenlein (2009c) ADVICES FOR SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE Because of the rapid pace Social Media is developing up-to-date technology can be disappear from the virtual landscape tomorrow. It is therefore crucial to have a set of guidelines that can be applied to any form of Social Media, whether they are part of the aforementioned list or not. Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) have split their advice amongst two section because of the fact that Social Media have both a social- and a media-component.

54 Using Social Media 1. Choose carefully; Choosing Social Media applications should be done strategically. The right medium for any given purpose depends on the target group to be reached and the message to be communicated. Important is to see where your target group is active. 2. Pick the application, or make your own; The basic idea of Social Media is about participation, sharing, and collaboration, rather than straightforward advertising and selling. So sometimes it is wise to join an active Social media application and sometimes it is wise to develop your own Social Media application. 3. Ensure activity alignment; Sometimes a set of different applications is needed within the same group in order to have the largest possible reach. However it is important to keep in mind that: one goal of communication is the resolution of ambiguity and reduction of uncertainty, and nothing is more confusing than contradicting messages across different channels. 4. Media plan integration; Integration of Social Media and traditional media is the key to success. The advantage of high impact/low cost media coverage campaigns can result in measurable sales uplift. 5. Access for all; It is important to make the applications accessible and to assign groups of employees the primary objective to manage the corporate Social Media. It is needed to develop Social Media guidelines in order to manage the applications and the communication that comes forth out of the use of these applications by the employees. Also identification of the employees is needed in order to prevent the end-user to think that fake messages are posted, which can severely damage the credibility of a Social Media campaign and thus the corporate image. Being social 1. Be active; Being active and taking the lead is important when engaging the target group. Participants on Social Media applications have the desire to actively engage and to become both producers and consumers of information, so called prosumers, (Toffler, 1980). Keep in mind that is not about advertising and sales but about sharing and interaction. Thus is needed to have up-to-date information. 2. Be interesting; It is important to be and stay interesting for the target group. Therefore it is important to find out what they want to hear, they want to talk about, what they find interesting, enjoyable, and valuable. 3. Be humble; It is not about advertising and sales on Social Media so stay humble and try to create interaction and feedback. Also take the time to discover Social Media applications and learn how to use them, where it can be helpful to ask this to users that have spent many hours in this digital arena. 4. Be unprofessional; Social Media users are just like you, who understand that things do not always go as planned. And if you have created good relationships they might even give advice how to do it better the next time. 5. Be honest; Do not try to post fake messages or change the rules. This can severally damage your corporate image when this leaks.

55 3.3.6 UNDERSTANDING THE FUNCTIONAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF SOCIAL MEDIA Social media employ mobile and web based technologies to create highly interactive platforms via which individuals and communities share, create, discuss, and modify user generated content. Given the tremendous exposure of social media in the popular press today, it would seem that we are in the midst of an altogether new communication landscape. Important is to know that one of the most important disadvantages of social media is the fact that negative news can reach many people and seriously damage a corporate image. Business Editor Tim Weber (2010) explains: "These days, one witty tweet, one clever blog post, one devastating videoforwarded to hundreds of friends at the click of a mouse-can snowball and kill a product or damage a company's share price." Although it is clear that for the better or for the worse, Social Media is very powerful. Still many executives are reluctant or unable to develop strategies and allocate resources to engage effectively with Social Media. Consequently, firms regularly ignore or mismanage the opportunities and threats presented by creative consumers (Berthon, Pitt, McCarthy, ft Kates, 2007). One reason behind this ineptitude is a lack of understanding regarding what Social Media are, and the various forms they can take (Kaplan ft Haenlein, 2010). J.H. Kietzmann et. all (2011) has set up a framework in the form of a honeycomb consisting out of seven functional building blocks: identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups, see Figure 8. Each block allows us to unpack and examine (1) a specific facet of social media user experience, and (2) its implications for firms. These building blocks are neither mutually exclusive, nor do they all have to be present in a social media activity. They are constructs that allow us to make sense of how different levels of social media functionality can be configured. What was interesting in this article is also the fact that there is an attempt to classify different Social Media. This can be seen in Figure 19, where an overview of different Social Media is found with the building blocks that apply most to these Social Media. Figure 13- J.H. Kietzmann et. all (2011), The Honeycomb that visualizes the building blocks of Social Media. Social Media causes substantial and pervasive changes to the communication between organizations, communities, and individuals. This results in a change that is a major challenge for firms. Customers are not easily willing to listen to what firms have to say, they rather want firms to listen to them. Figure 14- J.H. Kietzmann et. all (2011), Contrasting the functionalities of different sites.

56 The honeycomb framework can be used as a tool. By analysing the building blocks firms can monitor and understand the social media activities and how they differ in terms of function and impact. In order to develop a congruent social media strategy based on appropriate balance of building blocks for their community the honeycomb framework is needed SOCIAL SPENDING: MANAGING THE SOCIAL MEDIA MIX There is a demand for proof of return on investment (ROI) for Social Media spending, and a significant degree of uncertainty among marketeers with respect to allocating effort and budget to Social Media. Important is to know how Social Media is used, the spending decisions, and the identification of the dimension that can be used to differentiate important types of Social Media in a Social Media mix and relate this to tactical marketing execution APPROACHES TO USING, AND SPENDING ON, SOCIAL MEDIA. It is important to recognise that there is a certain skillset needed in order to use Social Media effectively. Providing the engagement of the target group with a personal touch can greatly benefit the relationship. This is comprised of several important qualities, such as authenticity, being conversational and human, reciprocity, ceding at least some control, and fighting the urge to explicitly and constantly close a sale (Parise, Guinan, & Weinberg, 2008). Figure 15- B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan, Spectrum of approaches to using social media There are three general approaches identified by B.D. Weingberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) towards using Social Media, varying in extent to which the approach is traditional or emergent (Berthon, Hulbert & Pitt, 2005) in nature, see Figure 1. The first approach is traditional in marketing nature, the second is experimental where there is tested and learned where the critical factors of Social Media are, and the third is also experimentation but with a more human voice than a corporate voice. The reason why the approaches are less emergent is because of the lack of Social Media experience and wisdom. Because of the relationship oriented nature of Social Media, not only a financial aspect of ROI has to measured but also a relationship based currency, a social currency, and a spending process can be characterized as investing (e.g., in establishing, building, or maintaining relationships). With Social Media other objectives can be set in contrary to the traditional media objectives. With Social Media, organization may emphasize on the engagement with consumers and consumer evangelism TRADITIONAL VERSUS SOCIAL MEDIA SPENDING Traditional spending seeks to achieve an acceptable ROI. Where this does not have to be the case for Social Media. Instead of making assessments about how much to spend in each channel for directly delivering messages, investments decisions are also made to build social currency, and on motivating r facilitating bit not forcing or demanding others to carry a brand related message. This is the key distinction between traditional media spending and Social Media spending.

57 SOCIAL MEDIA MIX AND TRADITIONAL OBJECTIVES It is known that not all Social Media are the same (Bernoff and Li, 2008). In order to support managerial and strategic decision making the variation of Social Media and the relationship between platform rules and how people process and use Social Media needs to be understood. There are two factors that explain the variation of Social Media and can guide the decision-making with respect to the marketing objectives and purposes. These two factors are the half-life of information and the depth of information. The half-life of information is a function of both the medium and the content, and refers to the longevity of the information in terms of availability/appearance on the screen and interest in a topic. For example, information appearing on Twitter can move quickly off the screen perhaps in a matter of seconds or minutes depending on a variety of factors, such as, in the case of Twitter, the number of users that one is following. Depth of information refers to the richness of the content, and the number and diversity of perspectives. For example, an online community forum or Facebook can bring together a relatively large amount of rich, involving information on a topic; consider, for example the Edmunds.com Town-Hall/CarSpace forum on automobiles. With the help of these two factors defined by B.D. Weingberg and E. Pehlivan (2011), it is possible to show distinctions among various types of Social Media and, in turn, to identify, on average, the best types of Social media to serve various marketing objectives. In Figure 2 the two factors are shown. Each of the Social Media are classified according to these two factors SOCIAL OBJECTIVES AND MISSION CONTROL When having social objectives it is important to first monitor all vehicles for content of interest (e.g., mentions of a brand or product); then identify the individuals associated with that content (e.g., a customer indicating satisfaction or dissatisfaction); then decide whether to target those individuals and, if so, with what action (e.g., continue to monitor, engage in conversation, offer appreciation); then, ultimately, get the individuals towards evangelism, see Figure 12. The social currency can be leveraged by devoting resources to relationship building. Key aspect is that facilitating this is being able to know when individuals are speaking in the social space; that is, to be able to hear them! When focussing on social objectives it is important to be able to monitor for content and interest. Therefore organizations have begun with the construction of Social Media mission control centres where they can monitor social-space activity, engage it, analyse it, and share observations and analysis in the organization, all in real time. An example to imagine how this can be done is, Pepsico s Gatorade, they developed a mission control via which it monitors social media, and engaged in thousands of conversations with consumers, and assessed customer preferences in formulating new products (Zmuda, 2010). Another example is Dell that will be launching its own social media mission control centre soon (Owyang, 2010) SOCIAL MEDIA VERSUS TRADITIONAL MEDIA Figure 16 B.D. Weingberg and E. Pehlivan (2011), Social Media by information half-life and depth, and associated marketing objectives and purposes Figure 17- B.D. Weingberg and E. Pehlivan (2011), Social Media process for media spending

58 Social Media is not the perfect substitute for traditional marketing, nor is it a one size fits all tool. Social Media can effectively be used by taking the message directly to the consumers and focus on traditional objectives. But recognition of distinction of elements of the Social Media mix should be done in accordance to marketing objectives. Furthermore Social Media empowers consumers and give them influence. Social Media also enables the building of relationships between organizations and individuals. This result in a more social approach to engage the digital social space. The frameworks B.D. Weingberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) provides allows thoughtful resource allocation to social media efforts and campaigns MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA 4X4. Social Media applications are going mobile because of the increasingly powerful developments of mobile devices. Defining Mobile Social Media. Mobile Marketing, and Social Media usage MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA With the rise of mobile devices capable of offering location based services made it possible to support mobile marketing. Gowalla, founded in 2007, and Foursquare, founded in 2009, were the first one specialising in this new form of mobile marketing called mobile social media MOBILE MARKETING Mobile marketing is a marketing activity conducted through a ubiquitous network to which consumers are constantly connected using a personal mobile device. Mobile marketing therefore requires three conditions. According to Mark D. Weiser (1991) a ubiquitous network, is not necessarily one single network, but rather a combination of different networks. A user can, for example, be connected at home through a wireless LAN, switch to 3G when leaving the house, and log into a WiMAX network at work. Important is that switching from one network to the other goes smoothly and invisible. The second condition entails the user having constant access to this network. The last condition involves use of a personal mobile device. A mobile device is any tool that allows access to a ubiquitous network beyond one specific access gate. The most common example of a mobile device is a mobile phone, but a netbook also counts if it can access different types of wireless networks (e.g., WLAN, 3G, WiMAX). For mobile marketing to make sense, this mobile device needs to be personal; that is, not shared with anyone else. This requires that each household member has their own device and that each device can be identified uniquely, as through a built-in SIM card MOBILE MARKETING: CLASSIFICATION OF MOBILE MARKETING APPLICATIONS There are four types of mobile marketing applications where two variables are used to differentiate them namely: (1) the degree of consumer knowledge and (2) the trigger of communication. Regarding the degree of consumer knowledge, the use of a personal device allows companies to customize their messages to each individual user, similar to the idea of one to one marketing (Peppers, Rogers, & Dorf, 1999). Regarding the trigger of communication, differentiation can be made between push communication, which is initiated by the company, and pull communication, which is initiated by the consumer (Table 3). Table 2- Kaplan &Haenlein, (2011), Classification of mobile marketing applications

59 MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA: DEFINITION AND TYPOLOGY Building on the definition of mobile marketing, as well as the definition of traditional social media (Kaplan &Haenlein, 2010), it is able to define Mobile Social Media. Mobile Social Media are defined as a group of mobile marketing applications that allows the creation and exchange of user generated content according by Kaplan &Haenlein, (2011). Also in this case there are can be differentiated between four types of mobile social media applications, depending on whether the message takes account of the specific location of the user (location-sensitivity) and whether it is received and processed by the user instantaneously or with a time delay (time-sensitivity) (Table 4). Table 3- Kaplan &Haenlein, (2011), Classification of mobile social media applications MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA: THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Mobile social media require two actors: (1) a sender who is willing to share information and (2) a receiver who is willing to listen to it. This gives rise to two relevant questions. First, why would somebody do effort to check in at a certain location, simply to provide information regarding their detailed whereabouts? One reason for this lies in the concept of self-presentation and self-disclosure ([Goffman, 1959] and [Schau and Gilly, 2003]), which states that people are willing to reveal information about themselves if this information is consistent with the way they would like to be seen by others. A second reason can be found in impulsiveness theory ( [Ainslie, 1975], [Hoch and Loewenstein, 1991] and [Thaler and Shefrin, 1981]), which states that people constantly struggle between displaying long-term control and giving into short-term temptations. People might therefore be willing to post status updates and upload videos on their way to work for exactly the same reasons they would purchase a candy bar at the drugstore checkout, although it is incompatible with their plan to live a healthier life. The second, and equally important, question is: Why do others, friends and firms, care to read and react upon this type of information? For friends, the reason may lie in the concept of ambient awareness; that is, awareness created through regular and constant reception, and/or exchange of information fragments through social media. Knowing the places a person has been throughout the day, combined with some casual comments here and there, might tell you more about your friend than a 2-page . For firms, mobile social media allows marketing messages to be distributed that are relevant only for specific locations and/or time periods. The excitement that results from the expiration date of these messages can prompt more effective marketing communication. This is similar to what can be observed in the context of price promotions, where it has been shown that in addition to any potential financial windfall sweepstakes and contests create value for consumers through their mere entertainment character (Chandon, Wansink, & Laurent, 2000).

60 MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE FIRM: BUSINESS USE AND POTENTIAL By now, it should be clear that traditional social media offer a variety of opportunities for companies in a wide range of business sectors. This is true for social media in general (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010), as well as specific applications like virtual social worlds (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2009) and micro blogs (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011a). Social media have, for example, been shown to be particularly powerful in generating viral marketing phenomena (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011b) and supporting new product launches (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2012). Nevertheless, mobile social media and, particularly, space-timer applications differ significantly from traditional social media. Usage of mobile social media can be found in marketing research, communication, sales promotions/discounts, and relationship development/loyalty programs FOUR I'S SEE MORE THAN TWO: MOBILE SOCIAL MEDIA ADVICE Mobile social media offers two types of information that are not available through any other channel: data on the consumer's time and place. This makes it possible to gain new insights in consumer wishes and needs. Kaplan & Haenlein, (2011), have developed the Four I's of mobile social media usage to help and give direction to firms within this new environment. First, integration of mobile social media activities into the lives of users is need, but avoid being a nuisance. Second, integration can be achieved by individualizing activities to take account of each user's preferences and interests, and provide the opportunity to, third, involve the user through engaging in conversation. If this is done properly and firms have some luck, it is even possible to gain, fourth, the initiation of the creation of user-generated content and word-of-mouth, which allows for tighter integration of activities into the lives of users. Although these four pieces of advice are targeted toward space-timers, they can be equally relevant for the other three types of mobile social media applications (Figure 13) GLOBAL REACH: ANYWHERE, ANYTIME, ANYONE Figure 18- Kaplan &Haenlein, (2011), Mobile social media advice Kaplan & Haenlein, (2011), state that companies are forced to focus on using mobile devices in order to reach Generation Z or the Net Generation, born between 1990 and The use of mobile devices will dramatically increase in the near future. These and future generations are familiar and known with these technologies and possibilities. Furthermore mobile devices will evolve towards multi-function control centres. Technological advances will make more interaction possible. For example a point-and-find application that can match your picture to an image database and tell you information of the object you just took a picture from. Seen from a broader perspective, mobile social media, allow a tighter integration of virtual and real life. For example combining status updates with location-based applications, where your friends can see where you are and can join you. So in the future, the reach will be global, anywhere, anytime and with anyone.

61 3.3.9 AUGMENTED REAILTY Augmented Reality (AR), enables to visualize and create the world digitally,reality combined with some virtual elements that can for example be used for group working, public participation in planning, project consultations. Lonsing (2004) proposes the definition: an augmented reality system generates a composite view in real time. The composition is a combination of a real scene viewed by a user and a virtual scene generated by a computer, where the real scene is submerged with additional information in order to enhance the perception of the user. In an aim to get such composition a position of an eye must be followed and virtual elements, two or three dimensional generated in a way as if they were seen from a fixed point. Layar and Wikitude are examples of Augmented Reality applications. Layar specializes in mobile augmented through which the person interacts with AR content. The mobile AR world consists largely of two different types of experiences; Geolocation- and vision-based augmented reality. Geolocation-based AR uses GPS, compass and other sensors in a user s mobile phone to provide a heads-up display of various geolocated points-ofinterest. Vision-based AR uses many of these same sensors to virtually display digital content in context with real-world objects, like magazines, postcards or product packaging, by tracking the visual features of these objects. The Wikitude World Browser is your third eye and allows you to see things you wouldn t normally see. Wikitude s Augmented Reality connects you with the world around you in different way. By using the camera, simply hold up your smartphone and engage with your immediate surroundings. See places, discover people, play games all through your camera s field of vision a truly exciting and immersive experience. Wikitude is not just an app that serves one purpose, it is rather a platform that hosts thousands of content providers each offering a different service. In a way, Wikitude is almost like an app store offering Augmented Reality apps or better Augmented Reality Worlds CROWD SOURCING Thanks to millions of people that are making all kinkds of voluntary online contributions it is possible to create massive information sources online. Take for example Youtube and Wikipedia. Not only the massive numbers are impressive but also the variety of contributions. In the research of I. Borst (2012) she phrases Cook (2008) that provided a taxonomy for user contributions. Cook distinguishes active and passive user contributions. Examples of passive user contributions are the searches generated by a massive number of people, which form the basis of Google s search engine algorithm, or persons buying behavior which determine the product recommendations at Amazon.com. In case of passive user contributions, people do not provide their contribution intentionally. They may even be unaware of the value that their behavior has for the firm aggregating these contributions. Active user contributions consist of those contributions that users provide intentionally, such as multimedia content (text, pictures, audio or video), software code and ratings.

62 In the research of I. Borst (2012) she points out that the use of online voluntary resources provides some clear benefits for firms. A key benefit is cost savings (Howe, 2006a) since online volunteers are not rewarded in the same manner as employees. They provide their contributions frequently without being paid for it (e.g. Wu et al, 2007; Lampel and Bhalla, 2007). When financial compensation is offered, they are generally linked with contributions that represent value for the organizing company. Other benefits refer to the improvement of product quality and customer intimacy and to the acceleration of development activities or large routine tasks. Quality improvement can be achieved when large numbers of users are pre- testing new products or when groups of experts are involved in forecasting (Bonabeau, 2009). Higher customer intimacy is reached through more intensive communication with online customers and increased engagement with the product and firm when customers are contributing (Bonabeau, 2009). Acceleration of time to market can be realized when using external expert knowledge which is not available within the company. Online communities In the research of I. Borst there is referred to O Mahony and Ferraro (2007) who explain that a community is a social group with a shared basis of authority. Such a social group consists of people sharing common interests and needs. The specific characteristic of online communities is that members primarily interact via online communication media instead of face-to-face contacts (O Mahony and Ferraro, 2007; Moon and Sproull, 2008). The following is also derived from the research of I. Borst (20120). Some authors highlight that online communities are guided by protocols and norms (Porter,2004; Wise, Hamman and Thorson, 2006; Preece and Maloney, 2005). Frequently these protocols and norms are implemented in a formal structure that ranges from professional editors to teams of voluntary moderators (Poor, 2005; Preece, 2000). The primary function of moderators is to clarify which contributions are relevant for example by keeping a conversation on topic and to prevent harmful contributions. It is believed that moderation becomes more crucial when the size of an online community grows (Lampe and Resnick, 2004). Also important to mention is that online communities use different methods to select their members (Plant, 2004; Wenger & Snyder, 2000). Online communities can use an open-membership whereby anyone who has access to a computer and an Internet connection can become a member and participate. But online communities can also use a closed-membership policy (Ciffolilli, 2003). Closed membership means that only people meeting a predetermined list of criteria are admitted. The purpose of closed-membership is to increase control over its members, making management, identification of common interests, and meeting easier (Dubé, Bourhis and Jacob, 2006). An openmembership policy is more in line with the idea of using worldwide expertise and resources. Within online communities there are two types of online communities; namely knowledge sharing communities and production communities. Communities of practice are focused on knowledge sharing (Wenger, McDermott and Snyder, 2002), while collective models of innovation can be classified as a production community (Von Hippel and Von Krogh, 2003). O Mahony and Ferraro (2007) also acknowledge this difference in focus. For this research this information is sufficient enough. Open source communities In the research of I. Borst there is referred to the fact that originally the term open source was exclusively used to describe groups of voluntary software developers at many different locations and organizations, sharing software code to develop and refine programs (Raymond, 1999; Lerner and Tirole, 2002). In recent years the meaning of the term open source has broadened to groups engaged in other activities than software development. Although the activity differs, these groups of volunteers still follow one or more key characteristics of the open source software development community. For this research this information is sufficient enough.

63 Crowd sourcing In both the research of I. Borst (2012) as that of D.C. Brabham (2009) there is referred to the definition of crowdsourcing coined by Jeff Howe (2006a). He described crowdsourcing as a new web-based business model that harnesses the creative solutions of a distributed network of individuals. Crucial to crowdsourcing is the use of an open call format and a large network of potential laborers (Howe, 2006b). Howe further clarifies that it's only crowdsourcing once a company takes that design, fabricates it in mass quantity and sells it (Howe, 2006c). As I.Borst (2012) points out it is not clear what mass fabrication means in the current information society: whether it is limited to the production of physical goods or can also be extended to making information available to a large audience without any reproduction costs via the internet. D.C. Brabham (2008) adds to what Howe said by stating the following: In other words, a company posts a problem online, a vast number of individuals offer solutions to the problem, the winning ideas are awarded some form of a bounty, and the company mass produces the idea for its own gain For this research the definition focusses on the outsourcing of business activities to the internet crowd both with an open or closed community CROWD FUNDING Next to crowdsourcing there is the phenomenon of crowdfunding which builds on the fundaments of crowdsourcing. But crowdfunding is about raining money in a different way. According to A. Schwienbacher and B. Larralde crowdfunding sn simple terms, is the financing of a project or a venture by a group of individuals instead of professional parties (like, for instance, banks, venture capitalists or business angels). In theory, individuals already finance investments indirectly through their savings, since banks act as intermediary between those who have and those who need money. In contrast, crowdfunding occurs without any intermediary: entrepreneurs tap the crowd by raising the money directly from individuals. The typical mode of communication is through the Internet COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS More conceptually, Lambert and Schwienbacher (2010) extend the definition of crowdsourcing provided by Klemann et al. (2008), by describing crowdfunding as an open call, essentially through the Internet, for the provision of financial resources either in form of donation or in exchange for some form of reward and/or voting rights in order to support initiatives for specific purposes. According to the theory by I. Borst (2012) it should be clear that online communities and crowdsourcing are not identical organizational forms. Online communities are groups in which members experience social connection. This social connection is not by definition a requirement of crowdsourcing; crowdsourcing can also be successful outside an online community. When requesting user generated ideas or designs via an open call, these are not necessarily shared with other participants. So group mechanisms applicable to community activities are not always relevant to crowdsourcing initiatives relying on individual and not collaborative contributions. After concluding that not all crowdsourcing happens in online communities I. Borst (2012) argues that not all online communities deliver crowdsourcing. For example social networks facilitating communication between its members do not outsource activities to its members and can therefore not be classified as crowdsourcing initiatives. Therefore I. Borst (2012) considers all open source software development initiatives as examples of crowdsourcing since software development is in general a business activity. I. Borst (2012) considers open source communities as a specific form of online communities; a conclusion that is shared with O Mahony and Ferrero (2007).

64 In this research the same findings as I. Borst (2012) is shared. Concluded can be said for this research that there is to be made difference between an open or closed community. Furthermore there will be looked upon the following online communities: online knowledge-sharing communities online crowdsourcing communities online crowdfunding communities Whereby the online knowledge-sharing communities is about sharing knowledge and not forcing or inviting the crowd to generate UGC. The online crowdsourcing communities on the other hand are characterized by the need or the invitation for the crowd to generate UGC in order to participate in the community. 3.4 CONCLUSION RELATION CORNERSTONES THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Urban area development occurs in a complex context and is a long term process that may take a considerate timespan to be realised. The development process brings far reaching changes within the urban area. The physical measures alters the structure of the urban area. This new spatial structure and the new buildings that will be erected or redeveloped, will influence the use to which the area can be put, the way it is perceived by residents and others and its economic potentials for decades. Not only the spatial aspects must be given attention but also the social, political, economic, ecological, and social cultural aspects. These aspects should lead to sufficient spatial and market quality. The stakeholders are needed in order to initiate urban area development. When developing an urban area there are many stakeholders involved accompanied with their own interests. There are different stakeholders involved in the urban area development process namely; the public sector, the private sector and the civic society. By involving these stakeholders it is able to create support for the urban area development, what will contribute to the success of the urban area development. Each stakeholder will protect their own interests and try to push these interest throughout the process at the cost of the interests of other stakeholders. Each of these stakeholders adopts different roles and responsibilities throughout all the phases of the urban area development process. The stakeholders significance and support depends on the situation and the issues continuing support cannot be assumed (Savage, et al., 1991). Categorising stakeholders is based on assessing the stakeholder s power to influence the outcomes of the project, the legitimacy of each stakeholder s relationship with the project, and the urgency of that stakeholder s claim on the project, leading to specific managerial actions (Mitchell, et al., 1997). The concepts of power, legitimacy and urgency (Mitchell, et all., 1997) are valuable for identifying important stakeholders, as is the idea of centrality and density (Rowley, 1997) for attempting to recognise and show the power and communication ties within the stakeholder community. Communication is both a process and an activity. It is a process for information exchange using a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviour (Cleland, 1994, PMI, 2004). Therefore it is important to understand that culture differs in each context in which an event is happening. An project i.e. in China needs a different approach than a project in the Netherlands. But differences are also found on the local level because of people are living in i.e. a multicultural and dense area. The urban area development process consists out of four phases; the initiative phase, the planning phase, the realisation phase and the maintenance phase. In practice the boundaries between the four different phases is not always that clear. The urban area development process is the sum of a large number of complex processes performed by many individual stakeholders in order to develop an urban area. It is important to turn everyone s nose in the same direction. Througout the urban area development process it is important to integrate the sectoral and facet related aspects to achieve the best spatial and functional quality. Each phases of the urban area development process asks specific skills in order to achieve success. For the scope of this research it was interesting to look at the organisational talent, the organising capacity and general success criteria for urban area development. Urban area development can thus best be described as the sum of a large number of complex process performed by many individual stakeholders where they can claim a say at different scale levels,

65 involving (inter)national competition between cities on an (inter)national stage and subject to the direct influence of events from far outside the region in question. Every stakeholder has their own definition of the problems involved, and the interests of the various factors may differ markedly. There has been a shift in the approach towards developing urban areas. The importance to listen to the civic society in order know what they want, or in other words what the market asks, is increasing more than ever. Nevertheless there will be differences amongst the civic society in what they want or ask. By mapping these different demands, managing the urban area development process will be easier. Listening to the civic society makes it possible to anticipate better on the market. This will help to increase the organisational talent and thus increase the possible success of an urban area development. The success of an urban area development is hard to measure. Hobma (2010) states that Success is not a simple or unambiguous concept. There are no objective criteria that can be used to ensure or to measure the success of an urban area development project. Important for the public and private sector is to make clear what they mutually understand about the meaning of success for that specific project. Firstly, the three levels of success factors distinguished can interact with each other. A change at the context variable can have influence on the critical success factors i.e. a political change. Secondly, the boundaries between the necessary conditions and the critical success factor is not always clearly defined. Thirdly, it can be stated that the presence of a given success factor does not guarantees success but rather increases the likelihood of success. Furthermore the list of success factors given is not exhaustive and it is not able to make definitive statements about the relative weight of the various success factors. In today s digital world, Social Media is taking in an important position. It is possible to reach, connect and influence huge numbers of people. For the field of urban area development it is getting more important to address the necessity and the added value of using Social Media to improve the workflows and processes, whether it is on the scale of the building or the development of an urban area. With the coming of Web 2.0 it was possible to create, modify and publish content and applications by all users in a participatory and collaborative fashion. This brought forth the User Generated Content (UGC), that can be seen as the sum of all ways in which people make use of Social Media. According to Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) the definition of Social Media can best be described as a group of Internet based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content. For using Social Media as an intervention tool it is important to classify the different Social Media. As seen earlier, the classification is made on basis of social presence, media richness, self-presentation and self-disclosure. The understanding of the differences between the Social Media will help in formulating goals and a Social Media strategy. When this is done the chance of success will increase. There are three general approaches identified by B.D. Weingberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) towards using Social Media, varying in extent to which the approach is traditional or emergent (Berthon, Hulbert & Pitt, 2005) in nature. The first approach is traditional in marketing nature, the second is experimental where there is tested and learned where the critical factors of Social Media are, and the third is also experimentation but with a more human voice than a corporate voice. The reason why the approaches are less emergent is because of the lack of Social Media experience and wisdom. Social Media is not the perfect substitute for traditional tools, nor is it a one size fits all tool. Social Media can effectively be used by taking the message directly to the consumers and focus on traditional objectives. Nevertheless with Social Media other objectives can also be set in contrary to the traditional media objectives. But recognition of distinction of elements of the Social Media mix should be done in accordance to the objectives. Furthermore Social Media empowers consumers and give them influence. Social Media also enables the building of relationships between organizations and individuals. This results in a more social approach to engage the digital social space. The frameworks B.D. Weingberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) provides allows thoughtful resource allocation to Social Media efforts and campaigns. Providing the engagement of the target group with a personal touch can

66 greatly benefit the relationship. This is comprised of several important qualities, such as authenticity, being conversational and human, reciprocity, ceding at least some control, and fighting the urge to explicitly and constantly close a sale (Parise, Guinan, & Weinberg, 2008). Furthermore the advices in paragraph for Social Media usage are to be taken into consideration to increase the success of using Social Media. Social Media employ mobile and web based technologies to create highly interactive platforms. These platforms enables individuals and communities to share, create, discuss, and modify user generated content. Given the tremendous exposure of Social Media in the popular press today, it would seem that we are in the midst of an altogether new communication landscape. This will also count for the players in the field of urban area development. With the rise of new technologies both mobile and static, for example Augmented Reality, mobile appplications, it is possible to benefit more from Social Media as the reach and use will increase. As Kaplan & Haenlein, (2011) state, companies are forced to focus on using mobile devices in order to reach Generation Z or the Net Generation, born between 1990 and The use of mobile devices will dramatically increase in the near future. These and future generations are familiar and known with these technologies and possibilities. This will also count for the use of Social Media. Building on the definition of mobile marketing, as well as the definition of traditional Social Media, Kaplan &Haenlein (2011) defined Mobile Social Media; Mobile Social Media are defined as a group of mobile marketing applications that allows the creation and exchange of user generated content. All these developments enables the existence of online communities. In the research of I. Borst (2012) there is referred to O Mahony and Ferraro (2007) who explain that a community is a social group with a shared basis of authority. Such a social group consists of people sharing common interests and needs. The specific characteristic of online communities is that members primarily interact via online communication media instead of face-to-face contacts (O Mahony and Ferraro, 2007; Moon and Sproull, 2008). As mentioned before Social Media enables the users to create and exchange User Generated Content. This led to the open source communities, which means that people at different locations and organizations can create and exchange User Generated Content. This brought forth the idea of crowdsourcing and crowdfunding. Jeff Howe (2006a) described crowdsourcing as a new web-based business model that harnesses the creative solutions of a distributed network of individuals. Crucial to crowdsourcing is the use of an open call format and a large network of potential laborers (Howe, 2006b). Howe further clarifies that it s only crowdsourcing once a company takes that design, fabricates it in mass quantity and sells it (Howe, 2006c). The meaning of mass fabrication is not clear but for this research the definition focusses on the outsourcing of business activities to the internet crowd both with an open or closed community. Crowdsourcing thus enables the generation of ideas, receiving information and to gauge the market. Another important development is that of crowdfunding. Lambert and Schwienbacher (2010) extend the definition of crowdsourcing provided by Klemann et al. (2008), by describing crowdfunding as an open call, essentially through the Internet, for the provision of financial resources either in form of donation or in exchange for some form of reward and/or voting rights in order to support initiatives for specific purposes. This makes it possible to generate new business models for urban area development by involving more investors, small or large, in order to achieve the goals. By now, it should be clear that traditional Social Media offer a variety of opportunities for companies in a wide range of business sectors. This is true for Social Media in general (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010), as well as specific applications like virtual social worlds (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2009) and micro-blogs (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011a). Social Media have, for example, been shown to be particularly powerful in generating viral marketing phenomena (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011b) and supporting new product launches (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2012). The possibilities for using Social Media will thus increase and will be endless. Nevertheless there are also difficulties in using Social Media. Although it is clear that for the better or for the worse, Social Media is very powerful. Still many executives are reluctant or unable to develop

67 strategies and allocate resources to engage effectively with Social Media. Consequently, firms regularly ignore or mismanage the opportunities and threats presented by creative consumers (Berthon, Pitt, McCarthy, ft Kates, 2007). One reason behind this ineptitude is a lack of understanding regarding what Social Media are, and the various forms they can take (Kaplan ft Haenlein, 2010). Social Media causes substantial and pervasive changes to the communication between organizations, communities, and individuals. This results in a change that is a major challenge for firms. Customers are not easily willing to listen to what firms have to say, they rather want firms to listen to them. Furthermore there is a demand for proof of Return On Investment (ROI) for Social Media spending, and a significant degree of uncertainty amongst marketeers with respect to allocating effort and budget to Social Media. Therefor it is important to know how Social Media are used, the spending decisions are made, and the identification of the dimension that can be used to differentiate important types of Social Media in a Social Media mix and relate this to tactical marketing executions. Because of the relationship oriented nature of Social Media, not only a financial aspect of ROI has to measured but also a relationship based currency, a social currency. The spending process can be characterized as investing (e.g., in establishing, building, or maintaining relationships). With Social Media other objectives can be set in contrary to the traditional media objectives. With Social Media, organization may emphasize on the engagement with consumers and consumer evangelism or better said the creation of ambassadors. The overlap between urban area development and Social Media will be shown by looking at the sectoral and facet related aspects, the organisational talent, the organising capacity and the general success criteria of urban area development and the role Social Media can have in each of these aspects. As for the sectoral and facet related aspects the following can be said; Social Media interventions can be of use throughout all sectoral aspects of urban area development. And for the facet related aspects of urban area development, Social Media interventions can help in mapping data for setting the context of all facet related aspects. The Social and (Socio) Cultural facet are relevant when it comes to using Social Media as an intervention. For the organizational talent, which plays an important role in the success of urban area development, it is important to keep the optimized three angels of approach standing throughout the different phases of the urban area development process. Social Media interventions can help in the optimisation of these three angels of approach. With the help of Social Media and other related developments it is able to set up, test and adjust the three angels of approach in order to find the right balance. For example it is possible with the help of crowdsourcing and crowdfunding techniques to generate ideas and financial means to optimize the three angels. Augmented Reality can then help in giving the user more insights. By enabling the user to participate mobile it is possible to reach more people and receive more information. This is just one of the endless possible examples that can be thought of. For the organizing capacity there can be clearly seen that Social Media can provide an added value. Therefore it is needed to look at the characteristics of the organising capacity namely; the involvement of all stakeholders, the generation of new ideas and the development and introduction of an adequate policy. In all three characteristics Social Media can provide added value. There are numerous possibilities for involving stakeholders and building relations, the generation of new ideas and the development of adequate policies by i.e. crowdsourcing and the marketing and viral power of Social Media to introduce new policies and the development itself. To elaborate more, in-depth examples will be given on the organising capacity framework of Van den Berg et al. (1997). The following examples can be thought of: The vision: As to the organising capacity Social Media interventions can be useful in the forming of the Vision and enable the Vision to guide the stakeholders in their behaviour. Think for example of an online master plan where ideas could be dropped and when finished all the relevant information is available online and everywhere, enabling business deals all over the world for a certain urban area

68 development. It is possible to turn everyone s nose in the same direction. With the help of crowdfunding it is possible to sell parts of the masterplan in order to trigger faster development of the urban area. Strategic Networks: Social Media can also aid in creation and maintenance of Strategic networks. Think for example about a customized Facebook or LinkedIn look-a-like, especially for certain urban area developments. This will create transparency about whom is involved in which phase and whom cooperates with each other, possibly enabling the increase of support amongst stakeholders. Furthermore it is then possible to manage the strategic network more efficiently at one place and get communication channels to be shorter as everyone that is involved can be found easier. Leadership: Social Media interventions in the other elements can help to lessen the difficulties at the other elements enabling the leadership to perform better. Political support: By making the demand of the civic society visible with i.e. crowdsourcing, it is possible to influence the politics in order to get things done. Societal support: Social Media connects seamless to the creation of societal support. With Social Media it is able to involve stakeholders and the clients in order to co-create, knowing the market demand and to anticipate on negative reactions/developments and spread positive reactions/developments. It is now also possible to reach a bigger crowd of people and some crowds that were unable to reach in the past. Communication: Communication is obviously related to Social Media as it is used as a communication channel too. Take Twitter, Facebook, or blogs for example. The most Social Media interventions in urban area developments nowadays focusses on using Social Media as a communication channel not only for the output of information but also for the input. For example participation process can take place in an online environment. So the information input will lead to better information input and hopefully to better urban area developments. 3.5 CONCLUSION THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK It can be stated that Social Media offers the players in the field of urban area development the possibility to improve certain parts within the Urban Area Development process in each of the four phases on different levels, both the product as well as the process. There are many possibilities to use Social Media as an intervention in the Urban Area Development process to increase the chance of successful Urban Area Development. But therefore it is needed to prepare properly before applying Social Media and there has to be thought how to manage and maintain the Social Media in order to create a sustainable character instead of wasting time and financial means. Thus it is important to have a proper Social Media strategy, clearly defined goals, creative solutions and execute social management. Still we must not forget as Hobma (2010) mentioned that the presence of a given success factor does not guarantees success but rather increases the likelihood of success. The theory that is now available can act as a guidance during the empirical research to fall back in order to formulate the conclusions.

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70 4. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH 4.1 INTRODUCTION The empirical part of this research consists out of expert interviews and case studies. At first the expert interviews will be conducted in order to increase the understanding of Social Media and Urban Area Development. After the expert interviews there will be elaborated on the case studies. For the case studies there are interviews done with key-persons concerning the cases. The empirical part of this research will end with an analysis from which there can be conclusions drawn. All will be provided with own logical reasoning, which will be indicated as Italic text. 4.2 EXPERT MEETINGS INTERVIEWS There are several interviews done with experts in the field of Social Media and have some basic knowledge of Urban Area Development as well. The expert interviews are done to increase the understanding of the complexity that comes along when applying Social Media in practice. It helps to get a better idea of the potentials and the pitfalls. These experts are chosen because of their in the field of Social Media and the ability to give expert information about the usage of Social Media. Furthermore these experts are also able to provide generic information about the usage of Social Media because of their experience. The experts all have different perspectives and backgrounds. This made it possible to generate new and fresh insights as well. It is interesting to see the overlap with the theoretical framework. The interviews are conducted via an interview schedule, seen in Appendix I. After the interviews all the information will be processed into a summarized format. These formats will be send to the experts where they are needed to validate or better said confirm what is written. This is done in order to decrease possible empirical faults i.e. interpretation that differs. For now there is only 1 of the interviews that still needs confirmation. The interviews will focus on involving stakeholders, the advantages and disadvantages of Social Media usage, how to manage Social Media, the team requirements, the need of a Social Media policy, the strategy and general tips. The same questions will be consistently asked to the interviewees in order to look for generic information. Nevertheless there will be more questions asked to find out specific information to keep searching for new insights. For example smart and innovative solutions for using Social Media in order to achieve the goals. These expert interviews provides an enormous information source and is thus embedded in the research because of the empirical value. All interesting findings will be marked and provided with an own reflection. These findings will be combined in the general conclusion of the empirical part of the research. Interviewee Profession Company Jan Jelle van Hasselt Founder Wit Communicatie Ingrid van Frankenhyzen Founder Communisenso Janneke Zuidhof Brand Strategist Synergie Wout Gijsbers Social Media Consultant IMNL Francoise Kraaijenzank Communication Manager OGA Sirous Kavehercy Founder Tripylon Media Willem Velthoven Founder Mediamatic

71 WIT COMMUNICATIE, JAN JELLE VAN HASSELT PROFIEL Wit communicatie maakt stakeholder analyses en doet aan strategieontwikkeling. Verder ook nog de uitvoering van concrete communicatie acties en evaluaties. De rol van sociale media is erg belangrijk. Wit communicatie is een klein bureau dat behoorlijk gespecialiseerd is in communicatie, participatie en interactie. Wit communicatie doet veel aan kennisdeling en ontwikkeling rondom Social Media. INTERVIEW J.J. van Hasselt (2012), Voor De Dienst Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling en het Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Gemeente Amsterdam zijn er proeflabs Social Media georganiseerd. De toegevoegde waarde van Social Media is hiervoor bekeken voor specifieke projecten zoals o.a. Zelfbouw, Groene Daken, Erfpachten de Kantorenloods. Centraal tijdens Zelfbouw was de beslissing voor een individu om niet een bestaand iets te kopen maar zelf iets te bouwen. Het was een zwaar traject en onbekend terrein voor velen. Hierdoor was er een enorme honger naar uitwisseling van informatie en ideeën. Het vinden van lotgenoten was hiervoor belangrijk en het delen van ervaringen. Een uitwisselingsplatform op Facebook moest opgezet worden en dit resulteerde in veel sub-communities rondom zelfbouw locaties. Wit Communicatie was ook betrokken bij de communicatie rond de Strcutuurvisie Amsterdam 2020 Het sociale platform Binnen 30 minuten.nl had als doel het opzetten van een sociaal platform waar mensen op een speelse manier input konden geven over de structuurvisie. Persoonlijke profielen en thema s werden hiervoor ingezet. Het totaal plaatje moest leiden tot een beeld van wat de Amsterdammer belangrijk vond voor de toekomst van de stad. Het was in deze fase, het initiatief, belangrijk om input te krijgen voor het plan en kennis op te stapelen. Wit is ook ingeschakeld door de Noord/Zuidlijn. Hier ging het om de inzet van Facebook en omgevingsmanagement. Belangrijk is dat er hier niet meer gesproken wordt over wat er wel of niet komt, er wordt namelijk al gebouwd. Het ging om het opzetten van een communicatiekanaal waar omwonenden langs het tracé (op basis van de stationslocaties Rokin, Vijzelgracht en De Pijp) op de hoogte gehouden kon worden en vragen kon stellen. De omgevingsmanagers hadden hun eigen community. De proeflab ging hoe om te gaan met informatie overkill. Social Media kunnen ingezet worden om te bekijken wat er speelt rondom de planvorming. Vooral de beslissershoek is dan een belangrijke cluster om op te focussen. Het is bijvoorbeeld mogelijk om professionals na te laten denken over specifieke onderwerpen waarbij specialistische kennis nodig is en men elkaar kan vinden. Een voorbeeld is Centrum ondergronds bouwen waarbij kennisontwikkeling en kennisdeling plaatsvindt. VOOR- EN NADELEN VAN SOCIAL MEDIA Voordeel: Onderscheiden. Snel nieuws delen of je stem laten horen. Directe contactmogelijkheid om te bekijken wat er leeft en een gesprek hierover aangaan. Niet meer afhankelijk van onderzoeksbureaus.

72 Nadeel: Risico bij gebrek aan kennis dat Social Media niet beheerst kunnen worden. Maar dit kan niet echt gezien worden als een nadeel, maar eerder als een kans om relaties te leggen met mensen, mensen te binden en verbinden. Je kan niet iedereen betrekken, Social Media geeft niet een totaalbeeld, er zal altijd op een andere manier ook vragen gesteld moeten worden. Kans op veel gekwetter maar weinig wol. (Vrij naar het boek met deze titel van Chris Aalberts en Maurits Kreijveld ) TOEKOMSTBEELD Een van de dingen die je wilt doen als het gaat om gebiedsontwikkeling is het laten zien van een toekomstig beeld. Social Media maakt dit mogelijk. Bijvoorbeeld met het instrument Layar. Denk aan virtuele wandelingen, ontwerp je eigen appartement (binnen opgesteld randvoorwaarden), hoe zou het uitzicht zijn als ik hier kom werken, wonen of recreëren. Hier zitten zeker kansen voor de toekomst. Belangrijk is wel om te realiseren dat er uiteindelijk een interactie en wisselwerking moet zijn tussen de projectorganisatie en de omgeving. De vraag is of deze wisselwerking baat heeft bij deze virtuele ontwerpruimtes. STAKEHOLDERS De voornaamste reden voor alle stakeholders om gebruik te maken van Social Media hangt af van de belangen van alle stakeholders. Dit verschilt per project en daarom is een stakeholder analyse belangrijk. Er zou sprake kunnen zijn van een binnencirckel en een buitencirckel waarbij de binnencirckel gekenmerkt wordt door stakeholders met een groot belang en de buitencirckel gekenmerkt wordt door indirecte stakeholders die ook betrokken moeten worden in het gebied. Dit hangt echter wel af van het stadium van het project en of het wel of niet nodig is om aan te haken of te informeren. Daarnaast verschillen de verantwoordelijkheden van de stakeholders bij de inzet van Social Media omdat ieder project gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen en daarvoor er iedere keer een andere trekker nodig is. MANAGEN Nadat het Social Media project is opgezet is het belangrijk om niet alles de vrije loop te laten het is belangrijk om minimaal te monitoren en te reageren, het uitvoeren van webcare. Hierdoor is het belangrijk om content te genereren en input te geven. Dit organiseren is dus erg belangrijk. Er zijn verschillende modellen voor iedere fase van gebiedsontwikkeling of iedere fase van het Social Media traject. Bij grotere projecten is het belangrijk om de organisatie formeler te organiseren. Verder is een trackingsysteem voor berichten handig om de conversatie te volgen. TEAM J.J. van Hasselt (2012) stelt dat het team die zich actief moet bezighouden met Social Media moet bestaan uit: Expert groep lead van het project Uitvoering de omgevingsmanager De personen die moeten reageren; communicatie specialisten, de webcare team

73 SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY Is handig om op te stellen voor grote organisaties. Maar de policy moet niet te beperkend optreden. Houd het simpel, zoals Google: Dont be stupid VOORWAARDEN - STRATEGIE Het van belang is om iedereen op één lijn te krijgen. Het is hiervoor belangrijk om te kijken wat de drijfveren zijn van de stakeholders en het moet mogelijk zijn om aan te haken op deze drijfveren. Zo zal de bereidheid die verschillend is bij iedere stakeholders vergroot kunnen worden. Dit helpt bij de positionering van de ontwikkeling. Allereerst moet er begonnen worden met een stakeholderanalyse en vervolgens het vaststellen van de doelstellingen. INTERESSANTE TIPS Het is interessant om te zien hoe het proces van gebiedsontwikkeling per fase gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen. Welke strategie ligt hier vervolgens aan ten grondslag? En welke activiteiten moeten vervolgens ondernomen worden? Zie Betteke van Ruler. Probeer de zaken niet al teveel in detail in te vullen. Laat het grotere perspectief zien. Interessant hierbij zijn de verschillende rollen in gebiedsontwikkeling. En de verschillende belangen die hierbij spelen COMMUNISENSO, INGRID VAN FRANKENHUYZEN PROFIEL Communisenso gerepresenteerd door Ingrid van Frankenhuyzen richt zich op het geven van social media strategieën, trainingen en adviezen. Deze hebben een focus op crisiscommunicatie en hoe dat online vorm gegeven moet worden. Communisenso focust zich op het meedenken met klanten hoe de beoogde doelgroep bereikt kan worden. Soms in samenwerking met een derde partij wordt een totaal kennispakket aangeboden. INTERVIEW I. van Frankenhuyzen (2012), Interessante aspecten zijn wie in een organisatie wat mag doen en hoe dat te doen. Hoe kan dit sneller. Er is een spanning tussen Social Media en wettelijke bevoegdheden. Hierin heeft Communisenso bijvoorbeeld een afdeling van de Gemeente Den Haag geholpen op Facebook omtrent hoe informatie te verspreiden en hoe de doelgroep te benaderen. Communisenso houdt zich ook bezig met crisiscommunicatie, denk hierbij aan online newsroom, darkrooms, schaduw websites en social media kanalen. Als er iets gebeurt dan is het in sommige gevallen meer dan wenselijk om een crisispakket achter de hand te hebben die ingeschakeld kan worden. Hiervoor is dan ook al een protocol voor vastgelegd wat wel te zeggen en wat niet. Essentieel is dat reputatieschade voorkomen moet worden. I. van Frankenhuyzen (2012) ziet Social Media vooral als het in staat zijn om met elkaar in contact te kunnen staan, te delen, en elkaar te informeren.

74 VOOR- EN NADELEN VAN SOCIAL MEDIA Voordeel: Het in staat zijn om snel informatie te delen Transparant tot op bepaalde hoogte Mensen te activeren Informele karakter Erg snel De mogelijkheid om kennis uit de groep te halen (Crowdsourcing) zonder dure marketingbureaus in te huren. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan de mogelijkheid om mensen mee te laten bepalen over hoe de bouw van een school eruit komt te zien, de fietstenstalling en overige wensen. Of bijvoorbeeld het schrijven of laten schrijven van bezuinigingsvraagstukken. Dit kan echter zowel via Social Media /websites als offline. De mogelijkheid om de groep medeverantwoordelijk te maken voor beslissingen. Men mee te laten bepalen bij bezuinigen wat te sluiten, het zwembad of de bibliotheek. Social Media maakt het mogelijk om dit snel te polsen, mits er een community is. Nadeel: Negatieve berichtgeving. De mogelijkheid om met de grond gelijk gemaakt te worden op Social Media, omdat deze ook functioneert als een uitlaatklap van emoties. Er is geen filter /redactie meer in informatievoorziening (deed vroeger bijvoorbeeld de journalist). Er is gebrek aan controle. Effectief en adequaat reageren is van belang. Belangrijk is dat je de vraag moet stellen welke doel je voor ogen hebt. Ga je monitoren? Wel of niet een Social Media policy? Het is in ieder geval belangrijk om een trekker /ambassadeur naar voren te schuiven. Dit werkt uiterst effectief. I. van Frankenhuyzen (2012) licht dit toe aan de hand van een voorbeeld van een bewonersprofiel op Facebook waarbij het mogelijk werd om een community te bouwen waarbij buren elkaar begonnen te informeren, helpen en van advies te voorzien bij de bouw van een nieuwe wijk. Het was hier belangrijk om niet iedereen toegang te verschaffen. Er moet dus ook verschil gemaakt worden in wie toegang heeft en wie niet, dit verschilt per case. TOEKOMSTBEELD Het directe contact zal blijven de snelheid zal toenemen. De oude denkwijze over communicatie van boven af zal verdwijnen en er moet een andere manier van werken komen. Iedereen staat met elkaar of heeft de mogelijkheid met elkaar in verbinding te staan. De stad maakt dit mogelijk door overal Wifi hotspots te hebben. De kans voor reputatieschade en negatieve berichtgeving wordt groter als je social media niet monitoort/managet. Merken en bedrijven zullen dus meer rekening hiermee moeten houden. Voor gebiedsontwikkeling zal het betekenen dat er meer inspraak zal komen en leiderschap zal veranderen aangezien er toch iemand verantwoordelijk zal moeten zijn voor de beslismaking. STAKEHOLDERS De stakeholders zijn overheden, de particuliere sector en de consument. De voornaamste reden voor alle stakeholders om gebruik te maken van Social Media zijn de eerder genoemde voordelen die Social Media met zich meebrengen. Het is mogelijk om snel zaken voor elkaar te krijgen en direct contact met elkaar te onderhouden, informatie te delen en uiteindelijk

75 samen verder te komen. Daarnaast verschillen de verantwoordelijkheden van de stakeholders bij de inzet van Social Media omdat ieder project gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen en daarvoor er iedere keer een andere trekker nodig is. MANAGEN Het is belangrijk om de menselijke factor in de gaten te houden. Snel reageren is belangrijk. Het gaat niet alleen om zenden maar ook om betrekken. De gratis verkrijgbare Social Media Management Tools zijn doorgaans voldoende. Op maat gemaakte management tools komen pas kijken op het moment dat een specifieke project daarom vraagt afhankelijk van de risico s. Het van belang is om te weten dat de bandbreedte is, deze is afhankelijk van je doelstelling. Aan de hand van de doelgroep die je wilt bereiken bepaal je welke informatie te verspreiden en op welk moment. Het identificeren van de doelgroep is dus erg belangrijk en bepalend. Negatieve berichten moeten meteen van openbaar naar intern gehaald en behandeld worden. Positieve resultaten dienen weer verspreid te worden maar hou het geloofwaardig. TEAM I. van Frankenhuyzen (2012) stelt dat het team die zich actief moet bezighouden met Social Media moet bestaan uit: Communicatie specialist met een vrij mandaat Urban professional als hij een toegevoegde waarde heeft SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY Is handig om op te stellen voor grote organisaties. Maar de policy moet niet te beperkend optreden. VOORWAARDEN Be Fun, aantrekkelijke informatie Breng ook leuke fouten aan het licht, en dat hiervan geleerd is Luisteren Niet commercieel actief zijn maar meer werken op gevoel, nostalgie (zoals de KLM op Facebook doet) Prijsvragen of andere beloningen werken goed op Social Media Een trekker/ambassadeur aanstellen voor het project Transparantie heeft een beperkt succes, heeft te maken met wantrouwen van de consument Dialoog aangaan STRATEGIE Het van belang is om iedereen op één lijn te krijgen. Het is daarom belangrijk om een strategieschema op te stellen voordat een Social Media initiatief succesvol kan worden. Daarnaast moet er ook flexibiliteit ingebouwd worden. Een helder doelstelling is dus erg belangrijk. Daaruit zal blijken hoe er gebruik gemaakt kan worden van Social Media. Voor gebiedsontwikkeling is het handig om één overkoepelende strategie te hanteren en voor iedere sub-fase een andere mini strategie. Zie hiernaast de Social Media Route gebruikt door Communisenso.

76 Hierin staat een route weergegeven welke stappen allemaal te doorlopen om de doelstellingen te behalen. De sleutelpersonen die verantwoordelijk zijn voor de beslismaking ook betrekken in dit proces. Dit kan variëren van een betrokken bewoner tot de burgemeester. INTERESSANTE TIPS Praktische voorbeelden opnemen om de herkenbaarheid te vergroten Duidelijke structuur en verantwoordelijkheden definiëren Leringen trekken vanuit de ervaringen van anderen SYNERGIE, JANNEKE ZUIDHOF PROFIEL Werken vanuit gedeelde ambities (visie, missie, waarden)en zijn onderdeel van een identiteit en cultuur. Daarom spreken wij van een identiteitsstrategie. Wij helpen organisaties met het ontdekken en het doorleven van identiteit en aantoonbaar hun impact vergroten. De afgelopen jaren ontdekten wij dat de beste manier om identiteit en ambities duidelijk te maken, de waarom hoe wat benadering is. Daarom vinden wij de basis voor identiteit en het creëren van beweging in het waarom. Hierbij wordt het gemeenschappelijk doel blootgelegd. INTERVIEW J. Zuidhof (2012), De markt is immers veranderd van een aanbod gestuurde markt naar een vraag gestuurde markt. Dit betekent dat het een markt is geworden die meer klantgericht is. Wij hebben samen met Monuta meegedacht over hoe er verbindingen gemaakt konden worden tussen ruimtes en het vinden van een identiteit. Een identiteit is er al, deze hoeft alleen gevonden te worden. Een goed afscheid met een goed gevoel. Het was belangrijk om te begrijpen wat deze plek voor de mensen betekende. Het is dus belangrijk om te begrijpen wat plekken betekenen voor mensen. Dit zorgt ervoor dat men anders moet kijken naar gebied en vastgoedontwikkeling. Top- down planning is verouderd en moet plaats maken voor echt co-creëren. Dit gaat verder dan slechts het creëren van draagvlak. Een voorbeeld is een project van de Veenkoloniën voor de EO Wijers-prijsvraag. Vragen als hoe ervaren mensen de vraagstukken en hoe komen deze menen in beweging stonden centraal. Verder is het belangrijk om men bij elkaar te brengen bij een gemeenschappelijk doel. Representativiteit is belangrijk om in de gaten te houden, Social Media alleen werkt niet. Bekijk hiervoor de netwerk strategie. Door J. Zuidhof (2012) werd een leuk voorbeeld gegeven. Een organisatie genaamd Green Choice gebruikt crowdfunding om de onderneming die gestart is in ruil voor de koop van 7 aandelen de investeerders 1 jaar gratis groene stroom levert. Kortom waarde leveren werkt goed! Daarom is het belangrijk om te weten welk verhaal je wilt vertellen en welk gesprek je wilt voeren. Storytelling is hiervoor een goede methode.

77 VOOR- EN NADELEN VAN SOCIAL MEDIA Voordeel: Nadeel: Erg (Internationaal) toegankelijk, zelf in Afrika kan men gebruik maken van Mobiele Social Media Het biedt mensen de mogelijkheid om deel te nemen en haalt dus gedeeltelijk de hiërarchie weg Zoveel informatie dat begrijpen en duiden afneemt. TOEKOMSTBEELD Het mogelijk is om overal in contact te zijn en toegang te hebben tot informatie waar je ook bent zolang je maar een mobiel hebt en over internet beschikt. Een idee is dat de reiswereld hier bijvoorbeeld reisbundels voor aanbiedt. Voor gebiedsontwikkeling zijn er mogelijkheden om gelijkgestemden een concept te kunnen laten realiseren middels crowdsourcing. STAKEHOLDERS De stakeholders zijn overheden, de particuliere sector en de consument. De voornaamste reden voor alle stakeholders om gebruik te maken van Social Media zijn de eerder genoemde voordelen die Social Media met zich meebrengen. Daarnaast moet er een reden zijn waarom er tijd en geld geïnvesteerd zou moeten worden in Social Media. Het doel moet niet alleen zijn het creëren van draagvlak om een project te kunnen starten. Het gaat om co-creëren. Ook verschillen de verantwoordelijkheden van de stakeholders bij de inzet van Social Media omdat ieder project gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen en daarvoor er iedere keer een andere trekker nodig is. MANAGEN Het is belangrijk om je te richten op de mensen die wel bewegen in plaats van de mensen die zich niet bewegen. Zie hiervoor de innovation adoption curve van Everett Rogers (1962). Daarnaast vraagt het veel van de mensen die de boel moeten managen. Het gaat om het verhaal achter het verhaal. J. Zuidhof (2012) gaf het voorbeeld van Henry Ford die zei If I d asked people what they wanted, they would have said a faster horse. Er zijn professionele mensen nodig die moeten filteren wat men wilt en nodig heeft.

78 TEAM J. Zuidhof (2012) stelt dat het team die zich actief moet bezighouden met Social Media moet bestaan uit: Iemand die de lijnen van de organisatie bewaakt Iemand die verstand heeft van ontwikkeling Communicatie specialisten met een sociologische/psychologische achtergrond De organisatie zelf SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY Bij Social Media policies zijn vaak gericht op het voorkomen van onwenselijk gedrag terwijl J.Zuidhof (2012) vind dat organisaties zich veel beter kunnen richten op het stimuleren van positief gedrag. Maar J. Zuidhof (2012) kan zich wel voorstellen dat er in sommige gevallen policies nodig zijn. STRATEGIE Het van belang is om iedereen op één lijn te krijgen en dat het voor iedereen een belang dient om gebruik te maken van Social Media. Richten op de mensen die wel bewegen. Het gaat echter om het werken vanuit een gezamenlijke ambitie. Verder moet een heldere doelstelling gedefinieerd worden die dient als rode lijn. De gezamenlijk ambitie moet hiervoor goed zichtbaar zijn op alle Social Media. INTERESSANTE TIPS De plek van hetgeen verteld in de roadmap IMNL, WOUT GIJSBERS PROFIEL Kenniscentrum omtrent internetontwikkelingen. INTERVIEW W. Gijsbers (2012), wij brengen complexe informatie omtrent internet en Social Media concreet en helder over. Echter als organisatie zelf hebben wij, grotendeels door financiële en organisatorische beperkingen, nog niet alle toepassingen doorgevoerd. W.Gijsbers (2012) adviseert gebruik te maken van de grote platforms en maximaal 3 platforms uit te kiezen. Breidt alleen uit als het nodig is. Denk vooral vanuit de doelgroep en waar de doelgroep behoefte aan heeft niet enkel in de keuze van platforms maar ook in de benadering en invulling van de platforms. Wat voor informatie wil je delen en met welk doel. Adverteren of droge promotie moet niet het doel zijn. W. Gijsbers (2012) hanteert de definitie voor Social Media als volgt; een collectie online platforms waarop men kennis en informatie met elkaar kan communiceren, alsook persoonlijkheiden en identiteiten tentoon kan spreiden en versterken. VOOR- EN NADELEN VAN SOCIAL MEDIA Een voordeel en tevens nadeel van Social Media is het sneeuwbal effect. Dit betekent dat iets positiefs snel verspreid kan worden maar iets negatiefs ook. Social Media is in potentie efficiënter en effectiever dan conventionele media omdat je in staat bent in één keer een grote groep waar ook ter wereld te bereiken.

79 Social Media wordt, vooral door bedrijven niet of slecht begrepen, hetgeen ervoor zorgt dat de efficiëntie en effectiviteit waarmee bedrijven social media inzetten vaak niet optimaal is. De Return on Investment van social media is tot op heden (vooral wanneer een product of service offline verkocht of verstrekt wordt) moeilijk te bepalen en vast te leggen. TOEKOMSTBEELD Gepersonaliseerd internet en integratie tussen online-offline en lokaal-internationaal. Dit wordt breder, persoonlijk en overal beschikbaar met de komst van mobiele applicaties en overige ontwikkelingen zoals Augmented Reality. Voor gebiedsontwikkeling komt er een bredere interactie tussen online en offline. Dit moet elkaar versterken. STAKEHOLDERS De stakeholders zijn overheden, de particuliere sector en de consument. De voornaamste reden voor alle stakeholders om gebruik te maken van Social Media zijn de eerder genoemde voordelen die Social Media met zich meebrengen. Het is mogelijk on snel te handelen, het is toegankelijk en er kan geleerd worden van de gebruikers door informatie te verzamelen. Het is bijvoorbeeld mogelijk om per categorie data te verzamelen, bijvoorbeeld: hoe denkt een specifieke groep mensen over een specifiek probleem of gebeurtenis?. Daarnaast verschillen de verantwoordelijkheden van de stakeholders bij de inzet van Social Media omdat ieder project gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen en daarvoor er iedere keer een andere trekker nodig is. MANAGEN Het is belangrijk om je te richten op wat de doelgroep wil of zou willen. Een optie is om eerst met traditionele of online focusgroepen te werken. Het is belangrijk om een goede, duidelijke strategie uit te werken die direct gekoppeld is aan bedrijfsdoelen. Het is belangrijk om een goede interactie te faciliteren en in dialoog te gaan. Verder moet men klachten meteen van openbaar naar intern halen en behandelen. Gratis Social Media Management en Monitoring tools werken in het begin vaak meer dan voldoende om aan de behoefte van organisaties te voldoen. Voor welke tool dan ook gekozen wordt, er moet van meet af aan een duidelijke focus liggen op analyse en een flexibele strategie. TEAM W. Gijsbers (2012) stelt dat het team die zich actief moet bezighouden met Social Media moet bestaan uit: Vakinhoudelijke In gebiedsontwikkeling een cultureel antropoloog SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY Het is handig om een paar basisregels op te stellen. deelname. Uitgebreide policies nodigen niet uit tot STRATEGIE Het van belang is om iedereen op één lijn te krijgen. Daarnaast is het handig om aan te sluiten bij bestaande communities in plaats van het opzetten van je eigen community tenzij er een goede reden voor is. Anders kost het teveel tijd en geld.

80 Er geldt voor iedere fase van gebiedsontwikkeling hoogstwaarschijnlijk ook een andere strategie omdat er tijdens iedere fase andere doelstellingen zijn. In de initiatief- en onderhoudsfase het gaat om kennis putten om vervolgens actie te ondernemen. Tijdens de realisatie fase gaat het meer om op de hoogte houden, eenzijdig informeren. INTERESSANTE TIPS Hoe de initiatief- en onderhoudsfase eruitziet COMMUNICATIE AFDELING OGA, FRANCOISE KRAAIJENZANK PROFIEL De afdeling communicatie van het Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Gemeente Amsterdam richt zich zowel intern als extern op de speerpunten van de OGA; Erfpacht, Vereveningsfonds, Transformatie van leegstaande kantoorgebouwen, Woningbouw en Zelfbouw en deelname aan (inter)nationale beurzen.. De afdeling communicatie is zowel (strategisch) adviserend als uitvoerend actief en heeft te maken met centrale kaders omtrent huisstijl, Social Media gebruik, webstijl en meer regels. INTERVIEW F. Kraaijenzank (2012), Er wordt weinig gebruik gemaakt nog van crowdfunding initiatieven maar wel van crowdsourcing initiatieven. Deze is terug te zien bij Zelfbouw en het opstellen van de structuurvisie (maar dat is bij de Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening, een andere dienst!). Het is belangrijk om op bestaande communities in te haken, dit hebben wij dan ook gedaan voor zelfbouw. De gemeente is deel gaan nemen in deze community. Verder gebruiken wij Social Media vooral om te netwerken, om te signaleren wat er leeft in de samenleving m.b.t. onze onderwerpen (monitoring) en om bekendheid voor bijvoorbeeld vastgoedbeurzen te verkrijgen. Daarnaast gebruiken wij LINK onze eigen Social Media platform voor werknemers en is ons personeelsblad Paars op Facebook gebracht (papieren blad is afgeschaft). Over het algemeen zijn veel OGA medewerkers wel huiverig om Social Media te gebruiken. Ook is het belangrijk om een goed team te hebben zoals bijvoorbeeld het webcare team Social Media voor erfpacht. Er wordt gemonitord wat er gezegd wordt over bepaalde stadsdelen en erfpacht. Daarnaast wordt er bij de stadsdelen ook gebruik gemaakt van Twitter om te monitoren wat er in de stad gebeurt en of er zaken gerepareerd moet worden. Social Media heeft ons al geholpen met aanzienlijke bezuinigingen. De proeflabs begeleid door en ontwikkeld met Wit Communicatie hebben het mogelijk gemaakt om met minder middelen meer gedaan te krijgen en in dialoog te treden. Het is mogelijk om de maatschappij dichter bij ons te brengen. VOOR- EN NADELEN VAN SOCIAL MEDIA Nadeel: Angst voor privacy. De scheiding tussen werk en privé

81 Voordeel: Doelgroep vindbaar op thema, interesses etc. het is mogelijk om aan te sluiten op de juiste onderwerpen Het is erg snel Faciliteert dialoog en is interactief Vele mogelijkheden om positieve (?) gedachtes te verspreiden en om inspraak trajecten te faciliteren TOEKOMSTBEELD Het mogelijk is om de openbare ruimte te filteren en te kunnen zien welke gebouwen te koop te staan, wat waar gaat komen. Alle gegevens zullen real time beschikbaar op één plek zijn in plaats dat deze beschikbaar is bij verschillende marktpartijen. STAKEHOLDERS De stakeholders zijn overheden, de particuliere sector en de burger. De voornaamste reden voor alle stakeholders om gebruik te maken van Social Media zijn de eerder genoemde voordelen die Social Media met zich meebrengen. En veel belangrijker het is nu mogelijk voor een gemeente en een marktpartij om in contact te komen met de eindgebruiker. Daarnaast is het voor de eindgebruiker mogelijk om betere dienstverlening te eisen, sneller oplossingen te vragen en meer invloed uit te oefenen. Belangrijk is dat het gaat om de eindgebruiker en hiermee een groter publiek bereikt kan worden. Daarnaast verschillen de verantwoordelijkheden van de stakeholders bij de inzet van Social Media omdat ieder project gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen en daarvoor er iedere keer een andere aanpak en trekker nodig is. MANAGEN Projectleiders of beleidsmakers moeten zelf het initiatiefnemen om gebruik te gaan maken van Social media voor hun project. De afdeling communicatie brengt inhoudelijke medewerkers wel geregeld op het idee, maar de inhoudelijk verantwoordelijkheden moeten het wel zelf willen er iets voor doen. Een handig hulpmiddel voor het bepalen van een Social Media strategie is het communicatiekruispunt van Betteke van Ruler. Goed bepalen wanneer er gemonitord, geparticipeerd of doorverwezen moet worden. Wanneer is er sprake van eenrichtingsverkeer en wanneer van tweerichtingsverkeer. Afhankelijk van het project wordt er ook bepaalde welke informatie en wanneer deze informatie verspreid wordt. TEAM F. Kraaijenzank (2012) stelt dat het team die zich actief moet bezighouden met Social Media moet bestaan uit: Inhoudelijke projectleider medewerkers uit het project zelf die het gaan 'doen' Communicatie specialist die coacht en adviseert op het gebied van Social media

82 SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY Is al beschikbaar maar moet niet te beperkend zijn. VOORWAARDEN Er moet tijd in worden gestoken! Doen, doen, doen. STRATEGIE Het van belang is om iedereen op één lijn te krijgen. Daarnaast heldere doelstellingen formuleren en zal er voor iedere fase een andere strategie gelden omdat er in iedere fase andere doelstellingen zijn. INTERESSANTE TIPS Spreken met David Kok Wie heeft welke doelstellingen en welke stappen moeten dan ondernomen worden Is het nodig om altijd iets zelf op te zetten? Wat is de juridische waarde van Social Media als je bijvoorbeeld inspraak wilt faciliteren Er is bijvoorbeeld heel veel input geweest voor het schrijven van de structuurvisie. Vervolgens is er weinig mee gedaan. Hoe zou men moeten denken en doen anders dient Social Media slechts het creëren van draagvlak. De uiteindelijke doelstelling zou moeten zijn dat de burger bepaalt TRIPYLON MEDIA, SIROUS KAVEHERCY PROFIEL Tripylon Media focust zich op het verschaffen van inzichten aan bedrijven in nieuwe media vanuit een totaal advies waarvan social media slechts één van de middelen zou kunnen zijn. Dit betekent dat organisaties af en toe ook intern anders vorm gegeven dienen te worden. De adviezen zijn niet kanaalgericht maar organisatiegericht. Tripylon Media houdt zich ook bezig met het ontwikkelen van dienst- en marketingsconcepten voor bedrijven en merken en via het platform So Me Events voor evenementenorganisaties. So Me Events ontwikkelt gaming en crowdsourcing concepten om bezoekers intensief en interactief te betrekken bij het organiseren van evenementen. De macht wordt teruggegeven aan de mensen. De toekomst van kennisdeling ligt bij de crowd. Empower the people! INTERVIEW S. Kaverhercy (2012), Het is belangrijk om te kunnen vertrouwen op informatie. Dit komt terug in mijn eigen Social Media gebruik, mijn volgers kunnen vertrouwen op de informatie die ik verspreid omdat ik deze zelf doorlees, mijn mening hierover geef en vervolgens pas verspreid. Het gaat niet om spammen en adverteren maar om informeren. S. Kavehercy maakt gebruik van meerdere online kanalen om zijn doelgroep te bereiken. Het gaat tegenwoordig om de juiste kennis binnenhalen. De juiste informatie voor business improvement zonder dat het veel tijd hoeft te kosten door te participeren in congressen en seminars. Het gaat om vraag en aanbod bij elkaar krijgen. S. Kaverhercy (2012) stelt dat het juist interessant is in gebiedsontwikkeling om te bekijken hoe Social Media ook commerciële partijen kan betrekken in het proces door haalbare business cases voor te stellen aan de commerciële partijen. Hierbij kan Social Media worden ingezet om de doelgroep van de commerciële partijen te binden waardoor commerciële partijen eerder geneigd kunnen zijn om mee te investeren aangezien zij kunnen zien in hoeverre de doelgroep geïnteresseerd zal zijn in hun product. Dit draagt weer bij aan het bepalen van de afzetmarkt van de commerciële partijen. Daarnaast kunnen commerciële partijen meegenomen worden in het Social Media gebruik voor gebiedsontwikkelingsprojecten.

83 VOOR- EN NADELEN VAN SOCIAL MEDIA Nadeel: Social Media wordt gezien als de redder van de business en dat het gratis zou zijn. Dit is een fabel. Wees ervan bewust dat fouten fataal kunnen zijn en daarvoor heldere doelstellingen van belang zijn. Voordeel: Groot bereik, ook om nieuwe markten te ontdekken Het is nu mogelijk om bijvoorbeeld over problemen in wijk snel te kunnen communiceren. Dit leidt ertoe dat er snel actie ondernomen kan worden. Deze positieve ontwikkelingen kunnen leiden tot heuse ambassadeurs van de wijk. Zo kan het imago opgekrikt worden. Dit kan weer resulteren in het aantrekken van potentiele woningkopers. Daarnaast is het nu ook mogelijk om in bijvoorbeeld de initiatief fase van een project te polsen of er wel vraag is naar een dergelijk project. TOEKOMSTBEELD Gebiedsontwikkeling blijft iets fysieks. Daarnaast vinden mensen het leuk en houdt men van hun leefomgeving. Er kan heel veel waarde toegevoegd worden. Social Media kan hieraan bijdragen maar het is zeker geen vervanging van al het andere. Gebruik het ter verrijking en niet ter vervanging. STAKEHOLDERS De stakeholders zijn overheden, de particuliere sector en de consument. De mate waarin de stakeholders van belang zijn zal per project verschillen. Het zou daarnaast sneller en beter moeten kunnen om in contact met elkaar te zijn. De voornaamste reden voor alle stakeholders om gebruik te maken van Social Media zijn de eerder genoemde voordelen die Social Media met zich meebrengen. Daarnaast is het mogelijk om een duurzamere leefomgeving te creëren. Social Media als communicatiekanaal kan daar sterk aan bijdragen omdat het erg toegankelijk is. Daarnaast verschillen de verantwoordelijkheden van de stakeholders bij de inzet van Social Media omdat ieder project gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen en daarvoor er iedere keer een andere trekker nodig is. MANAGEN Het is belangrijk om transparant te zijn in zoverre dat men niet het gevoel moet krijgen dat er zaken worden achtergehouden. Stel mensen op de hoogte waarom er niet geantwoord kan worden met degelijke antwoorden. Zo moeten er bijvoorbeeld geen posts verwijderd worden. Men moet niet tegen een logo praten maar met een persoon. Gezicht geven aan je organisatie is dus belangrijk. Zie Social Media als de extensie van je sociale leven. Social Media Management tools moeten doelgericht ingezet worden en je moet in staat zijn om terug te koppelen wat er gemonitord wordt. Zo wordt het zichtbaar wat er gebeurt met de interacties en de eigen input. Voordat er iets verspreid wordt bedenk dan wat jij ervan zou vinden als ontvanger. Heeft het een meerwaarde.

84 Het filteren van informatie kan het beste gedaan worden door het opzetten van een aantal richtlijnen. Deze moeten echter niet te ver gaan omdat er altijd wel dingen verkeerd gaan. Niet alles moet van 1 persoon afhangen maar kan door een team gedaan worden. Een voorbeeld is de opzet van de Social Media van President Obama waarbij er meerdere teams zijn aangesteld om te monitoren, reageren en filteren. Pas bij iets ergs moet er eerst gecommuniceerd worden met een centrale team. Het belang hiervan is dat als dit niet gedaan wordt er ingeleverd zal worden op snelheid en interactievermogen. Wellicht moet je niet alles willen filteren. Er moet wel rekening gehouden worden met crisismanagement. TEAM S. Kavehercy (2012) stelt dat het profiel van de mensen die op de Social Media kanalen aanwezig zijn en mensen te woord staan per project zal verschillen. Maar eenieder moet communicatie skills hebben en er dus begrip voor mensen nodig is. Het sociale aspect is vaak belangrijker dan het inhoudelijke. Men vindt het niet erg om even te moeten wachten op een goed antwoord mits op de hoogte gesteld. Sociale training van deze mensen is dus erg belangrijk. SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY Is handig om op te stellen voor grote organisaties. Maar de policy moet niet te beperkend optreden. VOORWAARDEN - STRATEGIE Het van belang is om iedereen op één lijn te krijgen. De doelgroep moeten altijd centraal staan. Betrek de juiste partijen om de doelgroep te bereiken. Iedere fase van gebiedsontwikkeling zal een eigen strategie kennen omdat iedere fase andere doelstellingen kent. Stel van tevoren de verantwoordelijkheden en doelstellingen vast. Afhankelijk van de organisatie is een implementatieplan gewenst. Kies de Social Media zorgvuldig en passend zijn bij de doelstellingen. Bijvoorbeeld webcare via Twitter en Pinterest om foto s te verzamelen voor wijkprojecten. Vervolgens kan men alle informatie beoordelen en verspreiden. Het kiezen van de bandbreedte moet ook zorgvuldig gebeuren. Kwaliteit van je bereik is belangrijker dan kwantiteit. Zo zijn 100 goede volgers ambassadeurs van jou project en zullen dit weer verspreiden onder hun volgers. INTERESSANTE TIPS Het interessant is om te zien of er een platform is die ideeën verzameld en deelt. The Empowerement van mensen om hun eigen leefomgeving vorm te geven. Dit kan door het introduceren van gameification en een reward. Het op de hoogte zijn van de plannen van de gemeente en hierop kunnen inspelen.

85 MEDIAMATIC, WILLEM VAN VELTHOVEN PROFIEL Mediamatic is een diverse organisatie die experimentele workshops organiseert en zelf actief bezig is omtrent tijdelijk gebruik. Als organisatie zijn ze altijd actief geweest met gebiedsontwikkeling en publieksactiviteiten. Zij wilden altijd de waardering en bekenheid van een gebied INTERVIEW W. van Velthoven (2012), Men moet investeringsbeslissingen maken en wij kunnen hier invloed op uitoefenen door publieksaantrekkelijke plekken te maken die in waarde versterkt worden en kwalitatief beter ingevuld worden. Plaatsmakers! De Tolhuistuin is een leuk voorbeeld waarbij men hun plannen konden maken en netwerken om in de vorm van een competitie het idee te realiseren. Het is belangrijk om zelf de controle over je inhoud te hebben maar gebruik te maken van de virale kracht van de grote netwerken. Zo blijf je eigenaar van eigen content en de volledige vrijheid in vormgeving en functionaliteiten zonder de connectiviteit met de grotere Social Media te verliezen. Mediamatic streeft ernaar om sterk te innoveren om lokaal interactie aan te gaan. Zie Foto X. Het filteren van kwaliteit en de bijdrage moet beter zichtbaar gemaakt worden. Bijvoorbeeld gebruikersactiviteit is en het identificeren van de eigenaar. Procesontwerp is essentieel en Social Media dient ingezet te worden als onderdeel, het gaat namelijk niet alleen om Social Media. Combineer de grotere Social Media met je eigen Social Media, lever je niet over aan Facebook. Maak je eigen media en proces social. VOOR- EN NADELEN VAN SOCIAL MEDIA Voordeel: Nadeel: Men is snel en makkelijk te bereiken en te betrekken Oppervlakkigheid Het wordt lastig om zaken te verbergen, maar dit komt de maatschappij ten goede Mits goed ingezet levert het geen nadelen op TOEKOMSTBEELD Gaming wordt belangrijker. De wijze waarop bijvoorbeeld het spel GTA de stad ervaarbaar maakt is de mooiste manier om scenario s voor ontwikkelingen te laten testen door gebruikers. Van Velthoven denkt niet dat Layar voldoende zal zijn. Het was bijvoorbeeld altijd al voldoende om men met een groot bord te informeren, anders sluit je veel mensen uit zonder smartphone. Er kan beter geïnvesteerd worden in communicatie en zichtbaarheid. Het wordt lastig om de bebouwde omgeving te bekijken van je mobiele telefoon.

86 Gaming faciliteert een hele snelle naviagtie en is dus vele malen geschikter. Daarnaast wordt particaptieve bouw wellicht ook een game en niet meer zozeer door een gemeenschappelijke ontwerper. Play the city is een mooi voorbeeld. Kortom urban professionals moeten allemaal verplicht een cursus mindcraft en een cursus GTA krijgen! STAKEHOLDERS De voornaamste reden voor alle stakeholders om gebruik te maken van Social Media heeft te maken met het feit dat er betere zichtbaarheid gecreëerd wordt en men sneller betrokken kan worden in het proces. Marketing via Social Media is een middel. Maar het betrekken van mensen levert vooral sterk gereedschap op waar je in een vroeg stadium profijt van kan hebben. Live marketing onderzoek bijvoorbeeld om te polsen wat er in de markt speelt. Daarnaast verschillen de verantwoordelijkheden van de stakeholders bij de inzet van Social Media omdat ieder project gekenmerkt wordt door andere doelen en daarvoor er iedere keer een andere trekker nodig is. Het voorbeeld werd gegeven omtrent de bouw van een school in Amsterdam Noord. De school staat met haar rug naar de weg die uitkijkt op een klein straatje geheel onzichtbaar voor de mensen. De functie is niet duidelijk en er wordt niet gecommuniceerd wat voor gebouw het is. Er kon tenminste de beleefdheid zijn om aan te geven wat voor gebouw er gebouwd is. MANAGEN Social Media moet eerlijk ingezet worden. Dit betekent dus dat niet de communicatieafdeling dat moet doen maar zoals eerder gezegd de vakinhoudelijke mensen dit moeten doen en de mensen die het proces ontwikkelen. De inhoudelijke mensen, bijvoorbeeld de mensen die het plan maken moeten dit via media gaan doen. Verder is het lastig om als stedenbouwkundige te filteren en op zoek te gaan naar mogelijke invullingen van een gebied omdat er zelden de vrijheid is. Legale, ecnomische en overige criteria spelen hierbij een grote rol. Deze vraag je niet aan de bevolking. Wat er uiteindelijk over blijft het zelf ontwerpen. Belangrijk is dat er een verschil zal zijn hoe je geïnformeerd zal worden, dit zal beter zijn en soms zal je ontdekken dat de bevolking meer tijd nodig heeft om te ontdekken waarom zaken lopen zoals ze lopen. Niet alle meningen kunnen bevestigd en verwerkt worden. Je wordt als stedenbouwkundige beter voorgelicht! TEAM W. van Velthoven (2012) stelt dat het team die zich actief moet bezighouden met Social Media moet bestaan uit: Vakinhoudelijken en procesverantwoordelijken met communicatieve vaardigheden. SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY - VOORWAARDEN - STRATEGIE Het van belang is om iedereen op één lijn te krijgen. De procesmensen en de vakinhoudelijke verantwoordelijk maken voor de Social Media. Daarnaast moeten doelstellingen helder gedefinieerd worden en zullen strategieën per fase verschillen omdat de doelstellingen ook verschillen. INTERESSANT TIPS Verlies je niet in de breedheid van het onderzoek. Het interessant is om te zien welke kennis omgezet kan worden in een training voor stakeholders in gebiedsontwikkeling.

87 4.2.2 SEMINARS There are several seminars and workshops attended with the same goal in mind for doing the expert interviews. It was important to improve the own knowledge in these specific fields. The seminars were handy in order to gain new insights and improve the own knowledge. From the reports of these seminars there can also be generic and specific information found. This information will be taken along in the formulation of the conclusion. Workshop Goal Company Vakimpuls Social Media Logeion How to engage citizens? Social Media The Mobile City Crowdfunding Crowdfunding ZUS Crowdfunding Crowdfunding / Crowdsourcing AIM Internet Marketing Course Online Marketing IMNL VAKIMPULS SOCIAL MEDIA EXPERIMENTEN IN INFRASTRUCTUURPROJECTEN Tal van mensen die zich verzamelden in het informatiecentrum waren speciaal gekomen voor het Vakimpuls Social Media experiment in infrastructuurprojecten. Na koffie en thee, mochten wij de zaal in waar er een kick-off werd gegeven met uitleg wat er allemaal zou gebeuren. Er werden allereerst 4 cases toegelicht door sleutelpersonen rondom de cases. De 4 cases - de twitterende bouwmanager Vincent Maaskant, (Katja Torbijn) Spoorzone Delft - crowd sourcing en omgevingsonderzoek via social media, (Manon Verhoeven) Interactieve Bouwfaseringsplaat Geo-Impuls (Karin de Haas) Noord/Zuidlijn - Pilot inzet Facebook en activeringscampagne station De Pijp, doorkijkje naar toekomstig beleid digitale media. (Freddy Elink Maakten onder andere gebruik van een website, whatsapp groep, Layar (een Augmented Reality tool voor mobiele telefoons), Twitter, Facebook, Flickr en Youtube. Belangrijk was dat men snel moest kunnen reageren op berichten op Social Media, maar de Social Media ook van content moesten voorzien. De communicatie afdeling wist niet altijd alles, en vanwege normale werkuren, niet 24/7 actief. Interessant was dat de communicatie afdeling de bouwmanager van het project en de bouwvakkers wist te overtuigen van de kracht van Social Media en de hoge fun factor die er ook bij kwam. In eerste instantie was er weerstand, maar dit veranderde gelukkig tot enthousiasme. Zelfs zo erg dat er trekkers waren van de Social Media die ook buiten werkuren actief waren op Twitter. De Social Media werden voorzien van foto s en leuke berichten. Deze werden meerdere keren gepost op de Social Media kanalen. Verder werden vragen snel beantwoord, ook buiten werktijd. Tweets werden gemeten om een beeld te krijgen van de invloed van hetgeen aan input er werd gestopt in het gebruik van Social Media. Dit leidde echter meteen tot veel meer bezoekers vanuit de website. Daarnaast werden er veel positieve reacties ontvangen. Helaas is het niet met honderd procent zekerheid te zeggen dat dit ligt aan het gebruik van Social Media, de Bouwmanager, of overige acties zoals het uitdelen ijsjes. Monitoren werd gedaan met behulp van Hootsuite, en zo nu en dan zelf de Social Media kanalen afstruinen door bijvoorbeeld # Den Haag Centraal, te gebruiken.

88 Belangrijke leerpunten: Snel reageren op reacties Monitoren wat er gezegd wordt Social Media voorzien van goede content Vooraf afspreken welke Tone of Voice er gehanteerd zal worden Vooraf afspreken wie wat voor nieuws verspreid Vooraf afspreken wie wanneer verantwoordelijk is om bijvoorbeeld te reageren. SPOORZONE DELFT Voor het Spoorzone project in Delft is er een projectorganisatie opgezet speciaal om dit project van A tot Z te begeleiden. Het project bevindt zich in de binnenstad van Delft, en staat op het moment bekend als een bouwput. Wel zijn de werkzaamheden te zien voor een ieder die langs het project komen. In de toekomst zullen er woningen gebouwd worden, een station, een stadskantoor en de aanleg van openbare ruimte. De meeste klachten zijn bouw gerelateerd en er worden ook veel vragen gesteld via Social Media. Unieke acties waarbij er ideeën werden verzameld. Een idee was #aliasloket, hier kon men via Twitter ideeën posten. De actie werd positief ontvangen door zowel de projectorganisatie en de Delftenaren. De projectorganisatie wilde een nieuw platform die een community kan faciliteren, aansluiten op bestaande communities en een hoge interactieniveau kent. Dit heeft geresulteerd in een informele website met een hoog interactie niveau. NOORD-ZUIDLIJN, AMSTERDAM De Noord-Zuid Lijn in Amsterdam. Gebruik van nieuwe media en Social Media heeft geresulteerd in een project dat eerst werd gezien als een pispaal tot een project dat nu positief wordt ontvangen. Onder andere het gebruik van Twitter en Flickr hebben heel erg geholpen bij het informeren van geïnteresseerden. Hiervoor is een platform Hierzijnwij.nu voor opgericht. Een platform die faciliterend optreedt ten behoeve van Conversaties, Opinies, Samenwerken en het geven van Identiteit. Een leerpuntje was dat het vertellen van een verhaal, mensen beïnvloed om ze mee te krijgen. Centraal tijdens de lezing stond het meten van een zogenaamde ROI. In hoeverre kan je succes meten van Social Media? Hiervoor werd er verwezen naar artikelen op Business Insider van Marc Schiller. En het verhaal van Steve Jobs die Obama vertelde dat men multi-channel ingesteld is en zo ook gebruikt zou moeten worden van Social Media. Overige belangrijke elementen zijn: Wees authentiek maar niet persuasief Interactie Persoonlijk Origineel/ vernieuwend Emotie toevoegen Zo was er een afbeelding van het station gepost door een van de bouwvakkers die viral is gegaan. Daarnaast heeft Social Media ervoor gezorgd dat het aantal bezoekers op de website is gestegen. Er werd aangeven dat wij er nog lang niet zijn vooral omdat het ook lastig is om dergelijke activiteiten/strategieën te implementeren in grote organisaties.

89 GEOIMPULS Geoimpuls is een initiatief om kennis te delen en te vergaren over het falen en succes van projecten omtrent Geocommunicatie. Een belangrijke opmerking was dat er een zogenaamde A-Team moet zijn bestaande uit een; Communicatie expert, Omgevingsmanager, Geotechnicus intern, Geotechnicus extern. Verder is het belangrijk om te kijken naar ieder project vanuit een verrekijker. Is het belangrijk om te toeteren of te luisteren! Bij risicoperceptie heeft men behoefte om hierover te praten. Verder hebben projecten de neiging om over te gaan naar vaak ingewikkelde schema s in tegenstelling tot simpelere en veelal effectievere communicatie met herkenningspunten. CASE 1 NOORD ZUID LIJN, AMSTERDAM, FREDDY ELINK SCHUURMAN Een geweldige case met maar liefst 11 mensen die wel wat meer wilden weten omtrent het succes van de Noord Zuid Lijn en het gebruik van Social Media. Er werd begonnen met een introductie ronde om ieders insteek kenbaar te maken. Verschillende mensen met ieder een ander perspectief wat leidde tot leuke en interessante discussies. Een interessante vraag was Hoe ROI te meten? Waar te meten? Hoe ROI te meten en waar te meten was een lastige vraag en zoals Freddy aangekaart had tijdens de introductie van het project is dat nu een vraag waar ze mee bezig zijn. Er wordt veel gekeken naar reacties, hoeveel mensen erbij komen. Twitter kan gezien worden als een algemeen gebruikt Social Media om de Noord Zuid lijn te volgen. Waar men vastloopt is project communicatie. Twitter helpt bij het verbinden van mensen. Toch zie je een weerstand van mensen die niet met Social Media geconfronteerd willen worden. Dit betreft dan vooral corporate communicatie. Daarnaast het gebruik van een digitale nieuwsbrief met informatie. Hierop werd vervolgens gereageerd. Is het niet zo dat Social Media een aanvulling is op offline communicatiemiddelen? Freddy antwoorde bevestigend op deze vraag. Interessant tijdens de discussies was het feit dat er onderscheid werd gemaakt tussen corporate communicatie en project communicatie. Met elk een ander doel. Uniek was dat de Metro mensen trekt. Men werd verbonden rondom een centrale thema. Verder gaat het erom dat een project snel afgerond wordt. Belangrijk is dat men wordt voorzien van relevante informatie. Dit kan heel erg goed op een website of op Social Media. Nu is het nog zo dat projectbegeleiders langsgaan bij mensen. Door dit consequent te blijven doen wordt het lastig om dit proces online te halen. Misschien wilt men ook niet dat sommige relevante informatie helemaal openbaar worden en makkelijk toegankelijk. Als voorbeeld werd het vergoeden van schade genoemd. Vervolgens dook de opmerking op of het wel zo goed was om erg multi channel ingesteld te zijn ondanks het feit dat het publiek dat misschien wel zo is. Hierop werd geantwoord dat het wel belangrijk is om te filteren welke Social Media er gebruikt moeten worden en er zeker aangesloten moet worden op bestaande communities. Daarnaast moet de keuze inderdaad zoals aangegeven was gemaakt worden op basis van de doelgroep, tijd en overige middelen. De inzet van Social Media was een experiment tijdens dit project. Het was hinken op twee benen. Het doel was om de buurt te ontsluiten door gebruik te maken van Social Media die men op de hoogte houdt van dagelijks nieuws. De vraag bleef echter hoe dat te doen voor project communicatie. Als voorbeeld werd de avondbijeenkomst genomen. Op zulke avonden verschijnen te weinig mensen. Mocht dit online kunnen zal dit resulteren in een hogere opkomst online en meerdere buurten te

90 ontsluiten. Er werden ook flyers uitgedeeld om men op de hoogte te stellen van de online omgeving waar men nauw het project kon volgen. Er was een enorme variëteit van buurten langs de Noord Zuid lijn en deze werden geprobeerd te verbinden via Facebook. Een andere vraag was waarom er zoveel angst is bij organisaties om gebruik te maken van Social Media en hoe deze organisaties te overtuigen? Als voorbeeld werd Rijkswaterstaat genomen als een organisatie waar veel angst is en er sprake is van een erg strikte policy. Angst komt voort uit onkunde, het vrijmaken van tijd, personeel en budget. Overtuigen gaat tijd kosten, er moet een verandering in denken komen. Belangrijk is om eerst een ROI te kunnen bepalen om inzichtelijk te kunnen maken wat de voordelen van Social Media zijn en het vergroten en inzichtelijk maken van de eigen netwerk. Werkt Social Media? Voor branding werkt het zeker weten! In overige gevallen is het lastig om dat met zekerheid te zeggen. Neem Vincent de Bouwmanager, er zijn verschillende categorieën. Het gaat om beheersbaarheid anders heeft het geen nut. Maak het waar op Social Media als eraan begonnen wordt. CASE 2- SPOORZONE DELFT, DELFT, MANON VERHOEVEN Spoorzone Delft is een project dat ondergronds en bovengronds werkzaamheden kent. Hoelang het duurt voor men weet wat waar komt is nog niet bekend. Dit heeft te maken met de complexe context. Er is namelijk 20 ha. Land teruggegeven aan de gemeente door ontwikkelaars omdat die zich terug getrokken hebben. De Spoorzone verbindt 4 wijken aan elkaar. Als er alleen een trein komt en er verder niks met de ruimte gedaan wordt dan worden grote kansen achterwege gelaten. Het idee is dus om tussentijd invulling te geven aan deze braakliggende terreinen. Het idee was om crowdsourcing te faciliteren op een online platform. Het middelpunt te zijn waar men elkaar online kan ontmoeten. De huidige website faciliteerde geen interactie. Er is geen plek waar men in het netwerk van wonen en werken elkaar online kunnen ontmoeten. Een eerste stap naar een dergelijk platform is nu gemaakt. Een voorbeeld dat werd gegeven; Er wordt een concert gegeven en er is nog plek voor een lokale band om mee te kunnen spelen. Het is jammer dat er geen plek is waar een band zich kan aanmelden. Daarnaast is het opmerkelijk dat de Gemeenteraad al 3 sessies heeft gewijd aan het gebruik van Sociale Media en zich heeft laten informeren omtrent Gebiedsontwikkeling nieuwe stijl, en de project organisatie nog niet met dergelijke initiatieven bezig zijn geweest. Vandaar dat er rap tempo gemaakt is afgelopen maanden om een inhaalslag te maken. Er werd een mooi voorbeeld gegeven in Amersfoort waar een wagen terrein zou worden schoongemaakt om woningen te kunnen bouwen, vanwege gif vervuiling vervolgens omgetoverd is tot een terrein met gebouwen van een monumentale waarde, waar van alles in gebeurt. Dit heeft te maken met het feit dat de bewonerscomité zich ingezet heeft om dit te bereiken. De belangrijkste opmerking was dat het leek alsof de projectorganisatie en de Gemeente Delft geen duidelijke doelstelling hadden bij het opzetten van een dergelijk platform. Er was zelfs een persoon die beweerde dat het soms beter is om niks te doen, zie het voorbeeld van Amersfoort.

91 Manon die gaf aan dat de doelstellingen van de Gemeente Delft en ook de projectorganisatie goed terug komen in het online platform. Namelijk het verbinden van partijen, het leren van initiatieven en het opdoen van ideeën die vaak leiden tot een betere uitkomst. Belangrijk is om netwerken te vinden en zogenaamde Trekkers te introduceren. Bijvoorbeeld het aanstellen van ambassadeurs. Kunnen meten welke initiatieven kansrijker zijn, bijvoorbeeld wat moet blijven staan wat moet weg. Het geven van een speciale rol aan mensen leidt vaak tot enthousiasme van mensen wat weer kan leiden tot het produceren van meer content. De doelstellingen van het project zijn het: Aangeven van kaders Faciliteren Interactie En linken van mensen Als een idee succesvol lijkt dan neemt de projectorganisatie en de Gemeente Delft het idee in behandeling om de haalbaarheid te bekijken. Een andere vraag was of het wel slim is om braakliggende terreinen om te toveren tot tijdelijke invullingen? Het kan anders best voorkomen dat men tevreden is met de tijdelijke invulling en gaat protesteren als de definitieve bestemming eraan zit te komen. Manon verwacht dit niet, daarnaast is het probleem dat zich overal kan voordoen. Belangrijk is om dit goed te communiceren met belanghebbenden. Zo zijn er een aantal gebieden vlakbij het station die meteen worden voorzien van een vaste bestemming. Dit om verwarring in de toekomst te voorkomen, en dat het daarnaast weinig nut heeft om daar tijdelijke bestemmingen neer te zetten. Interessant was de opmerking dat omgevingsmanagement in dit project te weinig persoonlijk contact kende. Daarom is het mogelijk om je gegevens achter te laten om zo snel mogelijk contact op te nemen. Nu wordt men vooral op de hoogte gehouden en interactie vermeden. Dit zal anders zijn met de komst van de nieuwe website. De nieuwe website is echter niet zichtbaar op mobiele telefoons en tablets. Verder was er een vraag of er nog een protocol was opgesteld? Manon gaf aan dat er geen protocol was opgesteld maar er wel gebuikt gemaakt wordt van een handvatten lijst. Ook nog de vraag of er iemand was die de online media actief beheerde? Manon gaf aan dat iedereen binnen de projectorganisatie een thema toegekend heeft gekregen en dus de community manager wordt rondom een specifieke thema. Er zijn weinig negatieve berichten, er zijn meer positieve reacties vanuit het team. Er zijn echter wel sommigen die vraagtekens plaatsen bij het nut van Social Media. Verder is het de bedoeling om de website met een ludieke actie te lanceren CROWDFUNDING, AMSTERDAMSE INNOVATIE MOTOR The power of the crowd gebruiken om mensen te mobiliseren en grote problemen te tackelen. Het is mogelijk om met de crowd mooie projecten te realiseren. Een voorbeeld is de sustainable dancefloor. Crowdfunding maakt het mogelijk om nieuwe verdienmodellen te creëren en om ideeën te realiseren. Why crowdfunding? Om mensen mede-eigenaar te maken! Er zijn echter wel verschillende types crowdfunding: Loan, Men wordt gecompenseerd voor de investering, zit natuurlijk wel een risico in. Equity, (Mede-eigenaar) moet je voorzichtiger zijn. Reward, In ruil voor de investering krijgt de investeerder een beloning bijvoorbeeld als eerste het product in ontvangst nemen. Donation, zonder iets terug te verwachten.

92 Het is erg belangrijk om te bekijken wat voor propositie je de mensen bied. Voorzie de mensen van informatie, wat er met het geld gebeurt, welke (extra s) de investeerders kunnen verwachten. Het is vaak handig om ook beeldmateriaal te laten zien. To do s Hou de doelgroep goed voor ogen en stem daar je strategie op af. Doe je huiswerk! Geef men het gevoel dat de projecten team effort zijn en mede mogelijk gemaakt zijn door de participanten van het project. Denk ook heel erg vanuit de marketinghoek. Goede voorbereiding en een goede follow-up zijn essentieel. Maak je beloftes waar. Gebruik Social Media om in gesprek te gaan met de crowd. Het grootste probleem is vaststellen van de legale limitatie. Dr. Irma Borst heeft onderzoek gedaan naar de voordelen van crowdsourcing en hoe het mechanisme werkt. Interessante voorbeelden: https://www.seeds.nl/ CROWDFUNDING WORKSHOP, ZUS Het is mogelijk om de kracht van meerdere mensen te gebruiken. Als voorbeeld werd het een project genomen waarbij Zus een braakliggend terrein hebben ingevuld door een tuin ervan te maken. De bloemen die geplant zijn hebben ze bij elkaar gekregen door heel Nederland door te crossen en bloembollen te verzamelen bij boeren. Dit heeft ervoor gezorgd dat het mogelijk was om 14 tuinen te realiseren en te voorzien van bloemen. Op kleine schaal en op soortgelijke wijze is de dependance in Rotterdam aangepakt door de culturele potentie te verhogen van het gebouw, nu gemaand het Schieblock. Het ging om placemaking en de toekomstige huurders te betrekken bij de realisatie van dit project en tevens te laten investeren. Het gebouw/ project heeft een sterke identiteit gekregen. Kleine ruimtes gedeeltelijk verkopen maakte het mogelijk om een heel gebouw te voorzien van nieuwe functies en het gebouw en de omgeving nieuw leven in te blazen. Zus nam geen risico. Het was slim om de huurders de aannemer in fases te laten betalen waardoor er een stabiele cashflow was. Goede allianties kunnen hier goed bij helpen. Het is en blijft lastig om te bedenken welke type funding gebruikt moet worden bij ieder project. Gebruik de lange tijd om een project te realiseren in jouw voordeel. Vertel daarnaast een verhaal, Bedenk wat juridische gevolgen zijn. Hoe je nieuwe verdienmodellen kan creëren. Wees nederig ten opzichte van alle partijen en luister. Probeer slim om te gaan met je geld en investeer om te kunnen opschalen. De Luchtbrug is een goed voorbeeld waarbij inhoudelijk wordt ingegaan bij de behandeling van de cases HOW TO ENGAGE CITIZENS WITH SOCIAL MEDIA, THE MOBILE CITY De huidige stad is een ware media stad. Er zijn volop digitale middelen aanwezig zoals apps, bluetooth, camera s en digitale passen zoals de OV-Chipkaart. Navigeren door steden gebeurt telkens vaker met behulp van de mobiele telefoon in plaats van herkenningspunten. De mobiele telefoon gaat interactie aan met de stad en vertelt alles van alle restaurants tot hotels. Er zijn vele socio-ruimtelijke transformaties die hier ten grondslag aan liggen. Daarnaast verandert het werken in dit soort steden. Men is mobieler en is in staat om overal te werken. Dit beïnvloed de bebouwde omgeving.

93 Het ruimtelijk beslismakingsproces wordt een echte authentieke democratische proces. Iedereen kan inspraak hebben en meebeslissen. Daarnaast zijn er tal van leuke voorbeelden waarbij er gebruik gemaakt wordt van platforms om burgers bewust te maken van hun leefomgeving om om burgers te betrekken bij hun leefomgeving. Een aantal voorbeelden zijn: Het is interessant om te zien hoe co-creatie gefaciliteerd wordt en hoe gamificiation men stimuleert om te particeperen en interactie aan te gaan met hun leefomgeving/stad. De Bijlmereuro is een goed voorbeeld hoe er inzicht wordt verkregen in het gedrag van het spenderen van geld in een gebied. Vervolgens werd het mogelijk om men te stimuleren de Bijlmereuro uit te geven in de eigen wijken. Daarnaast is het mogelijk om nieuwe (sociale) waardes te creëren voor een gebied. Het belangrijkste is dat het mogelijk is om aan te haken op gezamenlijke netwerken van wijken, gebieden, interesses en veel meer. Tijdens de workshop kwamen de volgende aspecten naar voren: Betrek mensen bij het initiatief, dit kan zowel digitaal met bijvoorbeeld Social Media of mobiele technologie of door fysiek 1 op 1 gesprekken te voeren. Leuk was ook wedstrijden te lanceren om men bewust te maken van hun energieverbruik en/of de carbon footprint die achtergelaten wordt aan de hand van de boodschappen die je haalt. Doel was om de lokale economie te stimuleren vanwege de lagere carbon footprint. Een ander idee focuste heel erg op het fysiek aanwezig zijn in het gebied en men vervolgens te stimuleren om gebruik te maken van digitale media als tool om input te geven over de leefomgeving INTERNET MARKETING CURSUS, IMNL Gebruik de kracht van het internet en Social Media om mensen te verbinden en de kracht te gebruiken om zaken te realiseren. Internetmarketing is daar uitermate geschikt voor. Er zijn allerlei tools beschikbaar van zoekmachine marketing tot foto marketing. Het is belangrijk om op alle elementen die je gebruikt op het internet om deze zo in te richten en te kenmerken dat de vindbaarheid en dus de kans op interactie vergroot wordt. Er zijn tal van grote Social Media maar maak gebruik van de juiste Social Media die passen bij wat jij voor ogen hebt. Kortom sluit aan op Social Media die passen bij het behalen van de vastgestelde doelstellingen. Noemenswaardig is local based marketing waarbij je op een erg lokale niveau men kan betrekken en doelgericht marketing kan toepassen om mensen op een lokale schaal te bereiken. Dit is uitermate geschikt voor gebiedsontwikkeling en of plaats marketing. Het gaat om mensen bereiken, in dialoog gaan en informeren wanneer nodig maar meer om monitoren. Leer hiervan ook vooral van je concurrenten. Werk met rewards in je campagnes om de effectiviteit te vergroten. Verbind alle online kanalen met elkaar. Snap de online taal van de gebruikers en sluit hierop aan. Zorg voor unieke berichten en vergroot de relevantie van de berichten en de fun factor. Ook hier zijn allerlei tools voor. Gebruik Unique Selling Points om je punt duidelijk te maken.

94 4.3 INTRODUCTION CASES All case studies will be conducted in a consistent manner according to the research model in order to compare the cases and find deviations. This will also help in generating data in a consistent manner. The cases that will be researched differ from each other because it was important to cover a wide variety of Social Media applications. This will increase the likelihood to find generic and specific information that can be relevant when using Social Media. The cases that are chosen can be found in the below mentioned table. All cases are chosen on basis of their data richness, accessibility, uniqueness and relation with Urban Area Development. This resulted in 13 cases that are applicable in this research. Case Luchtsingel, Rotterdam Wikaza Verbeterdebuurt.nl Nidoo Play the City Zelfbouw Amsterdam Hartje Eindhoven Wiener&Co Haarzicht Nobelhorst WoonApps Noord-Zuid lijn, Amsterdam Spoorzone Delft Company ZUS Wikaza Creative Crowds Nidoo.nl Play The City Municipality of Amsterdam Amvest Heijmans AM Dura Vermeer Dura Vermeer Municipality of Amsterdam Municipality of Delft & Prorail For the cases there will also be made use of interviews with key-persons concerning the Social Media interventions. The key-persons are chosen because of their relation with the project and ability to give in-depth information and obtains enough information in the field of Social Media and Urban Area Development. In total there are X persons interviewed. These persons all have different perspectives and backgrounds. This made it possible to generate new information and see where there is overlap with the theoretical framework. For the case studies it was important to interview key-persons that were actively involved with the use of Social Media. These key-persons all have different perspectives and backgrounds. This made it possible to generate new and fresh insights as well. It is interesting to see the overlap with the theoretical framework and the expert interviews. The interviews are conducted via an interview schedule, seen in Appendix II. After the interviews all the information will be processed into a case study format. These formats will be send to the interviewees where they are needed to validate or better said confirm what is written. This is done in order to decrease possible empirical faults i.e. interpretation that differs. For now there is only 1 of the interviews that still needs confirmation. Interviewee Profession Company Stijn van Balen Founder Verbeterdebuurt.nl Saskia Oldeweghuis Senior Communication Consultant Zelfbouw, Amsterdam Simone van Harten Communication Consultant Zelfbouw, Amsterdam Freddy Elink Schuurman Communication Consultant Noord-Zuid lijn, Amsterdam Rob Assink Marketing & Communication Dura Vermeer Bauke Geuzebroek Project Developer Dura Vermeer Mark Keuter E-business Manager AM Kim van Gogh Sales Manager Amvest

95 Rogier Boogaard Business Developer Heijmans Sander Willems Communication Manager Heijmans Ekim Tan Founder Play the City Manon Verhoeven Communication Consultant Spoorzone Delft Igor Sancisi Founder Wikaza.nl Jeroen Hutten Founder Nidoo.nl Violette Baudet Architect / Researcher Luchtbrug, Rotterdam The cases will be evaluated on stakeholder involvement, the phase of the urban area development, the goal of the project, the goal related to Social Media, how to achieve this, which interventions were done and what was the result accompanied with tips, advantages and disadvantages of the use of Social Media. The same questions will be consistently asked to the interviewees in order to look for generic information. These case studies provides an enormous information source and is thus embedded in the research because of the empirical value. All interesting findings will be marked and provided with an own reflection when necessary. These findings will be analysed and combined in the general conclusion of the empirical part of the research. 4.4 CASES CASE A - DE LUCHTSINGEL, ROTTERDAM, ARCHITECTENBUREAU ZUS INTRODUCTION De Luchtsingel is a wooden pedestrian bridge that connects the renewed Rotterdam Central District with the Hofbogen. The bridge is at least 350 meters long and also the public space will renewed. The project now goes under the name I Make Rotterdam and consists out of ZUS and the Internationale Architectuur Biënnale Rotterdam (IABR). The area around Hofplein in the centre of Rotterdam was once a bustling district but is now dominated by speeding traffic. To give pedestrians more space again, I Make Rotterdam is building a temporary pedestrian bridge here in a project entitled I Make Rotterdam. This will reconnect the city centre with the northern districts. De Luchtsingel (Dutch for raised promenade ), is a bridge that will be largely completed by April 2012 and is just the first step in the plan to make Hofplein a lively pedestrian area once more. De Luchtsingel is a project by ZUS [Zones Urbaines Sensibles] in collaboration with Hofbogen B.V. De Luchtsingel is being built within the framework of the 5th International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam (IABR). The idea for a raised promenade first surfaced in the Central District master plan drawn up by the city of Rotterdam and Maxwan Architecten. This master plan dictates that Schiestraat will be realigned as the continuation of Delftse Plein, making a pedestrian connection logical.

96 According to the current plans, construction of this pedestrian bridge is planned in 30 years. The area cannot wait that long, however. Crowdfunding allows the bridge to be financed in an alternative way, namely directly by the public. This means that construction can start decades before it is planned. The necessary improvement in the quality of the area is therefore no longer fully dependent on policy plans and real estate developments. With the construction of Luchtsingel, ZUS wants to test the policy framework and design visions for the city of Rotterdam and to experiment with alternative development strategies for the city. (I Make Rotterdam, 2012). Next to the ambitious master plan of the municipality of Rotterdam that allowed the making of a strip of public connection the economic situation also played an important role. The investors and other market parties were unable to invest because of the economic crisis. The depreciation of real estate led to less financial capacity of the market parties. The fall out of realisation possibilities resulted in the search of alternative possibilities. This because normally the exploitation means of the thousands of square meters would finance the public facilities. The solution was then to search for possibilities to make a temporary bridge made from wood. (V.Baudett, 2012). STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; ZUS as the agency that developed the concept and worked out the whole process. The market parties like Unilever and Nationale Nederlanden. The civic society; The residents, youngsters and the neighbouring schools like Saxion. The public sector; The municipality of Rotterdam and IABR. IABR was more involved and promoted the project. The municipality of Rotterdam was not actively involved but cooperated till a certain height. ZUS as an agency invested in the working hours and later on got their investment back in financial means later on from the investments. The market parties were convinced by Zus to cooperate with the project. It was very clever of ZUS to lobby with these captains of the industry that are located within the area of De Luchtsingel. Zus convinced these market parties of the added value of public space and the quality of this area for their corporate image and that of their real estate. That made these market parties invest in the realisation of a high quality public space. ZUS made the problem visible and tangible for all stakeholders involved and made them participate and invest in this project. Eventually they formed an alliance to get the things done. The involvement of youngsters, residents and schools in the neighbourhood was very interesting and boosted the identity of the area. This resulted in winning the Stadsinitiatief, a prize of 5 million euro. By involving these people it was able to have offline crowdsourcing in order to generate ideas en understand what the people really want and need. The involvement of these people led to lots of ambassadors of the project, which has a huge impact on the image of the project. It is better to have your customer telling other people what a wonderful project De Luchtsingel is. The municipality of Rotterdam had a project supervisor that was very helpful in finding the right people to get things done. Furthermore the municipality is taking the maintenance of the bridge for her responsibility. (V.Baudett, 2012). PHASE De Luchtsingel is a project that was in the initiative phase, but also partially the planning phase and also the realisation phase. For this research you can say that it was in the initiative phase. The reasons for concluding that this project transcended the custom boundaries has to do with the fact that De

97 Luchtsingel was partially build to get people to invest and participate in the project. This is different from other project when the realisation starts when the financial means and the plan is done. The strategy of De Luchtsingel was different and therefore this project shifted throughout all the phases. GOAL Improve the quality of the area on street level. For ZUS there was also the personal goal to create work and search for new business models which crowdfunding was partially used. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Setting up dialogue with people and create financial and social support amongst stakeholders. There was a strong focus on getting youngsters involved. HOW? With the help of crowdfunding it is possible to set up an alternative business model. Crowdfunding allows to get financial means with the power of the crowd. There can be wooden planks bought with your name printed on it. The costs are variable from 25 euro up to 1250 euro for a whole bridge component. There are planks needed. INTERVENTIONS Firstly it is interesting to mention that ZUS had another perspective on looking at the market. Instead of waiting for projects they actively developed their own project. This was able because of an entrepreneurial mind set and searching for possibilities within the master plan and searching for other business models by involving other stakeholders. ZUS became an initiator and were not part of a large supply chain, that delivered projects, anymore. ZUS was able to accompany the whole process with their initiator role. From the interview with Violette Baudet from ZUS and the workshop Crowdfunding by Kristian Koreman the following summary can be given about how the interventions were done. For ZUS it was not about communication but communication is an essential part for the business. Social Media is very interesting to experiment. Offline there were more activities than online. Some examples of offline activities were flashmobs, face to face conversation, workshops and campaigns. The strategy was not predefined but ended up in being a total strategy. The people that were involved ended up acting as ambassadors of the project which highly influences the image of the project in a positive manner. For crowdfunding the project there was a crowdfunding platform needed, which is Furthermore there was made of use of social networking sites Facebook and Twitter. The crowdsourcing platform gives the visitor all the information that is needed and the possibility to buy a plan or a bridge component to crowdfund the project. However there is no connection between the platform and the social networking sites, meaning that there are no links to the social networking sites from the platform. The platform only suffices one purpose namely the ability to get the project funded and providing some in-depth information in the form of blog posts. It is not a crowdsourcing platform or content community. The social networking sites are also used as blogs to give information updates. There are several online channels that suggest to communicate from the De Luchtsingel. The list of the pages:

98 (Official) https://twitter.com/imakerotterdam (Official) https://www.facebook.com/pages/imakerotterdam/ (Official) https://www.facebook.com/luchtsingelrotterdam https://twitter.com/luchtsingel The status of the official social networking sites: There has not been any interaction on the official Twitter page of I Make Rotterdam since March 12, There has not been any interaction on the official Facebook page of I Make Rotterdam since November 18, It is interesting to mention that the Twitter and Facebook with the name Luchtsingel are far more effective and still have a lot of interaction. This contradicts with the official social networking channels. The social networking sites, https://www.facebook.com/luchtsingelrotterdam and https://twitter.com/luchtsingel links back to the platform This link shows the official page but with a different domain. Furthermore it was needed to keep the people informed. This was done by sending newsletters. V.Baudet (2012) mentioned that this process would be better if it was done by a communication agency. But she also mentions that maybe because of the gigantic goodwill of the project people thought it was charismatic that not everything went that smoothly because it was honest. For the communication there were communication consultants hired but they did had any substantive knowledge. This resulted in very superficial communication. The experts found that very difficult and the communication consultants blamed the experts for not making the messages fun enough so the messages would not be read. V.Baudet (2012), mentions that the communication consultants should only assist the experts in order to improve this process. For the Social Media there was no social media policy. V. Baudet from ZUS and an external communication consultant from the IABR were responsible for the decision-making of the Social Media. External parties like a design agency and web developer were hired to build and design the website and other external expressions. There was not made use of any Social Media management tools. Negative reactions on Social Media scared the people responsible for the Social Media. These reactions were nevertheless handled with care. Positive reactions were spread amongst all communication channels. RESULT The result is very positive as it was possible in just one year to develop a whole park and a place that is now known internationally. The market asks market parties to adapt. Municipalities are however sadly enough too slow to adapt. Social Media played an important role in the success of this project as Social Media made it possible to do crowdfunding online. As to the use and communication of Social Media things could be better in the future with the knowledge that is now gained. Collecting the crowd has certainly helped to create awareness for the project. Online supported Offline in this case.

99 TIPS Identifying stakeholders is very helpful. Create ambassadors for the project. Team: o In-house expert that is involved with the project o Communication consultant that assists the experts ADVANTAGES Creating new business models and financial possibilities which were not able to create with the lack of a crowd. Easy to collect a crowd with the same interests. The possibilities to involve people in an early phase and get information input getting to an instant master planning like situation. Nevertheless there is a professional needed can merge this information with the conditions in an intelligent manner. There is not such a thing as total democracy and there will always be a compromise. Politics is a perfect example. DISADVANTAGES In this project a crowd was created very fast but there was no project. So hard work is needed to work on a project that makes sense. Social Media does not replaces the work that is needed to make a project but is mere a tool. You can surpass yourselve by gathering a crowd without having a project. FURTHER RESEARCH Interesting are the questions are: what to do with the crowd once gathered and the project is finished? What if you stop with your Social Media? What if you don t feed the crowd with content? How to use this crowd for future project? Answering these questions are not part of the scope of this research but maybe it is possible to do some assumptions.

100 4.4.2 CASE B - WIKAZA, SELF-BUILDING PLATFORM INTRODUCTION Wikaza helps in matching living-ideas of groups of people in collective building groups, in dutch Bouwgroepen, this makes it possible to make use of the collective power of multiple people. But Wikaza does not have obligations, nor does it profit by payment from the private participants. The interest of private individuals is central, their participation is free. Wikaza facilitates this process with an independent platform especially for collective self-building in the Netherlands. For building professionals it is possible to subscribe on to the platform and give advice to the selfbuilders in order to understand the context and get started. It all starts with the idea of building your own home at a location that fits best. Often the same thoughts about how to live and where to live are shared by multiple people. As mentioned before Wikaza helps people that share the same thoughts about how to live and where to live to find each other. It is then possible with the help of building professionals to build faster, better and cheaper. In order to achieve this people should register on to the platform and make their own profile, the completeness of the profile enlarges the chance of a better match. It is able to set up your own building group or connect on to other building groups that share the same thoughts. When there are enough participants it is possible to get the project started. In this phase it is important to talk with each other and search for external help of professionals. Clarifying your living idea helps in creating a better starting point. It is important to mention that Wikaza only facilitates the setting up of the building groups. Wikaza does not have any obligations what so ever to the participants as they are not making any agreements with the participants of a building group. Wikaza merely matches the people with the same thoughts about how to live and where to live to each other and enable this building group to find professionals that can aid them in this process. Sometimes Wikaza also facilitates the investments needed to get a project started. Furthermore Wikaza adds value because of the crowdsourcing aspect of the platform. The platform collects information and makes this accessible for everybody. Wikaza is an initiative of the municipality of Amsterdam, Igor Sancisi and Berci Florian. The municipality was involved in developing the platform but is not responsible for the content of the site. The management and users of the site have considerable freedom to do whatever they thought was good. Furthermore it was needed to understand all stakeholders involved in order to make the platform work. It has now been embraced by the Municipalities of The Hague, Zwolle, Zaanstad, Utrecht end Amersfoort. The municipalities provide funding and content for the platform, but are not responsible for management or moderation of the site. Wikaza is an independent site where (groups

101 of) private homebuilders are central. The Wikaza team has considerable freedom to design and manage the site based on an understanding of the interests of all stakeholders involved. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; Professionals can subscribe to the platform so that the stakeholders that want to build their own house can find professionals easy and fast in order to get advice and get started. Also project developers are able to get projects kick-started because they can provide land or provide the whole building process for a group of people. The civic society; The most important stakeholder for this platform are the stakeholders that want to build their own home. The so called self-builders. The public sector; The municipalities are involved as so far that they can provide land and also legal information. Think about permits and what can be built and what not. PHASE Wikaza focuses on the initiative phase of the urban area development process. But Wikaza also facilitates information about the other phases as the platform gathers information on how to build your own house or living area, the so called Bouwgroepen. GOAL Enable the growth of self-building and providing all information needed to get started with building your own home. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Help self-builders to get into dialogue with each other and with professionals. Increase de amount of visitors to the website and registrations. Increase and improve the knowledge and experience about self-building. HOW? By setting up a platform that enables crowdsourcing and social networking between self-builders and between self-builders and professionals. INTERVENTIONS The task of Wikaza is only to monitor what is happening and get into dialogue with the larger stakeholders like the municipality and large commercial stakeholders. Wikaza is the ideal tool in order to facilitate conversations and show the market the necessity and the demand for self-building. There is a strong focus on reaching people that want to build their own home. The difficulty is that this can be anyone with the financial means. Next to the platform as a Social Media there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Linkedin and the content community Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. Therefore Wikaza cooperated with the municipality and a communication consultancy agency. Furthermore there were no external parties hired.

102 The online channels that communicate from Wikaza are: (Official) https://twitter.com/wwwwikazanl (Official) (Official) (Official) These official online channels are frequently made use of and visited. The Social Media are managed by Wikaza. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is no use of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. The platform itself can be maintained by Wikaza. Wikaza monitors the platform to prevent people to post illegal advertisements or to help people find the right information. Also on the social networking sites, Wikaza focusses on monitoring and providing information and other content. There are mostly positive reactions because the visitors are often (potential) users who benefit from Wikaza. It is important for Wikaza to keep innovating and think about their strategy to keep and improve their position in the market. It is all about understanding that what is behind the questions and perceptions of risks. Therefore it is needed to keep all stakeholders informed and clarify what you are doing with information that you receive. But it was important to be transparent when it was possible. Some things are needed to be kept behind closed doors in order to make sound decisions. RESULT It is difficult to measure the success. But it is evident that Wikaza enabled the self- builders to get information faster en find each other enabling lots of new project in the current economic crisis. As I.Sancisi (2012) said: Did the invention of Tom Tom led to less CO2 reduction? This is difficult to be measured. But there can be assumed that with the TomTom people drive more efficient from one location to the other. TIPS Identifying stakeholders is necessary in order to understand with whom to communicate. From here on you are able to choose the right tools. Create ambassadors for the project. Make use of tools that are already available. Avoid one-way or superficial communication. Team: In-house expert that is involved with the project Communication consultant that assists the experts Expert that can translate functional to technical ADVANTAGES Networks made accessible. Creating new financial possibilities to develop. Easy to collect a crowd with the same interests. Easy to collect information, crowdsourcing. The possibilities to involve activate and connect people in an early phase.

103 DISADVANTAGES Difficult to make use of Social Media in the concept stage of an idea. Things need to stay behind closed doors. Monitoring and investing time in Social Media. When people need help you are obligated to assist them. The bad accessibility to good and important knowledge. This is because of the pollution of online networks and information. There is too much trash in the reservoirs. You need to stay sharp when posting information. FURTHER RESEARCH Interesting is what to do with pieces of the process that needs to stay behind closed doors? In the end you can share anything but there are decisions to be made.

104 4.4.3 CASE C - VERBETERDEBUURT.NL, CREATIVE CROWDS. INTRODUCTION Verbeterdebuurt enables citizens to make a report about the public space in their living environment to the municipality. This can be done really fast and simple. Verbeterdebuurt is a real bottom-up approach in the maintenance phase of urban area development and functions as an ideal tool to receive information about the state of the public space in some neighbourhoods. In the figure below the steps are explained. Furthermore it is possible to see other reports that are made in the neighbourhood. It is possible to vote for those reports or ideas in order to back up this report or idea. This will then strengthen the position to get into dialogue with the municipality. Verbeterdebuurt can thus be seen as a crowdsourcing platform where there is made use of social networking resulting in a real community. The citizen that makes a report or post an idea takes in a central position. Everyone will be informed about the status and developments around the post. This is most transparent. When the report is being handled and realised it is possible to give feedback on the solution. In the interview S. van Balen (2012) states that networks are created around similar interests, themes or hobby s. It is then easier to connect and engage people. People find each other around social concepts. This creates the opportunity to engage these people and distinguish different groups of people. It is not about the talent of organizing yourselves anymore but more about the message you want to spread. It is nowadays fast to see what the need is of the people with Social Media and internet. Verbeterdebuurt makes use of this idea of connecting people around social concept and interests on the level of the neighbourhood. People are activated to make reports or post ideas and support each other. In the figure below the process is shown.

105 Verbeterdebuurt also makes use of mobile applications making the placement of report easier for citizens. For the municipalities it is then able to receive the report both per , in their own report system or on their mobile phone. This enables the maintenance department to solve the report immediately. For example there is a hole in the roadway, there is a report made, this report is send to the mobile phone from one of the maintenance employees. The maintenance employee is then able to take action right away, solve the hole in the roadway and make a report that the problem has been solved. The power of Verbeterdebuurt is that instead of the traditional report systems it is now able to attract larger groups of citizens and make them be more involved in the maintenance of their living environment. The whole process is transparent and increases the trust. There are also chances for reducing costs in the maintenance phase as it is now possible to avoid double reports. Furthermore the digitalization of reports will reduce the costs of more expensive channels. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; There are no private stakeholders involved yet. Nevertheless private stakeholders can also make use of this platform. The civic society; The most important stakeholder for this platform are the stakeholders that want to increase the living quality of their neighbourhood by reporting. The public sector; The municipalities are involved as so far that they can provide plots and also legal information. Think about permits and what can be built and what not. PHASE Verbeterdebuurt is an initiative in the maintenance phase of urban area development. GOAL Improve the quality of the area on the neighbourhood level.

106 SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Facilitating dialogue for people to get into contact with the maintenance departments. Create financial and social support amongst stakeholders. Strong focus on creating neighbourhood communities. HOW? By setting up a platform that enables crowdsourcing and social networking between citizens and between citizens and the municipalities or her maintenance departments. Verbeterdebuurt is a real community based platform. INTERVENTIONS Next to the platform as a Social Media there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter, Facebook and Hyves and the content community Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. Hyves is used because there are still some active groups that are relevant to target, for example the Hyves of the Schilderwijk. There were no external parties hired because the initiator Creative Crowds is specialised in web development. The online channels that communicate from Verbeterdebuurt are: (Official) https://twitter.com/verbeterdebuurt (Official) https://www.facebook.com/verbeterdebuurt (Official) (Official) (Official) (Official) Mobiele apps en beheersysteem. (Official) These official online channels are frequently made use of and visited. The Social Media are managed by Verbeterdebuurt. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is made use of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media, in this case there is made use of Hootsuite. The platform itself can be maintained by Verbeterdebuurt. Verbeterdebuurt enables the civic society to get into dialogue with the larger stakeholders like the municipality and large commercial stakeholders. There is a moderation of 20 hours per week that checks the Social Media, and checking the news. This is not that active but this is going to be increased. Verbeterdebuurt does not participate in the dialogues but only monitors and facilitates the dialogue. Verbeterdebuurt only starts dialogues when it considers their services or the improvement of their services. Verbeterdebuurt focusses on monitoring and providing information and other content. By being transparent to the users the trust is increased and social support will be gained. Decision-making for the strategy and use of the Social Media is done by the two founders. There are mostly positive reactions because the visitors are often (potential) users who benefit from Verbeterdebuurt. If there are any negative reactions they are mostly oriented at the maintenance departments of the municipalities. The positive reactions are spread. The negative reactions are handled with care. Verbeterdebuurt connects to the viral power of larger Social Media. It takes too much time to build your own community when no use is made of these larger Social Media that enables to reach more people.

107 RESULT This project is successful with more than reports in the past 1,5 years. And the expectation is that only 2012 will deliver up till reports. There are already 11 municipalities that are making use of the platform. People like to use Verbeterdebuurt because it helps them in creating a better living environment. Noteworthy is the project of the realisation of a skate court initiated by two young boys in Hoorn which used the platform to lobby and create a network for the idea. The result was that the skate court was realised because of all the media attention and social support that was created. TIPS Information make them aware of the privacy policy. Make Social Media fun. Connect to the viral power of other Social Media. Be transparent. Identifying stakeholders is necessary in order to understand with whom to communicate. From here on you are able to choose the right tools. Create dialogue. Make use of a Social Media management tool like Hootsuite. Assign a leader or community manager that is active on the Social Media. Team: In-house expert that is involved with the project Communication consultant ADVANTAGES It is easier to self-organize, it is more about good information than about the time needed to organize yourselves. DISADVANTAGES It is easy to organize a short story that stays superficial. By some seen as a disadvantage is the increased risk in receiving negative messages. But by handling these messages with care it this can result in a positive twist where people can be made positive. This is about creating real social support. FURTHER RESEARCH Interesting is how to manage your information feedback and the possibility to integrate a CRM system. Nevertheless this is not the focus of this research but is interesting to think about.

108 4.4.4 CASE D - NIDOO.NL INTRODUCTION Because the housing market was locked it was time to change the process. It does not suffice to build for the market. Instead it was needed to listen what the market demands. The goal of Nidoo is to provide new custom housing developments just like Nike with their customized shoes or cars nowadays. Nidoo jumped in the market for customized housing developments. Nidoo makes all new building locations visible. At Nidoo the end-user takes a central position. All this knowledge is made possible by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment. It is not about thinking for the market anymore but let the market tell what they want. The municipality, private developers and housing corporations can then develop what the market asks. Nidoo is a small organization that is convinced that you should control the way you live. In the figure below it is seen which variables can be chosen. Nidoo works independent and their business model is transparent. The end-user can register for free and the municipalities pay a yearly fee for making use of Nidoo. Nidoo makes it possible to register and live with your friends on a unique location. Or without friend with other people that share the same vision on how to live.

109 STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; Project developers are able to get projects kick-started because they can provide land/locations or provide the whole building process for a group of people. Also housing corporations can profit of Nidoo. The civic society; The most important stakeholder for this platform are the stakeholders that want to build their own home or want to live in a special way, this can be privately owned or rented. The public sector; The municipalities are involved as so far that they can provide land and also legal information. Think about permits and what can be built and what not. For municipalities it is also interesting to adjust their planning to the market. The civic society gives information about where they want to live on Nidoo. This information can help the municipalities in their decision-making where to build in the master plan. PHASE Nidoo focuses on the initiative phase of the urban area development process. GOAL Get as much municipalities and private developers/ housing corporations connected. Get as much media attention as possible through newspapers and articles. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL There was no clear defined Social Media goal. How? By setting up a platform that enables crowdsourcing and social networking between people who wants to live different than before. Nidoo communicates with the private stakeholders involved. By bringing these parties together it is possible to realise the wishes of these groups of people. This is a more active approach from the consumer to form their own way of living. Thus Nidoo is not about participation but is about co-creation. Nidoo states they want to develop good from the start by losing intermediations and let the end-user become the start-users. Nidoo asks a fraction of the huge communication budget, so there can be cost reductions gained. INTERVENTIONS There is a strong focus on reaching stakeholders that can provide projects. Nidoo suggest that the market already knows that they can find information on Nidoo. It was important to get more knowledge carriers for Nidoo like the kadaster, market parties and municipalities. Next to the platform as a Social Media there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook in order to reach target groups and spread information. Furthermore there were no external parties hired for the Social Media. The web development however was done by an external party specialised in web development. The online channels that communicate from Nidoo are: (Official) https://twitter.com/nidoowonen (Official) https://www.facebook.com/pages/nidoo/ ?fref=ts (Official)

110 These official online channels are not frequently made use of and visited, except the platform. The Social Media are managed by Nidoo. There are no basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is no use of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. The platform itself can be maintained by Nidoo. The input is given by a set of variables like which kind of house, which kind of neighbourhood and so on. There is no dialogue online. The only thing that Nidoo does is making the match. Therefore it is not necessary to monitor actively, the customer service however should react quick and adequate to questions. J. Hutten (2012) mentioned in the interview that the Social Media channels are now scattered and he is still searching for the right solution. Being transparent in everything you do towards all the stakeholders will increase the trust and commitment. RESULT It is difficult to say whether Nidoo is successful. According to the goals set it can be said that Nidoo was successful in generating media attention and get as much private stakeholders and municipalities connected to the tool. However the total Social Media concept of Nidoo does not suffice as they are not active in creating awareness and letting the people know what Nidoo does. Jeroen Hutten mentioned in the interview that he is still searching for a proper way to use Social Media as a total strategy. TIPS Be transparent in your business model. Make use of tools that are already available. ADVANTAGES Enormous reach Reflectiv and emergent character. Social Media goes in to the traditional way of planning. DISADVANTAGES Lack of knowledge of Social Media Intangible character The consumers wants things to get done too fast. The professionals need to stay critical towards the consumer. FURTHER RESEARCH It is interesting to see the shifts between the roles of the stakeholders. New stakeholders are entering the process other stakeholders are leaving the process except the municipality which goes through all phases. Social Media will lead to the brake down of strict boundaries between the initiative and planning phase. The roles will be facilitator, initiator or realisator.

111 4.4.5 CASE E - PLAY THE CITY INTRODUCTION Play the City invents new methods for interactive city making. They integrate city gaming, digital public polls, interactive learning, co-design and social networks with traditional architecture and urbanism. They work with cities, housing corporations and cultural organizations to generate interactive and collaborative plans with multiple stakeholders. Their young organization acts as a loose network of individuals forming teams for ongoing projects In the traditional process they did not exist. Up till now they have carved out a space for themselves in which they take in a place within the process of urban planning. Where normally consultants are hired to talk with stakeholders it is now play the city. Play the city approaches urban planning with gameification with the goal to introduce the interactive play environment as a way of urban planning and create legal value also. Like urban planning, games also have rules, and they both cope with a certain fairness of the rules. Nowadays there is no good tool that can help in really participating in the process and no real open interface that everybody understands. Summarizing from the interview and from the website of Play the City the following can be said; They want to position today s urban designer as an agent who represents the interaction of engaged players and their powers. By connecting the entire urban process to these individuals this allows the creation of interactive design formats. Through a format such as gaming, a platform is created to involve the collective intelligence of diverse stakeholders in order to generate useful information and solutions. The method used by Play the City method focusses on collecting and connecting usual and unusual suspects to the urban design process. Multiplayer analog and digital games that allow not only policy makers, housing corporations, developers and investors but also small and medium scale entrepreneurs, engaged inhabitants with plans to Play the City. Together they evolve collective future scenarios by negotiating, collaborating as well as through conflicting with one another. Players actions and relations are modeled based on reality, these power relations frame their gameplay. Play the city states: The players diversity works fruitfully only if there is common language for all those involved. We choose city gaming as a suitable format, which surpasses limitations of verbal communication and translates negotiations directly into a 3D form. Regular polls and voting aid in raising the quality of different spatial solutions. Results of voting are made visible to everyone, giving a clear picture of what are the most and least valued solutions.

112 Play the City uses city gaming as a tool to create a common language for different stakeholders in the urban planning process. Play the City games are based on real urban questions. The power and interest relations between stakeholders are mapped along with the significant parameters of a given urban assignment. This helps to simplify the complex reality and translate it into game rules and constraints. All this information enables Play the City to generate datasets. By adding datasets, accuracy of the game output can be improved as well as lessening the knowledge gap between the professional and nonprofessional players. The datasets are presented as game props. They vary depending on the scale; the game can simulate an urban block, network of public squares, a neighborhood, a city or an urban region. E.Tan (2012), states the following; Our biggest challenge is to make the promise true. To be able to gain more support is more important than to get the willingness of the municipality. It is about looking for room where the municipality wants to share their power. Play the City makes it possible for multiple stakeholders to be part of the game. Nowadays it is not about participation because in the end the municipality decides what happens. By being transparent there can be more social support created. This way more people can jump in and enrich the process. This will be better for all stakeholders. Dependent on the goals that are to be achieved the decision have to be made which channels are to be used. Is it Facebook or Twitter? Each project has its own urban question and thus the channels that are to be used will differ per project. But it is important not to limit yourselves to existing tools. For example by making use of card readers on the ferry in order to connect to different people instead of specific groups of people. Take the human layer of urban planning in consideration. What do people want? How to map what people want? And so on. Participation in the early days was more about explaining what the municipality wanted to realise. These meetings enabled people to say yes or no for a project to go on. This only attracted certain groups of people that were able to make time for participating in these meeting. In most of the cases it were older people. This should change into an open process where people are enabled to participate by giving their opinion and think along. Play the City provides a blank page as a starting point in order to reach a plan. The plan is reached by setting rules and not giving everybody what they want but as a collaborative outcome. It is about getting things done in a creative and collaborative manner. E. Tan (2012) states; Play the City games kills all conflicts by nature. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; There private stakeholders involved as so far as they can be the client of Play the City or participate in playing the game. Amongst the private sector the architects and urban planners are also counted in. These are the one of the most important group that are needed for the platform. This because it is more about generating knowledge by professionals for the civic society than about the civic society for themselves. The civic society; Also an important stakeholder for this platform are the stakeholders that want to increase the living quality of their living environment. The civic society should participate in the process of city gaming to provide a more authentic character of the process. The public sector; The municipalities are involved as so far that they can provide land and also legal information. Think about permits and what can be built and what not for setting the rules. But in Play the City it is more

113 about giving the power back to society. So the role of the public sector is too look where the process can be enriched. Nevertheless because each project differs on Play the City there are different urban questions each asking a different manner for the stakeholders to cooperate while city gaming. E. Tan (2012) mentions that it is very important to map stakeholders beforehand in order to understand the different roles and responsibilities. PHASE Play the city is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development, namely focussing on urban planning. GOAL To change the existing plan making process and providing a change of awareness of the role of architects and urban planners. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Create awareness about Play the City and engage participants. HOW? By creating an online platform that provides a central place for participants to gather. The platform has its own social network but also makes use of other Social Media. Furthermore the offline activities takes more time and takes in a larger proportion in general. INTERVENTIONS Next to the online platform as a Social Media there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter, Facebook and Linkedin and the content community Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were no external parties hired except Mediamatic that build the platform and also developed along with the initiators of Play the City. The online channels that communicate from Play the City are: (Official) https://www.facebook.com/theresponsivecity.org (Official) https://twitter.com/play_the_city (Official) (Official) The ability to share the platform or blog posts through the personal linkedin account. Except the own platform the other official online channels are not frequently made use of and visited. The most used Social Media are the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter. The Social Media are managed by Play the City. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is not made use of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. The platform itself is also a social networking site that enables users to make profiles and share and generate content. Google maps is used to map important aspects. Furthermore there is made use of the bigger Social Media, like Facebook and Twitter to intensively reporting the status of the on-going projects.

114 The platform itself can be maintained by Play the City. Play the City enables multiple stakeholders to get into dialogue with each other and come to a collaborative plan. Thereby Play the City needs to focus on finding the why for all stakeholders to create a plan with multiple stakeholders. Play the City participate in the dialogues, monitors and facilitates the dialogue. Therefore there are web editors that have the responsibility to monitor and take action when necessary. By being transparent to the users the trust is increased and social support will be gained. Furthermore the Social Media team consist out of the initiators of Play the City, that have different backgrounds, there are anthropologists, sociologists (human drives) and urban planners. The UGC is organised by the people that want to participate. So the responsibility lies with the participants leaving the sole task of Play the City to monitor. Decision-making for the strategy and use of the Social Media is done by the Social Media team. RESULT - TIPS Identify stakeholders beforehand. Find the why for the stakeholders to participate in your project. Gameification is a very strong tool with simple interfaces that enables to experience the process transparent and fair. Do not limit yourself to existing tools. ADVANTAGES Transparent and open Social Media have their own way of telling things. The enlargement of positive messages. In the case of negative messages it can be a disadvantage.

115 DISADVANTAGES The responsibility of statements made on Social Media is difficult because there are anonymous statements made. The importance of filtering and setting rules both online and offline. But this is not really a disadvantage. FURTHER RESEARCH It would be interesting to know how to communicate with stakeholders and have the same language CASE F ZELFBOUW, MUNICIPALITY OF AMSTERDAM INTRODUCTION Zelfbouw or Self-Building was initiated in Amsterdam by the Alderman Maarten van Poelgeest. He stated that within 6 months after the start, in April 2012, that building plots were to be sold to people that wanted to build their own home. The first Self-Building event was in October 2011 organized by Team Zelfbouw, a team that was erected especially for steering on Self-building from the municipality. The team consists out of the services Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Gemeente Amsterdam (OGA), Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening (DRO), Project Management Bureau (PMB) and the Bestuursdienst. The task of the team is to promote and stimulate Self-building. For the future Self-building should become a mature segment in the housing market with a substantial share in the housing production. There is actively aquistion done by the team to search for opportunities and priorities for new Selfbuilding plots. The goal is to have a diversity of building plots in all parts of the city with different prices and development programmes. The available building plots are shown in a GIS viewer, see Figure X which is accessible online through de website of the municipality. The building plots are provided with information such as size, price, building possibilities and more. Next to the available plots there are also future building plots shown. The municipality want to support the long term goals in this way.

116 Zelfbouw or Self-Building is about having a consumer buying a building plot, designing their own house and then building their house. The consumer is thus the client for the design and building of their own house. There are two types of Self-building namely building by yourself or co-building with other Self-builders, a so called Bouwgroep or Building-group. Zelfbouw or Self-Building also collaborates with Wikaza, another Zelfbouw or Self-Building platform. S. van Harten (2012) states that there are activity peaks on Social Media when there are active campaigns ongoing. By being regulary active the effect of Social Media increases. S. Oldeweghuis (2012) adds by stating that the success of Social Media also depends on the presence and relevance of content. At first you have to search for what to do and what you don t have to do both within the municipality and the online environment where people can find you. S. van Harten (2012) states that there is still the problem of corporate culture. Regulations limit the use of Social Media when telling what is not allowed. It is far more effective when there is told what is allowed. According to S. van Harten (2012) it is the task of the municipality to invite the target group en get into dialogue. By providing information it is possible to bring Self-building under the attention. S. Oldeweghuis (2012) states that it is troublesome to reach the target group because the target group is very broad. Therefore the municipality focussed on facilitating self-builders to enable them to selforganize online. For the municipality it was important to communicate as transparent as possible. This meant that the municipality should take in a different role, which is difficult because the municipality then does not have all control anymore. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; There are no real private stakeholders directly involved. There are certain groups architects and builders appointed as directors to guide the self-builders. The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to be influenced and triggered to buy a building plot and start Self building. It is difficult to limit the target group because a self-builder could be almost anyone according to S. Oldeweghuis (2012).

117 The public sector; The municipality of Amsterdam plays an important role as they want to improve the image and quality of Amsterdam constantly. Furthermore Self-building is initiated from the public sector and this resulted in the erection of Team Zelfbouw. As mentioned before this team is responsible from the public sector in order to steer on Self-building. This is also a huge project and is spread across the whole city. This project limits itself to the promotion and creating awareness for he building plots especially for self-builders. After the self- builders are informed and the plot has been bought the task ends for the municipality. Therefor the cooperation between the public sector and the civic society is very important in this project. PHASE Zelfbouw is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development. GOAL The Mayor and Executive Board wanted Self-building to become a mature part of the housing market of Amsterdam. This because Self-building has proven to be a successful way for developing the city on a small scale. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Create a self-builders community where self-builders could be informed by each other and the municipality. For the municipality is was about communicating as transparent as possible according to S. Oldeweghuis (2012). HOW? By creating a website that provides a central place for people to find information. There is also made use of other Social Media. Furthermore it was important to undertake the offline activities to create awareness. INTERVENTIONS Next to the website there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook and the content community Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired. But these parties were located in Eindhoven because it was then able to understand the context better. The online channels that communicate for Hartje Eindhoven are: (Official) https://www.facebook.com/pages/zelfbouw-amsterdam/ (Official) https://twitter.com/zelfbouw020 (Official) (Official) (GIS map) (Official) All online channels are frequently used. The most used Social Media are the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter to engage consumers and get into dialogue.. Youtube is only used to post video s enabling self-builders to share those video s through their own social networks. Nevertheless the last video that was posten on Youtube was on 14 june Self-building focusses on the facilitation of dialogue, participating in the dialogue and monitoring the dialogue. The Social Media are managed Team Zelfbouw which consist out of a communication consultant and in-house experts. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real

118 Social Media policy. There is no use made of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. The content is provided by the team or by the visitors of the online channels. There was made use of different online channels to create awareness from blogs to social networking sites. The website can be maintained by the assigned team. It is interesting to mention that the website is not highly interactive because it was needed to fit within the frame of the municipality. In Figure X there can be seen that there is enough information that is easy accessible. But there are no direct links with other Social Media that are actively used except the Twitter. The Zelfbouw-loket provides the possibility to download a.pdf with the most frequently asked question and provides contact information for further questions. There is link to the interactive GIS viewer that enables the visitor to see all building-plots in a map with detailed information about the building-plot or project. The interactive degree of the website does not meet the requirements to function as an accessible information point. Regarding the connectivity degree there can be said that this also does not meet the requirements needed to be connected properly. This because the website is part of the bigger platform of the municipality, there are no links with the other Social Media and the Zelfbouw-loket which needed to function as a contact point is not interactive and does not always respond immediately. Decision-making for the strategy and use of the Social Media is also done by Team Zelfbouw. The current status is that all online channels will be refreshed and will be revitalised and improved. RESULT The results cannot only be assigned to the usage of Social Media as there have been some huge offline activities lik the Zelfbouw dagen or Self-building days. But it can be stated that there was an increase of hits on the website and the likes on Facebook increased as was also the case for followers on Twitter. Furthermore there was seen that initially self-builders connected on the online channels,

119 found each other, got into dialogue with each other and eventually started their own community on Social Media. This can be seen as a huge success as it fits the goals that were set from the municipality. Nevertheless there stays the problem that once the self-builders are gone, the municipality is not connected on to those platforms anymore. It is therefore important for the team to monitor what is being said in those new communities. TIPS Identify stakeholders first. Create ambassador for the project. The team should consist out of: o Community manager o In-house experts to create the content and also being able to respond. These in-house experts should be educated in order to be communicative skilled enough. According to S. van Harten (2012) and S. Oldeweghuis (2012) the reason is because the communication department often did not had sufficient knowledge to respond adequately and fast resulting in the need for in-house experts to react. o Sociologist The Social Media team should have affinity with Social Media. Organize your internal organisation and there should be time and financial means made available. ADVANTAGES People can find each other i.e. potential neighbours in the form of communities Ability to communicate more efficient Increase awareness Interactive and increased connectivity DISADVANTAGES Time consuming and costs lots of effort. The internal organization is not adjusted to Social Media usage. Lack of tools. The need to force employees. FURTHER RESEARCH -

120 4.4.7 CASE G HARTJE EINDHOVEN, AMVEST INTRODUCTION Hartje Eindhoven is a project initiated by Amvest and housing corporation Laurentius. Amvest is a fund manager and developer that focusses their attention on tenants and purchasers first. Their wishes and needs are becoming increasingly complex and this is also true of the challenges in urban residential areas. The focus is on the development of homes and residential areas in strong economic regions in the Netherlands. The organisation consists of two strategic disciplines; Area and project development and Fund management. Hartje Eindhoven is an initiative of the Area and Project development branch. Housing corporation Laurentius has homes in the rent sector in several municipalities. The mission of Laurentius is to provide the market affordable housing for residents unable to provide themselves housing. This enables Laurentius to undertake a broad range of activities. There is now a strong focus on seniors. Therefore it is needed to collaborate with multiple stakeholders. Hartje Eindhoven is a residential project in the city centre of Eindhoven. There is a mix of retail, leisure and living. There has been made use of branding concept where each building represents a world city i.e. New York, Antwerpen, Rio, Tokyo and so on. The concept focusses on providing a mix of the metropolitan ambiance with the feeling of home. The project Hartje Eindhoven had some trouble because of a scandal because of all the nuisance regarding the development of the area. Another important aspect that negatively influenced the project was that the developer Heja went bankrupt and there was the fact that the completion guarantee of Volkers Wessels could not be payed. Furthermore there was the Laurentius scandal. Summarized there was a lot of negative associations with the project. This resulted in a name change of the project.

121 But still there are enough positive reactions. The website and the Social Media are frequently used. Hartje Eindhoven is still the most trendy place of Eindhoven. This was affirmed with the arrival of more than 600 people on the Open Day of the project. Hartje Eindhoven focusses on a young and international target group between the 25 and 30 years old. For Social Media it was more about branding and reaching commercial goals. Strijp R in the contrary, also a project by Amvest, focusses on an older target group which are knowledge workers, wellconsidered, wanting to think along and needs more intense communication. Social Media was not the tool to use for this target group. Later on there was the decision made to target the partners of the knowledge workers i.e. the wives of the knowledge workers mostly decides where to live. It is important to consider who your target group is in order to increase your success. Amvest is experimenting with Social Media and the commercial or advertisement possibilities. Also the strength to use Social Media as a tool for branding a product or area. K.van Gogh (2012) states that it is interesting to use Linkedin but it is averse for commercial use. This will not result in a positive outcome, so we used Facebook and Twitter for commercial goals. Social Media was not optimally used. Amvest was fully aware that this was the case. The reason for not using Social Media any more than at least necessary was because of the negative image and advices from the company lawyers. Therefore the intervention was started to face the people in the PSV stadium in order to give the people the opportunity to ask anything. This was successful. K. van Gogh (2012) states that Social Media enables the developer to get closer to the consumer. Traditionally there was always a broker between the consumer and the developer. This was perfect for the developer to see the bigger picture from a distance. But now the developers are forced to listen to the consumer and improve the vision for developing projects. The developers are now less dependent on the broker in order to know what the consumer wants. There were several activities organised in order to create support, both online and offline. For direct communication there was the stadium event and the Open Days, the information square. Online there was the online chat and the different Social Media. K. van Gogh (2012) states that it is now easy for everyone in the sales team to communicate throughout Social Media easier because these Social Media can be synced with the mobile telephone enabling the user to generate content anywhere and anytime. K. van Gogh (2012) states that people are getting enthusiastic if they see results i.e. the rise of the Facebook likes. It is therefore important to set goals for the interventions. K. van Gogh (2012) states that the housing corporations are the most old institutions in the world of real estate development. This made it hard to communicate in another way than traditionally is the case. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; There private stakeholders were Amvest, Laurentius and the brokers. They mutually agreed that there was to be communicated from one place, namely Hartje Eindhoven as the project and place. This resulted in giving Hartje Eindhoven its own character and there is no clear information about the initiators of the project on the website. The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to be influenced and triggered to buy or rent a home in Hartje Eindhoven. The consumers are described as young and international oriented and between the 25 and 30 years old.

122 The public sector; The municipality of Eindhoven plays an important role as Hartje Eindhoven highly influences the image of Eindhoven. It is a huge project that highly concerns the municipality. Therefore the municipality helps in branding the area and create awareness. This project have seen stakeholders come and go and coped with a negative image. Therefore cooperation between all stakeholders had to increase enormously. PHASE Hartje Eindhoven is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development. GOAL Create a high quality living environment in the centre of Eindhoven with a metropolitan feeling. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL The branding of the project and the commerce. HOW? By creating an interactive website that provides a central place for people to find information. There is also made use of other Social Media. Furthermore it was important to undertake the offline activities because of the negative image around stakeholders of the project. INTERVENTIONS Next to the website there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook and the content community Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired. But these parties were located in Eindhoven because it was then able to understand the context better. The online channels that communicate for Hartje Eindhoven are: (Official) https://www.facebook.com/hartjeeindhoven?fref=ts (Official) https://twitter.com/hartjeeindhoven (Official) (Official) (Blog) (Official) All online channels are frequently used. The odd one in the row is the Blog which was last updated 3 September. The Blog is linked to the main website and vice versa. The most used Social Media are the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter to engage consumers and get into dialogue.. Youtube is only used to post one video. Hartje Eindhoven facilitates dialogue, participates in the dialogue and monitors the dialogue. The Social Media are managed the sales department, now mostly by Kim van Gogh. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is no use made of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. The content is provided by the team of Hartje Eindhoven or by the visitors of the online channels. The website can be maintained by the assigned team. It is interesting to mention that the website is highly interactive and provides information fast in a dynamic and attractive manner. The visitor is able to choose a home according to their budget and other preferences. The 3D model shows the exterior and the interior of the home. When clicking on the home it is able to get more in depth information, see Figure X. accompanied with video material.

123 Furthermore there is an online chat integrated in the website enabling visitors to ask questions. This increases the connectivity and interaction level which benefits the service providing towards the consumer. There is also the possibility to make a profile where you can bookmark your favourite places and homes. This helps in generating information about the consumers. Furthermore there is a difference between project communication and corporate communication. Each asks another approach. Decision-making for the strategy and use of the Social Media is done by the Sales department and the Development Manager. RESULT Social Media was launched because of the added strategic value for the project. There were goals formulated and then there was an implementation plan made. But there was clear emphasis on commercial goals. Online marketing was the main purpose. This resulted in more hits on the website. The results cannot only be assigned to the usage of Social Media as there have been some huge offline activities. But it can be stated that there was an increase of hits on the website and the likes on Facebook increased as was also the case for followers on Twitter. And K. van Gogh (2012) mentioned that the use of Social Media for commercial and branding goals are ideal and generated a positive result for Hartje Eindhoven. TIPS Look at the target group as they determine whether Social Media should be used. Create ambassador for the project. The team should consist out of: o In-house experts, these should be educated in order to be communicative skilled enough. The reason was because the communication consultant often did not had sufficient knowledge

124 resulting in the need for in-house experts to react. This caused the management to choose for making in-house experts responsible for managing these Social Media. Till now it has been successful. Communicate from one place in order to create a strong brand. So not as Amvest, Laurentius and so on. It is more powerful to communicate as one, as the project being an entity. ADVANTAGES Commercial advantages Fast, easy and accessible. Giving identity. Relative lower costs than traditional media DISADVANTAGES Overkill of information because there are tremendous messages posted. Making yourself vulnerable for the outside world. This is good for the consumer as it forces the developer to give some of their power back. FURTHER RESEARCH CASE H WIENER & CO, HEIJMANS INTRODUCTION Wiener & Co is a project initiated by Heijmans. Heijmans has several branches namely; Real Estate, Housing, Utility Estate, Engineering and Infrastructure and Urban Area development. This enables Heijmans to have an integrated approach towards projects. Wiener & Co is a project by the Real Estate & Housing branch of Heijmans.

125 Wiener & Co is a project in the city centre of Amsterdam and is thus an innercity development. The terrain is located on the Oosterburg island which is part of the Eastern Islands in the city centre of Amsterdam. There is a focus on the development of social private housing that are sustainable. There are 21 social private homes to be build and, 14 ground bounded private homes, 34 private appartments and 610 m2 commercial space. For Wiener & Co there is a online platform set up in order to crowdsource ideas of residents and future end-users. Therefore it was important to set up an interactive platform. Depending on the outcome of this process there will be follow-up interventions planned like a setting up design atelier for interested users. R.Boogaard (2012) stated that the biggest change is the degree of wanting to be involved. Second bloom for example is launched in order to involve people an early stage of the iterative process. What is happening is that a regular demand is starting. It is about having the guarantee to start with development. This is a new development that Heijmans is trying to design. This has to be part of the process. S. Willems (2012) stated that Heijmans developed traditionally from their landpositions. But now this is not possible anymore and there is a transistion towards to concept and collaborative development. Nowadays it is about collecting living preferences and then realise these preferences for certain groups of people. In the past Heijmans builded homes but nowadays they develop living areas. The strategy is then adapted. R. Boogaard (2012) mentiones that when he first arrived at Heijmans it was important to have a picture of a house on each expression. Now it is more about the ambiance and steering on sensibility. This mindset fits Social Media as it is about building networks and the balance between online and offline. When the development process is organized differently the resources and tools will also differ. For example there is a website needed that enables co-creation. Or the use of different media instead of traditional media. S. Willems (2012) also gives the example of a mash-up website that shows all information streams with the same hashtag. It is about creating more from the perception why people want to live in a certain area. S. Willems (2012) states that is difficult to answer the question what should be public and what not. Within a Social Media environment you work with a specific group of people. A plan is needed for implementing everything properly. Social Media should be used as an tool that aids your face to face conversations. In the meantime it is possible to keep people informed through Social Media. S. Willems (2012) states that advertisement should not be your goal and this will not work. Ask yourself the question whether people that are now targeted with advertisements will be your customer when the project is finished 2 years later. The time-span of the development of a project makes this difficult. Both R. Boogaard and S. Willems (2012) states that it is very important to communicate from one area or place. There was the example given of Vathorst whereby everyone is competing with each other instead of making use of each other s power leading to a differentiated communication. It is al about area branding. Prviding content, positive reactions and creating a good ambiance. The ambiance is needed to be adjusted to the target group. A good example is de Waalsprong in Nijmegen where there one entity erected that was responsible for everything concerning the project including the communication. This resulted into the communication department to think from the area. It is important to plug the project in the area. With Wiener&Co this will also be done in a similar manner.

126 It is about a different process but a the same house as output. This because some aspects of a house are cultural determined beforehand. For example there were 150 floor plans, the majority of the people chose for the same types. But it is about giving people the feeling that they have chosen themselves. Furthermore it is important to have certain groups tell the story for you. When the developer tells something or friend and family tell the same story it has a different impact. S. Willems (2012) states that the target groups are in certain social networks and because of that they have a certain living area that suits them. Therefore it is also important to tempt the people with their preferences, S. Willems (2012) states that Wiener & Co has set up their Social Media and there are already many followers. But there must be a next step made. Therefore there are now meetings with marketparties and commercial businesses. S. Willems (2012) states that there is someone needed that is responsible for the area communication that understands the profession of communication and Social Media. Also the person must have inhouse knowledge and has to have feeling with the area. There can be for example two project developers one technical the other commercial. It is important to know what the sentiment is in the market and approach the right target group with the right tone of voice. Social Media Management tools are widely available. It is unesscary to build a custom management tool. Hootsuite suffices. But from the point of lead management there should be a Social Media function integrated where all leads can be monitored throughout all channels both online and offline. This because of the many contact moments throughout all channels and phases. This should be managed properly in order to plan appointments. S. Willems (2012) states that it is important to ask yourself the question to be likeable from the corporate or project level. Furthermore it is important to integrate the human factor both in the organisation and external. It is also about tool development i.e. it can be the case that Facebook does not exist anymore in two years. S. Willems (2012)states that the competences are more commercial in general. In the maintenance phase it is more about functioning as a reception and feeling the sentiment in the market. During the realisation phase it is more about facilitating and informing the people. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; There private stakeholder is Heijmans. It was important for Heijmans to communicate from the area and facilitate the generation of ideas for the area. The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to generate ideas about how they see their living environment. All information is then taken along in the process. The public sector; The municipality of Amsterdam plays an important role as it concerns an inner city development that highly influences the image of Amsterdam. It was important for the municipality to provide freedom about the branding of the area. The project is still in the early phase and the following steps in the process will result in more cooperation between the different stakeholders in the project.

127 PHASE Wiener & Co is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development. GOAL Create a high quality living environment in the city centre of Amsterdam. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL The branding of the project and the generation of ideas for the area. HOW? By creating an interactive website that provides a central place for people to find and place information. There is also made use of other Social Media. INTERVENTIONS Next to the online platform there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook and the content community Youtube of Heijmans in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired already specialised in the development of such platforms, in this case it was also Fundamental Media. The online channels that communicate for Wiener & Co are: (Official) https://www.facebook.com/heijmansnl (Official) (Official) (Official) The website can be maintained by the assigned team. It is interesting to mention that the website is highly interactive. The visitor is able to submit drawings in a predetermined format, see Figure X, on the online platform. There is the possibility to watch a film, see Twitter and Flickr feed. The presence of a an active forum helps in activating the visitors to participate in the generation of ideas and giving feedback. Furthermore there is communication from the area by providing local news and news about the project itself. This makes the information personal, topical and relevant.

128 Social Media results are unknown for now Furthermore there is a difference between project communication and corporate communication. Each asks another approach. RESULT - TIPS Look at the target group as they determine whether Social Media should be used. Create ambassadors for the project. The team should consist out of: o In-house experts, these should be educated in order to be communicative skilled enough. The reason was because the communication consultant often did not had sufficient knowledge resulting in the need for in-house experts to react. This caused the management to choose for making in-house experts responsible for managing these Social Media. Till now it has been successful. The team should develop new competences o Able to communicate excellent o Have an open attitude o Being able to function as a facilitator that can manage conversations and simultaneously develop a project behind the screens. o It is about listening and formulating good answers o Able to let go of the grip on a project but be more sensible for opportunities within the process. Communicate from one place in order to create a strong brand. Use a Social Media list, but eventually the team has to do the work.

129 ADVANTAGES When successful people want to join the project. It can create ambassadors for your project that will search other potential ambassadors again It is easy to measure the sentiment about a project. When there is a negative sentiment it is possible to tackle that negative sentiment. Proven to be a better sales channel instead of the traditional channels. All information can be shared through the networks of your ambassadors. The enormous participation degree of Social Media makes it a powerful tool. DISADVANTAGES Difficult for people to change the mindset. Making yourself vulnerable for the outside world. But this does not have to be a disadvantage if you don t know the answer you can be open about this. The timespan of urban area development is too long to retain the target group. They will eventually leave and new people will come in their place. This is very difficult. Therefore it is difficult to maintain attention for a development project. This can be improved by setting goals each time over and over again. The changing context, now it is co-creation but when there is a shortage of housing the market will change once again. This makes it hard to communicate from an area. FURTHER RESEARCH - Welke social media zijn gebruikt voor wiener&co, ik heb nu die van heijmans geplaatst omdat ik geen van wiener zelf kon vinden? Wie was verantwoordelijk voor de Social Media? Hoe precies Social Media ingezet? De resultaten van de online initiatieven? Social Media policy? Gebruik van online kanalen actief of niet?

130 4.4.9 CASE I ZOVEEL MENSEN ZOVEEL WENSEN, AM INTRODUCTION AM is a developer that focusses on an open planning process. Sustainable development is an important and integral part of their development strategy. AM has multiple departments each focusing on different disciplines. AM is part of the real estate branch of the Royal BAM group. AM launched buyers communities since 2000 and was the only developer that was convinced of the added value. It was now able to filter the preferences of future real estate buyers/consumers. The real estate world is very traditional and it is very hard, almost impossible to break through this traditional world. This also counts for the government. AM innovates enormously in new ways of developing with the help of internet and Social Media. AM has co-founded Niki.nl, a platform that shows all new built projects of the 15 biggest project developers. Visitors can choose their new home by selecting on basis of their preferences. Niki has been founded in order to create more transparency in new estate developments and to stimulate the sales and rental in the new estate market. AM works together with Fundamental Media, which is an online agency that develops websites and online tools. AM is also shareholder in Fundamental Media. M. Keuter (2012) states that the traditional market is getting outrunned. It is not about investing in traditional media and advertisement. There is shift towards getting insights in the market beforehand.

131 The use of crowdsourcing can be used to steer on developing real estate. It is also able to test the real estate products beforehand. M. Keuter (2012) also mentions that it is needed to make the effects of advertising measurable but it is very difficult. CRM databases can help but is not always representative enough, i.e. in a project in Groningen 75% of the people were not subscribed but came via a broker. M. Keuter (2012) stated that AM was a landowner which was ideal in the early days, but with the crisis it is needed to develop concept and work together with other parties in order to get projects launched. Therefore it is important to develop tools that can assist in this process. M. Keuter (2012) stated that there are a lot of offline activities i.e.e the organization of a group of interested people that are fully taken along in the development process. When there is a time pressure and in the case of innercity developments this has been proven useful. Being transparent is difficult with larger developments as each stakeholder have their own benefits and interests. But the group will always be informed first. M. Keuter (2012) stated that buyers communities need to used earlier in the process. At this moment i.e. the project Haarzicht, Leidsche Rijn, has minimum interaction. Nevertheless AM believes in the form of interaction and that is also the reason for choosing to develop an own platform. Being dependent on the bigger Social Media like i.e. Facebook will remain difficult for long-term developments. These Social Media can be used to aid the own platform. By connecting to the reputable Social Media it is easier to generate awareness. The current target group is not that well Social Media connected yet but the future target groups will be, i.e. the Facebook generation. AM also develops concepts around mobile devices and augmented reality. For example the Niewe Waterland plein in Amsterdam-Noord there was a shoppingmall positioned in Layar. For the case Haarzicht, Leidse Rijn there was made use of Crowdsourcing because AM could not develop from a powerfull position anymore. But it was able to create from strength. Therefore it was needed to gain more insight in what the market demands. M. Keuter (2012) stated that it is interesting to use online media when the volume is bigger. For example in Drenthe and in Groningen the target groups are smaller and it is than far more effective to take the people by the hand in an offline environment. This in contrary for example in the project Villa Mokkum in Amsterdam where students were targeted through the use of Social Media, resulting in a Facebook fanpage of more than likes. M. Keuter (2012) stated that it is important not only to gather people to sell them homes but rather to gain insights in their living preferences as these preferences will be long-lasting. Haarzicht is located in the north-west of Vleuten and will be a neighbourhood of 500 homes. The area will be small and with a strong rural and unique identity. The first homes will be delivered in STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; There were multiple private stakeholders involved which AM was one of the private stakeholders. It was important for the private stakeholders to mutually agree on the approach for this development.

132 The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to be involved early in the process in order to gain insights in their living preferences. Nevertheless it is difficult to retain these consumers as it is a long-term project. But because the preferences are long-lasting it will be easier to attract the right target groups. The public sector; The municipality of Utrecht was involved in so far that they were kept updated. This was important because of the change of multiple alderman during the long-term project. In this project all stakeholders have been given a voice in order to develop. PHASE Haarzicht, Leidsche Rijn is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development. GOAL Create a residential area that is adjusted to the living preferences of the end-users. This has resulted that there is a need for a rural residential area. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Inviting the end-user to think along in the process by providing their living preferences. HOW? By creating a platform that provides the ability to conduct crowdsourcing and connect to reputable Social Media. INTERVENTIONS Next to the website there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired in this case it was Fundamental Media. Further knowledge was already available in-house. The online channels that communicate for Haarzicht are: (Official) (Official) https://www.facebook.com/pages/haarzicht/ ?fref=ts (Non-Official) https://twitter.com/haarzicht (Non-Official) Not all online channels are frequently used. Only the websites are used frequently especially in the phase when the crowdsourcing was on-going. On the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter it is not clear who manages the pages and there is minimum interaction and messages posts. The Social Media are managed by development manager but is supported by a team. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is no use made of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. The content is provided by the crowd via crowdsourcing in this case an online inquiry. The website can be maintained by the assigned team. Furthermore the website has some interactive tools like a library, forum, polls and the latest news updates. Through de website now consumers were invited to help co-create the briefing for the urban plan of Haarzicht. With the help of an inquiry it was possible to point out how rural living should be filled in. It was then the task of the urban planner to develop a plan that fits.

133 This approach was difficult for AM because of the fact that traditionally it is the task of the developer to translate the wishes or demand in to solutions to steer the process. But keeping the theory of crowdsourcing in mind AM only analysed the data instead of formulating conclusions. This was explicitly the task of the urban planner. The target group selected themselves. From 21 years old it is possible to think along on Social Media. In Figure X there are examples given of the questions that were asked. AM has measured the use of different media because this was the opportunity to measure. This had to do with the fact that Haarzicht was a new project. This was done by providing all expressions with different urls. This enabled the measurement of the effectiveness of the different media. There was only the website. The result was that was the most effective but can only be used once, Social Media and online ads were generating far more positive results for relative small investments and traditional media were hugely disappointing both in results as to volume and price. In the next phase AM will design the neighbourhood further with the community. The social networking site Facebook was used because of the possibility to target specific target groups with advertisements. Crowdsourcing has the advantage of gathering information and respondents in a very short period of time against relative lower costs. There was a total of at least 237 respondent which was very high. These respondents gave information about the types of homes, the roofs and which facilities should be integrated in the neighbourhood. It was also possible to point out how the public space, green space and even street profiles should look. The result was that more than 70% of the respondents preferred a rural character with a scenic environment. There were problems with what the preferences were and what the municipal regulations stated. But now it easier to get into a discussion because there are facts available. Nevertheless not all wishes can come true, but it is about collaborating and developing in a manner that fits the demand as good as possible. AM wants to create living environments like the consumer wants it with a future value as this increases the marketability. More difficult was to ask the consumers how much they were willing to spend to the development of public space. But the consumers don t have a clear picture of the degree of costs of the public space that is integrated in the price of their homes. In the future this will be tested also.

134 Hugo Nijhoff of AM states that it is only possible to create maximum value when you are prepared to collaborate with other stakeholders. And this is not only the case in economically bad times. Traditionally the developer and the architect or urban planner would develop a plan and submit this to the municipality. If there were no objections against the project the project would be launched. The measure for success in Haarzicht was to have no objections against the project. For now it is still waiting for the municipality. It should be the case to have the municipality more involved in the process so the mutual interests can result in better and faster planning. One year waiting for a home is often too long for the end-users. So in time it is needed to test the project again with a new crowd. The developers problem does not regard the activation and engagement of the crowd, as the developers already have the necessary skills. It has to do with the retention of the crowd. All partners trusted the communication to AM. What AM did was to gather information but not to filter the information. This was done to maintain objectivity and transparency. There was an inquiry done and the inquiry was treated like the holy grail. This resulted in the gathering of living preferences with a long-lasting character. It is important to get into dialogue with the end-users and the government. Stakeholder identificiation is also very important. Throughout the different phases of urban area development there are different expressions needed. The goals were to have no objection against the project. And regarding the transparency it was to keep every stakeholder informed as good as possible. In the future it will be able to have meetings faster because of the use of i.e. BIM that enables meetings to be interactive. Decision-making for the strategy and use of the Social Media is done by AM as an organization within the department e-business and the development manager and regional director of the municipality. RESULT The results are achieved insofar that the outcome of the crowdsourcing process was taken along in the development process. There were 237 respondents. The developer does not have the possibility to push through their own interests but are corrected automatically by developing in this manner. Furthermore there is now a good overview of the living preferences of the end-users. Regarding possible objections against the project nothing can be said as the project still lies with the municipality Crowdsourcing has resulted in the collaborative plan making for Haarzicht. It is difficult to say whether it was a success as the plan lies with the municipality now and the measurement for success was to have no objections against the plan. But there can be stated that the coming of Social Media enables the developer to gather and activate consumers faster and cheaper. AM has measured this for the project Haarzicht. As for the reputable Social Media like Facebook and Twitter the following can be said; these Social Media aid in reaching the target group and create brand awareness if there is enough volume i.e. Villa Mokkum. Furthermore the usage of Social Media has resulted in a different approach of AM towards developing areas. This goes back to 2000 where they first started with collecting preferences in order to build for the demand. TIPS Look at the target group as they determine whether Social Media should be used. The team should consist out of: o In-house experts, these should be educated in order to be communicative skilled enough. The reason was because the communication consultant often did not had sufficient knowledge resulting in the need for in-house experts to react. This caused the management to choose

135 for making in-house experts responsible for managing these Social Media. Till now it has been successful. The team should have a face in order to be recognizable for the consumer. Give the consumer personal attention Traditional stakeholders need to be organized differently in order to get into dialogue. The intentions are good but the execution not. This leads to the need of improving communication skills. It is more about the facts. No useless discussions anymore, just ask. The independent crowd of end-users will provide the facts. Negative reactions dissolve when personal attention is given. ADVANTAGES Accessible Increasing importance of the consumer DISADVANTAGES The handicap of the developers to change as fast as the consumer wants the developers to do. The problem of the real estate culture. If done well it is able to transfer the complexity properly but this will ask strong communication skills. FURTHER RESEARCH -

136 CASE J NOBELHORST, DURA VERMEER INTRODUCTION Dura Vermeer is active in the building industry, infrastructure, engineering and provision of services. The vision of Dura Vermeer is focused on a set of principals which consist out of providing total solutions through an integrated approach, the stimulation of creativity and innovation by involving stakeholders early in the process and improving the cooperation between stakeholders. Nobelhorst is a residential development project in Almere that focusses on the facilitation of initiatives by residents to design their own homes and living environment. This in order to prevent houses that are similar. Therefore crowdsourcing is very important. Woonapps has been launched because it was needed to make an inventory of the living preferences of the consumers on the level of location and on the preferences for their ideal house. Even the whole process by providing several components of the process from concluding a mortgage till the energy supplier is being facilitated. It was important for Dura Vermeer to gain more insights in the living preferences in order to develop projects that will sell. By facilitating the possibility to match people with the same living preferences it is possible to launch smaller development project. In Arnhem the project Singelkwartier has been successfully launched because of Woonapps. B. Geuzebroek (2012) states that at first Social Media was used to search for consumers for building plots. Now we search for consumers with a certain living preference, gather these preferences and develop for these consumers with the same preferences.

137 The woonapps platform has been set up to achieve this goal. It is a broad platform that enables consumers to stage their living preferences. Social Media is used to lead consumers to the platform. There are 2 products which can be chosen, namely the location and the house. B. Geuzebroek (2012) states that it was important to set up a parallel initiative whereby there should be a fictive or non-fictive person that will act as an ambassador or reception of the area. This enables consumers to approach this ambassador or reception. Dura Vermeer had set up such a project in Schuytgraaf in Arnhem. R. Assink (2012) Nobelhorst is a neighbourhood where it is all about initiatives. It is for example possible to state that you want to have a horse in your back garden. You can stage your initiative on the platform, search for co-participants, and follow the special red carpet course where you are linked with a development team in order to look for the realisation opportunities. R. Assink (2012) states that it is needed to have flexibility in the master plan in order to launch this sort of projects. The limitations from the regulations for urban area development has to have some flexibility in order to have success. R. Assink (2012) states that consumers have specific preferences and these preferences should be affordable. Consumers are aware of the size of a room but it is a cultural aspect also. The government once prescribed the requirements of a house and these requirements are now part of the image of how consumers want to live. B. Geuzebroek (2012) states that the chance for success can be increased by looking at the living preferences of the consumers. It is also about searching for the latent demand of the consumers. R. Assink (2012) states that it is possible in Nobelhorst to configurate a house online and even place furniture in the house. But there is also a film accompanied. This will increase the possibility to have your customers becoming ambassadors. R. Assink (2012) states that it is important to have someone made responsible for all customer relations and part of the task package should be the keep the interaction up to date. In Nobelhorst there is a neighbourhood broker appointed in service of the project organization. This neighbourhood broker is the contact-point. R. Assink (2012) states that the problem does not only lies with the developer but deeper. It is already present in the urban planning of areas by the Municipality. There should be listened to what the consumer wants in this stage in order to prevent situations where whole neighbourhoods are built i.e. on locations where there is no demand. B. Geuzebroek (2012) states that if regulations are set so there is no flexibility anymore there will only be developments that fits the regulations but does not fit what the market demands. Traditionally everybody knew 2 years before a development is realised what there was to be built. But there is a shift needed towards a way of working that enables to shift quickly between various development purposes in shorter timeframes. STAKEHOLDERS - NOBELHORST The private sector; There private stakeholder is Dura Vemeer It was important for Dura Vermeer to facilitate the generation of ideas by the consumers, collaborate and negotiate with the municipality in order to have the flexibility needed in the master plan. Furthermore Dura Vermeer managed the communication from the area and also the online and offline channels that were used. The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to generate ideas about how they see their living environment. All information is then taken along in the process.

138 The strategy was also focusing on making these future residents ambassadors of the project in order to reach more consumers. The public sector; The municipality of Almere played an important role as it they needed to provide the flexibility in the master plan and regulations to enable the project. It was also important for the municipality to provide freedom for the branding of the area and leave that responsibility to Dura Vermeer. In this project the different stakeholders in the project collaborated with each other in order to launch the project. PHASE Nobelhorst is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development. GOAL Create a high quality living environment from the initiatives by the future residents. It is about selfbuilding by the residents and facilitating this process. This in order to prevent houses that are similar. This is a trend that comes forth out of urban area development 3.0 and fits the integration of Social Media. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Use Social Media in order to gather consumers, activate consumers and help consumers find other consumers, the ambassador role. Parallel it is about generating ideas. The goal was to retain 200 consumers online. HOW? By creating an interactive website that provides a central place for people to find and place information. Other Social Media are thoroughly integrated in the online environment. INTERVENTIONS Next to the online platform there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook and the content community Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired already specialised in the development of these online channels. The online channels that communicate for Nobelhorst are: (Official) https://www.facebook.com/nobelhorst (Official) (Official) (Official) All online channels are frequently used. The most used Social Media are the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter to engage consumers and get into dialogue. Youtube is used to post videos and enable customers to act as ambassadors by sharing the videos through their social networks. Nobelhorst facilitates dialogue, participates in the dialogue and monitors the dialogue. The Social Media are managed the communication department and the neighbourhood broker. But the project leader from the municipality was involved as he used Twitter frequently to twitter about the project. There was transparency needed between these persons. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is no use made of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. But there was a customer tracking system used that monitored what the customers did, it was an own management dashboard. The content is provided by the team of Nobelhorst or by the visitors of the online channels.

139 The website can be maintained by the assigned team. The website is highly interactive. The visitor is able to share all information on the website through their own social networks. The presence of Social Media usage by Nobelhorst is expressly present. The Twitter, Youtube and Facebook channel can easily be accessed an increases the connectivity. In Figure X there can also be seen that the development can be seen in 3D by the visitor. In Figure X there is an overview of all plots of land with all information needed from the size till the prices. Furthermore it is possible to adjust your house within the platform. The website provides crowdsourcing and there are three initiatives namely; there is the possibility to post your ideas, the ability to join a poll and there is Facebook campaign. The ideas of others are also highlighted. This increases the interaction enormously in the website. There is also a connection made with the Kavel kaart or Plot map of the municipality of Almere. Furthermore there is communication from the area by providing local news and news about the project itself. This makes the information personal, topical and relevant.

140 Furthermore there is a difference between project communication and corporate communication. Each asks another approach. RESULT The results of Nobelhorst were successful. It was able to retain the 200 consumers online with the use of Social Media and the online platform. The integration of other Social Media has been thoroughly carried out. Nobelhorst was set up very broad and enabled the consumers ending up to act as ambassadors of the project. Furthermore there are lots of ideas generated and staged on the platform and other Social Media. It was also able to test success criteria for Social Media, see the tips. But still there cannot be said that the retention of the 200 consumers was all because of the use of Social Media as there were a lot of offline activities involved. But it can surely be said that Social Media aided in the retention of these 200 consumers and increasing the awareness of the project CASE K- WOONAPPS, DURA VERMEER The second case of Dura Vermeer is Woonapps as mentioned before in case J. STAKEHOLDERS - WOONAPPS The private sector; The private stakeholder are Dura Vemeer and the architectural agency Op Ten Noort Blijdestein. It was important for Dura Vermeer to gain insight of the living preferences of the consumers, collaborate and negotiate with the municipality for the plots in order to launch new projects in these times of economic malaise. Furthermore Dura Vermeer manages the communication and also the online and offline channels that are used. The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to generate ideas about where they want to live and how they see their living environment by walking through the decision-making process which filters the preferences of the consumer. All information is then taken along in the process. The public sector; The municipalities have an important role in so far as they need to provide the available plots. In each project that will come forth out of the effort of Woonapps there will be different stakeholders in each project. It is needed to collaborate differently with each other in order to launch the project. PHASE Woonapps is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development. GOAL To make an inventory of the living preferences of the consumers on the level of location and on the preferences for their ideal house. Also the facilitation of the whole process by providing several components of the process from concluding a mortgage till the energy supplier. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Use Social Media in order to gather consumers, activate consumers and help consumers finding their ideal home. Also finding the living preferences and bringing these living preferences together is a goal.

141 HOW? By creating an interactive website that provides the consumer to walk through a decision-making process with their ideal house as the outcome. Other Social Media are thoroughly integrated in the online environment in order to increase the reach of consumers. INTERVENTIONS Next to the online platform there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook and the content community Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired already specialised in the development of these online channels. The online channels that communicate for Woonapps are: (Official) https://www.facebook.com/woonapps (Official) (Official) (Official) All online channels are frequently used except the Youtube channel. The most used Social Media are the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter to engage consumers and get into dialogue. Youtube is used to post videos and enable customers to act as ambassadors by sharing the videos through their social networks. But the official Youtube channel is not actively used. This is also seen because there is no link between the website and Youtube. Woonapps does not focus on facilitating dialogue and participating in dialogue. Woonapps focusses more on facilitating the possibility for consumers to assemble their ideal home and choose the location they want to live. The Social Media are managed by the communication department, Bauke Geuzebroek from Dura Vermeer and the broker. There is a Social Media policy. There is no use made of Social Media management tools in order to manage the Social Media. The content is provided by the team of Woonapps or by the visitors of the online channels. The website can be maintained by the assigned team. The website is highly interactive. The visitor is able to share all information on the website through their own social networks. The presence of Social Media usage by Woonapps is expressly present. The Twitter and Facebook channel can easily be accessed an increases the connectivity. In Figure X and Figure X there can also be seen that the visitor walks through a decision-making process from choosing a location and neighbourhood to assembling their ideal home and share them with all your Social Media connections.

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143 The website provides crowdsourcing as it enables the consumer to post their ideas about how they want to live. There is also the possibility to create your own Woonapps profile. Furthermore there is communication from the area by providing local news and news about the project itself. This makes the information personal, topical and relevant. RESULT The results of Woonapps were successful. It was possible to launch a project, Singelhorst in Arnhem, within 1 year after the start. Regarding the Social Media usage it can be said that Social Media aided in reaching and retaining consumers. And more importantly knowing what the living preferences are of consumers. Social Media had an important role in achieving these insights. With woonapps it is not only about specific preferences but also connecting these preferences to products in all typologies. Woonapps is very succesfull but there is still need to work about the national reputation of woonapps. TIPS Create ambassadors for the project. The team should consist out of: o Communication expert which monitors the in-house experts. o In-house experts, these should be educated in order to be communicative skilled enough. Till now it has been successful. But there should be clearly defined who is responsible for what within the Social Media management. o A broker or someone who is really committed to the project. Communicate from one place in order to create a strong brand. Social Media demands transparency and open communication. This can be achieved by responding fast and appoint ambassadors. If there are negative reactions these reaction needs to be faced and a solution has to be found. ADVANTAGES Easy accessible Fast implementation Connect people Get into dialogue in order to shift faster with each other.

144 DISADVANTAGES Time consuming because of lack of knowledge, not really a disadvantage but rather a consequence. People expects answers really fast. You need to react immediately. It asks your organization to be organized differently. Occurrence of pollution in your channels because everybody can react. FURTHER RESEARCH CASE L NOORD-ZUID LIJN, DIENST METRO, GEMEENTE AMSTERDAM. INTRODUCTION The Noord/Zuidlijn is an infrastructural project where the building of the a metro way takes in a central position. The Noord/Zuidlijn will be 9.7 kilometers long and will pass 8 stations. The metro way is both underground as above the ground. Eventually the metro way will connect to the alreay existing network of trains, busses, trams, and the already existing metro way. In the summer of 2008 the Noord/Zuidlijn was confronted with the most severe crisis since the start of the project. Suddenly the monumental buildings at the Vijzergracht in Amsterdam subsided. This resulted in the downfall of the trust in the project. Based on the research conducted by commission- Veerman there was pointed out that the biggest challenge was to renew the trust in the Noord/Zuidlijn. Within the Mayor and Executive Board the alderman of Traffic and Transport is responsible for the Noord/Zuidlijn. On February 12 th 2010 there was decided to erect a separate municipal service. That resulted in the transformation of the Project agency Noord/Zuidlijn into the municipal service Noord/Zuidlijn. The new name symbolised a new direction. The core values are; transparency, environment sensibility, alertness and safety. The motto is Knowledge of building and sense the people. What the

145 organization wants to express is that there are experts are building the project and that the people that live and work in the area will profit from the project when it is finished. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that the organization is built with communication as a strategic part. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that the it was important to create social support. The question how to finish the project responsible was laid down for the commission-veerman. Communication was one of the spearheads pointed out by commission-veerman. It was important to improve the relationship with the city and be more social. This resulted in an online strategy to get into dialogue with the city of Amsterdam. Therefore the concept of was set up with an own brand identity. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that the platform needed interaction. A different norm was to be used for organizations. One of the first things are to translate themes on to the internet by communication consultant. Through the internet it is possible to communicate intensively. It is about classic versus modern communication. It is possible to send daily news fast. Nevertheless this asks a different organization of a communication department as different competences are needed. When a message has been send out it is important to understand that now a conversation will start and you have to be alert and present to respond fast and adequate. The platform needs to be able to facilitate conversations, opinions and possibilities to cooperate with each other. According to F.E Schuurman (2012) this means that a communication department should be able to focus on all parts of the internet. Every employee should be made responsible. When this is not the case the project will surely be jammed. F.E Schuurman (2012) mentions that it is important to create support by: Be sensible, show people that you understand their problems. Create a strong identity by giving a face to the project i.e. in the Noord/Zuidlijn the builders of the project took in a central place. Show that you do your best to make people as comfortable as possible. Use the unique aspects of the project. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that is important to identify the stakeholders beforehand in order to adapt what you want. F.E Schuurman (2012) points out that storytelling was important to influence people and that the use of Social Media like Twitter and Flickr helped a lot with informing and connecting with interested people. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that it is important to measure a Return On Investment (ROI) but that this is difficult as well. But for example in the Noord/Zuidlijn project there was a picture made by a builder that went viral which resulted in the increase of visitors of the website. In such a way there is a certain Return On Investment achieved. In the Noord/Zuidlijn project it was about measuring how many reactions or people that connect with the project through online channels. According to F.E Schuurman (2012) Twitter was used as a general Social Media enabling people to follow the project. Twitter helps in connecting with people. Facebook was used on a very local leven namely on the level of the neighbourhood. Still there are problems with project communication and people that do not want to be confronted with Social Media. But it should be clear that Social Media is used as an added tool and not a replacement tool. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that it was important to enable people to connect around a central theme. Content is very important and the content should be relevant. Online channels are ideal to communicate this content. Unique was that people wanted to connect to the Noord/Zuidlijn project because of the impact on their lives.

146 F.E Schuurman (2012) states that it is difficult to get the whole process online and transparent especially because some information is not ideal to be very accessible i.e. the compensation for damage. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that for Social Media it is important to connect to the bigger Social Media because of their viral power. Decision-making for choosing the right Social Media should depend on the target group, the available time and other resources. According to F.E Schuurman (2012) the use of Social Media was an experiment. The goal was to open up the neighbourhoods through the use of Social Media. This made it possible to keep people informed. Nevertheless the question for project communication was still difficult to answer. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that the fear for Social Media comes forth out of the lack of knowledge and experience and also making resources available. Therefor it is important to gain insights in the Return On Investment for Social Media. F.E Schuurman (2012) states that Social Media certainly works for branding activities in all other cases it is difficult to say with certainty that Social Media works. It is about the manageability or else it just is not worth it. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; There are no private stakeholders involved. The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to be informed and there are relationships to be built with these consumers. The public sector; The municipality of Amsterdam plays an important role as the project highly influences the image and future development of Amsterdam. It is a huge and project that has high risks and highly concerns the municipality. Therefore the municipality helps in branding the area and create awareness. This project have seen stakeholders come and go and coped with a negative image. Therefore cooperation between all stakeholders had to increase enormously. PHASE Noord/Zuidlijn is an initiative in the maintenance phase of urban area development. GOAL Improve the connectivity within the city by building a metro way from Amsterdam North to Amsterdam South. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Inform stakeholders as good and fast as possible. Create relationships. HOW? The creation of a website which held information related to the municipality and by creating an interactive website with a own brand identity for the project that provides a central place for people to find information. There is also made use of other Social Media. Furthermore it was important to undertake the offline activities because of the negative image around the project. INTERVENTIONS

147 Next to the two websites there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook and the content communities Flickr and Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired. The online channels that communicate for the Noord/Zuidlijn are: (Official) (Official) https://www.facebook.com/stationdepijp (Official) https://www.facebook.com/stationvijzelgracht (Official) https://www.facebook.com/stationrokin (Official) https://twitter.com/noordzuidlijn (Official) (Official) (Official) All online channels are frequently used. There are two websites one for the project self namely, which has an own brand identity and was especially set up to improve the communication with the city. The other website is a website within the brand identiy of the municipality and has a more corporate informing character instead of getting into dialogue. The Social Media are set up to engage consumers and get into dialogue while making use of the viral power of these Social Media. The social networking site Facebook has been strategically used for a very local purpose i.e. to communicate and build relations with the direct neighbourhood surrounding one of the stations of the metro way. Social Media are managed the communication consultants and some in-house experts. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media but not something as a real Social Media policy. There is made use of a custom Social Media management tool in order to manage the Social Media. The management tool focusses on the monitoring of all messages according to relevant search terms. Furthermore there is made use of Tweetdeck. The content is provided by all involved in the building of the project from the builders to the communication consultants or by the visitors of the online channels. The website can be maintained by the assigned communication team. It is interesting to mention that the website is highly interactive and provides information fast in a dynamic and attractive manner. Within the site there is map integrated from Google Maps that shows the exact location of the drill. Furthermore the conecitivy of the site is increased as it is possible to embed the website of in other websites. All channels have been given a personal character. Another important aspect is that the website has been made compatible for mobile use enabling users to find real-time information and provide real-time information because of the visitors are highly mobile. The visitor is able to see who the in-house workers are providing the project a personal character. Furthermore the map is interactive as it is possible to get information about specific locations. Dialogue is seen on Facebook and Twitter but the root of the dialogue takes place on the platform Furthermore there is a difference between project communication and corporate communication. Each asks another approach. Decision-making for the strategy and use of the Social Media is done by communication department. RESULT It is interesting to see how the organization was able to measure the results of their efforts in using Social Media. The results are set in relation to the spearheads set by commission-veerman. Improved

148 communication was one of the spearheads. The achieved results are; Improved relation with the city, growth of interaction (average of reactions per article per day), growth of visitors, increased reach (5 times), the trustworthiness of the project s image. The project has now become the city s proud. TIPS Create a strong brand identity for your project. Organizations should not be afraid to make a shift towards using Social Media. Determine the goals that are to be achieved beforehand. It is then possible to measure the Return On Investement (ROI). Communication goals should be strategically anchored and online communication should be taken along. However the urgency will differ per project, but this can nevertheless be integrated in a strategic way. Create ambassadors for the project. The team should consist out of: o The project manager o Webmaster o In-house experts, these should be educated in order to be communicative skilled enough in order to translate the communication strategy on to the web. It is important to have affinity with the internet and Social Media. o Content makers i.e. copywriters, film-makers, photographers, designers. Other important aspects are: o Be authenthic but not persuasive o Interaction o Personal o Original and new o Add emotion ADVANTAGES Fast, easy and accessible. Possibility to share information and build relationships Perfect possibility to monitor the sentiment DISADVANTAGES Overkill of information causing pollution of the channels Actually there are no disadvantages. The user determines whether Social Media will be beneficial or not. FURTHER RESEARCH -

149 CASE M SPOORZONE DELFT, GEMEENTE DELFT & PRORAIL INTRODUCTION The current railway is a bottleneck in Delft and is not designed for the current train traffic. Therefore the necessity for renewing the railway was very important for the city of Delft. The direct environment of the railway needs to be redeveloped. This gave rise of the project named The Spoorzone Delft. The Spoorzone Delft project comprises the integral redevelopment of an area of around 40 hectares, located in between the inner city and the residential neighbourhoods to the west and south. The entire project embraces the realisation of a railway tunnel, a railway station with municipal office, 1200 dwellings, office buildings, a city park, water elements, bicycle facilities, parking facilities and roads. The project provides an immense impetus to the city of Delft. The Spoorzone will result in a high-quality connection between city districts that are now separated from each other by the railway. Spoorzone Delft is a project by the municipality of Delft and Prorail. To get the job done there was a project organization erected in 2007 named the Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Spoorzone Delft BV (OBS). The OBS had the task to execute the agreements of the involved stakeholders. These agreements regard the development of the urban area and the junction for public transport. The OBS is responsible for the preparation and execution of the total development and managing the financial administration. Spoorzone Delft is a project that is characterized by both underground and aboveground activities. The project faces a real complex context. The Spoorzone Delft connects 4 neighbourhoods. For now there are no insights whatsoever in what is going to be built. This problem resulted because several private stakeholders are not able to develop the plots. The reason lies in the economic position of these stakeholders in the current economic market. According to M. Verhoeven (2012) the idea is to provide temporary solutions for these wastelands. Communication is thus very important and will be part of the strategy to build a relationship with the city. Therefore there is a team organized that is responsible for the communication. M. Verhoeven (2012) sketches the example of a concert that will be given and there is still need for a local band to perform. Through the platform it is then able for local bands to register themselves for the concert. The platform will act as meeting point online.

150 M. Verhoeven (2012) states that Social Media are tools to get into dialogue with your environment. This was also one of the spearheads of the communication strategy of the Spoorzone Delft. Social Media is added to the already existing manners to communicate with the environment i.e. the information centre, newsletters and more. M. Verhoeven (2012) mentions that it is a shame that there was a lot of information available about the project online, while nobody intern was aware of. Now it is possible to monitor what is being said, respond and make use of opportunities that come by to increase the awareness of the project. M. Verhoeven (2012) mentions that this resulted in the idea for facilitating crowdsourcing on a platform where people can meet each other online. The current website did not facilitate interaction nor was it a place where people could meet each other and create a network. This resulted in the platform In Figure X a screenshot of the platform is shown. The platform should be organized by and for the people. It is also possible to connect to relevant subjects. M. Verhoeven (2012) points out that being in contact was one of the core values of the organization. The realisation of the platform fits perfectly to the core value but was very costly. Furthermore this resulted in community management being able to connect the online environment with the offline environment. The communication team and an external communication agency looked where and how the platform should be plugged in the existing environment both online and offline. M. Verhoeven (2012) states that it is important to connect to Social Media that will help in getting ambassadors for the project. Appointing certain people a special role can help in the creation of content by making them enthusiastic about the project. Furthermore the people can be used to measure which initiatives have more chance for success as it possible to have the people give feedback on these initiatives. This can help in answering questions like What needs to be demolished? What should come in place? and so on. M. Verhoeven (2012) states that it is important to communicate transparent and clear in order to prevent confusion about what is being realised. Environment communication at first was not personal but with the coming of the new platform it was possible to make communication personal and interact with people. STAKEHOLDERS The private sector; The private stakeholders involved are Prorail and the contractors that build the project. Prorail has to be informed and the contractors are to be involved with the communication of the project. The civic society; The most important stakeholders for this project are the consumers. The consumers are to be informed and there are relationships to be built with these consumers. Satisfying this group will increase the support for the project. The public sector; The municipality of Delft plays an important role as the project highly influences the image and future development of Delft. It is a huge project accompanied with high risks and highly concerns the municipality. Therefore the municipality works together intensively with Prorail. For this project Prorail and the municipality are cooperating with each other and have set up the Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Spoorzone Delft BV to get the job done. This enabled the two stakeholders to make decisions faster and not be troubled by other interests involved in the project. Communication with the outside world was easier because of this cooperation structure.

151 PHASE Spoorzone Delft is an initiative in the initiative phase of urban area development. Nevertheless the project will cope with all phases of urban area development because of the size and duration of the project. GOAL Improve the connectivity and living quality within the city of Delft and with other cities. SOCIAL MEDIA GOAL Inform stakeholders as good and fast as possible. Create relationships by interacting and facilitating the connection with and between stakeholders. It is also about providing room for the realisation of ideas as temporary solutions for the wastelands. HOW? The creation of an interactive platform that facilitates crowdsourcing, dialogue and is able to connect with people and enable these people to connect with each other. Other Social Media should be integrated in the platform in order to reach a bigger audience. INTERVENTIONS Next to the two websites there was made use of the social networking sites Twitter, Facebook and the content communities Flickr and Youtube in order to reach target groups and spread information. There were external parties hired. The online channels that communicate for Spoorzone Delft are: (Official) (Official) (Official) https://www.facebook.com/spoorzonedelft (Official) (Official) (Official) (Official) (Official) All online channels are frequently used. There are two websites one for the project self namely, which has an own brand identity and was especially set up to improve the communication with the city. The other website is a website especially for the organization of the project and has a more corporate informing character instead of getting into dialogue. The Social Media are set up to engage consumers and get into dialogue while making use of the viral power of these Social Media. The Social Media are used to monitor, get into dialogue and generate content for and by visitors of the online channels. Social Media are managed the designated communication team which consist out of communication consultants and some in-house experts. All people within the project organization have been appointed a theme which needs to be managed. So everyone is a community manager for their own theme. There are basic rules for the use of the Social Media set up by the municipality of Delft but not something as a real Social Media policy. Still there are decisions made which tone of voice fits in the moment. There is made use of Hootsuite as a Social Media management tool in order to manage the Social Media. The content is provided by all involved in the building of the project from the builders to the communication consultants or by the visitors of the online channels.

152 Next to the initial existing website the website seen in Figure X, was added because the website seen in Figure X, was not able to facilitate all the functions needed to get into dialogue and fulfil the goals that were set. The websites can be maintained by the communication team. It is interesting to mention that the website is highly interactive and provides information fast in a dynamic manner. Within the site there is map integrated from Google Maps that shows several locations around the project with specific information. Shamefully enough the platform is not made mobile compatible yet making the connectivity of the site less mobile. All channels have been given a personal character. There is a reception function integrated in the platform by using Twitter as the reception. This enables the organization to respond immediately on reactions. There is no fear to fail, because there is always a way back according to M. Verhoeven (2012). The visitors are able to see all information feed about the project on the platform. Furthermore it is possible to place an idea, see Figure X, on the platform. It is also possible to discuss along with other posts. It is able to connect on a specific theme.

153 Dialogue is seen on all Social Media but the root of the dialogue takes place on the platform Information that is not relevant for the platform will be forwarded to the right parties. This strengthens the receptions function of the platform. The website is not taken along in this case. In short the following can be said. The website focusses on a more formal online presence but links with other Social Media and the website increasing the connectivity and interaction between all online channels. The website focusses more on specific information around the project in contrary of which focusses more on the dialogue with the surroundings of the project. Furthermore there is a difference between project communication and corporate communication. Each asks another approach. Decision-making for the strategy and use of the Social Media is done by the communication team. RESULT According to M. Verhoeven (2012) it was possible to measure the success because the utilisation of Social Media were connected to a communication strategic plan. At the end of the 3 months during test phase there were more than 250 followers and there were connections made to relevant subjects in the environment. Furthermore the goals regarding the improvement of support and the increase of hits on the website were also achieved. This because it was able to have people follow the project through Social Media. Facebook and Twitter are no. 4 and 5 in the list of online channels that generate the most online traffic. It appeared to be a success. Nevertheless it is important to know how this should be organized in the future. But there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the use of Social Media. Social Media will cost more time most of the times because it is an extra communication channel that needs care. TIPS Be actively involved. It is important to respond as quickly as possible or let the people know when you are going to respond. Communicate in a certain hierarchy before posting important information online. So the residents need to receive a formal update i.e. in the form of a letter before important announcement are made online leaving the residents who are not online behind. Dialogue is very important for the success of Social Media.

154 Be prepared. Everybody within the organization should be aware of the Social Media channels. Each project has their own goals and thus different Social Media will be used. Communication goals should be strategically anchored and online communication should be taken along. Focus on the creation of ambassadors for the project. The team should consist out of: o The project leader o One of the people that are working/building outside o Communication consultants ADVANTAGES Fast, easy and accessible. Connect and built relationships with the people and the organizations that are normally not easy accessible. Facilitate people and organizations to connect and build relationships with each other. It is possible to connect the project with other initiatives related to the area. DISADVANTAGES Lack of knowledge How to behave on Social Media in order to get dialogue. FURTHER RESEARCH -

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156 5. CONCLUSIONS 5.1 CONCLUSIONS EMPIRICAL RESEARCH INTRODUCTION Now that the empirical findings are known it is possible to analyse the findings to point out the relationship between the field of Urban Area Development and the field of Social Media. Step for step there will be elaborated on all points of the research model. For the ease the points of the research model are recalled. The points were: The phases of Urban Area Development The Stakeholders The Communication directions The Social Media approaches The Social Media categories The Community Organizations The general conclusion of the empirical research is built up out of multiple parts. There are three levels to be distinguished: The level of the case The level of the phases of the Urban Area Development process The generic Social Media information retrieved from expert interviews and own logical reasoning On these three levels there will be conclusions drawn. All will be also provided with own logical reasoning without losing the objective of answering the main research question: How can Social Media be integrated within the urban area development process in the Netherlands, in order to improve the efficiency in communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support from stakeholders? GENERAL CONCLUSIONS CASES AND SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE It is now possible to see the points of the research model in the light of the cases. The conclusion on the level of the cases will act as foundation to base the conclusions on the level of the phases of the Urban Area Development process. It is now possible to formulate conclusions, generic and nongeneric, from both the empirical and theoretical research, regarding the use of Social Media in all cases.

157 CASES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS It is now possible to give an overview where all cases are situated in the different phases of Urban Area Development. It is interesting to see that the majority of the cases take place in the initiative and planning phase of the Urban Area Development process, as it is not evident that Social Media interventions only take place in these two phases. Some cases are set up to pass through all phases of the Urban Area Development process. Some only focus on a specific phase and it is also seen that the objectives are often only related to the concerned phase. Social Media are used to achieve commercial and public goals, building relationships and involving other stakeholders to bind them to a project or interest. The reason for the cases to be positioned in the initiative and planning phase is difficult to explain. On one side because the cases are not representing the totality of all cases where Social Media is used in the Urban Area Development process. On the other side because there is currently no information what will happen when the analysed cases will move over towards the next phases of the Urban Area Development process. There can also be an explanation found when looking at the theory of both the field of Urban Area Development and the field of Social Media. The objectives that can be achieved with Social Media, traditional commercial objectives and emergent social objectives, fit perfectly in the initiative and planning phase of Urban Area Development. In these two phases it is important to involve stakeholders, especially nowadays, and have a stage for dialogue. To illustrate, Wikaza enables groups of people to gather around a so called building group where Social Media is an ideal tool to increase the reach, connectivity and interaction with the crowd. However it is not necessarily that obvious that all Social Media initiatives are taking place in the initiative and planning phase. For example Social Media can also play an important role in the maintenance phase of Urban Area Development. To illustrate, Verbeterdebuurt improves the maintenance of neighbourhoods by making it easier for people to react. Therefore connectivity and interaction was needed with the crowd to enable the crowd to communicate with the municipality about improvements needed in the public space.

158 This is not the only reason for Social Media to be used in the initiative and planning phase of Urban Area Development. It is also due to the lack of Social Media wisdom. There is still a huge desire to explore the boundaries of Social Media. For now it is the lack of Social Media wisdom and the lack of an experimental approach that were leading for using Social Media in the initiative and planning phase of the Urban Area Development process. There can be concluded that there will be an increase in Social Media usage and thus also the Social Media wisdom, because of the experience, in all phases of the Urban Area Development process. This has to do with the changing society, i.e. new way of working, for the civic society being able to have a voice and use that voice, being connected with each other and many other changes. The maturing of the players in the field of Urban Area Development regarding the use of Social Media also contributes to the fact that Social Media usage will increase. Furthermore, future generations will be easier reached through the use of Social Media because they are growing up with Social Media and are far more skilled in using and understanding Social Media. So in the near future there will hopefully be improved Social Media initiatives launched in all phases of the Urban Area Development process whereby everyone is connected and able to interact. This sketched ideal will be difficult to attain, as there will always be people who are not able to use Social Media or do not want to use Social Media. As a result Social Media will always have to be used in combination with offline activities in order to achieve the objectives STAKEHOLDERS The case studies have shown which stakeholders were involved and what the influence was of those stakeholders. The urban area development process is not only contents-determined. It also encompasses the way in which the various stakeholders are involved in the process (Peek and Franzen, 2007). There are many stakeholders involved in urban area development, with different interests, roles and influences. The complexity of the Urban Area Development process increases because of these stakeholders. Nevertheless the developments cannot start without involving these in the process. The stakeholders are divided in the public sector, private sector and civic society. The above figure shows the total overview of stakeholder involvement in all cases. In most of the cases, all stakeholders were involved and cooperation was needed between these stakeholders. However, it is interesting to see that the private sector was not always needed to be

159 involved, due to the fact that they had no specific contribution to the initiative. However, the extent of their involvement differs per case and is elaborated in each case study. To illustrate, the Noord/Zuidlijn project only focussed on building relations with the civic society and keep them informed. The Dienst Metro (Municipal Service Metro) was responsible for achieving these goals. And i.e. Verbeterdebuurt facilitates dialogue between the civic society and the public sector in order to increase the quality of their living environment. The public sector is then aided in enhancing the quality of the neighbourhoods by the civic society. The case interviewees and the experts stated that communication is very important when it concerns stakeholders in the field of Urban Area Development and especially when it concerns Social Media usage. This adds to the truthfulness of the theory by Rowley (1997) which explains the importance of showing the power and communication ties within the stakeholder community. Good communication was the fundament in all cases to reach the crowd and initiate the project, i.e. being able to listen and respond in a proper manner to create dialogue. To illustrate, Verbeterdebuurt needed the crowd, represented as the civic society, to be actively involved and make use of Verbeterdebuurt. Haarzicht needed the crowd to generate information on which they can built their insights to create a development strategy for Haarzicht. The importance of the public sector is also pointed out, by both case interviewees and experts, due to the fact that the public sector is responsible for setting regulations and thereby defining what is possible and what is not. There is a certain flexibility needed from the public sector when formulating their regulations to have enough room for developments with potential. Therefore it is important to communicate and cooperate with the other stakeholders to gain progress and increase the elbowroom for more possibilities. Beforehand, identifying the stakeholders was pointed out as very important, by both case interviewees and expert, when starting with Social Media initiatives. By identifying all stakeholders it will be able for the initiator of the Social Media initiative to shift faster, more efficient and know whom to cooperate or communicate with at a specific time and place. This adds to the truthfulness of the theory by Peek and Franzen (2007) that explains that the biggest challenge in the field of Urban Area Development is to involve all stakeholders appropriately within the Urban Area Development process. Thus there can be concluded that in most of the cases the public sector and the civic society are to be involved because the urban area affects them directly. The power of the private sector lies within the capability to converge all information and give form to an urban area in order to start and maintain the urban area development. The civic society: The civic society is gaining more importance in the field Urban Area Development because the civic society demands other stakeholders to listen to what they have to say. This importance is increasing with the coming of Social Media.. We don t have to search far to highlight some extreme examples; take the Arab Spring whereby Social Media took in a prominent place to self-organize the crowd in becoming very effective in demonstrating. Or the snowball effect resulted when a birthday invitation was posted on Facebook, one of the largest Social Networking sites, which led to the dramatic happening Project X in the city Haren in the Netherlands. Social Media enables the civic society to self-organize faster than ever. This has to be recognized by the other stakeholders. Fear is not needed

160 but the necessity for understanding this phenomenon is crucial. Social Media also creates many opportunities, that were first not available, to be grasped. The private sector: The private sector is not always necessarily needed as seen looking at the analysed cases. This does not mean that the private sector will always be excluded. Rather it is the case that the private sector needs to think about their position in the field of Urban Area Development as experts that are capable to form and implement urban area developments. This increases the need for the private sector to not fall behind regarding the use of Social Media to enhance their expertise and strengthen their current position or attain new positions that are becoming available in the field of Urban Area Development. The public sector: The public sector has to anticipate on these changes and adopt a different strategy to reach out to the civic society and the private sector. The need to communicate more horizontal between all stakeholders is pointed out by case interviewees and experts. This thought is shared by myself. Eventually there will be a common understanding needed to keep progressing in the Urban Area Development process with all involved stakeholders. This will demand a different approach towards the use of Social media and also towards the roles and responsibilities of all involved stakeholders. The roles of all stakeholders will differ per project and the objectives set. So there is no clear answer on how the roles and the responsibilities will develop. The interviewees all pointed out that it is important for the private and public sector to communicate as one entity with a common ambitions, namely communicating from the project rather than different parties each communicating individually. However the public sector and private sector will have different interests and it thus does not seem logical to communicate as one entity it is advisable to do so. Because this increases the brand identity of the project and avoids divergent communication. Social Media fits perfectly to achieve this goal. Both the interviewees and the theory point out the importance of having a strong identity which people want to be identified with and show this in their social networks. This emphasizes the importance of collaboration between stakeholders when using Social Media. To Illustrate, Spoorzone Delft and Nobelhorst are communicating as one entity to the civic society. The team or department that is responsible also represents the public and private sector. This resulted in clear communication and stronger brand awareness of the project. Nevertheless, communicating as one entity demands the public and private sector to have a clear common ambition that is then translated into goals supported by both sectors. In the overall conclusions there will be elaborated more on the stakeholders. But for now it suffices to say that there is a change in the field of Urban Area Development which forces the stakeholders to reposition themselves i.e. the civic society becoming a serious party that is able to initiate an urban area development. But there are still many problems to be solved for example online anonymity, who will represent the civic society, who will design and who will interpret ate the wishes of the civic society? What is the juridical value of data generated on Social Media? Answering these questions creates opportunities for urban area development experts to position themselves in the field of future urban area development.

161 DIALOGUE OR ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION? Each case has their own objectives and context. There are two communication directions to be distinguished; dialogue and one-way communication. Which form of communication will be/is used, depends on both the objectives and the context of the case. The above figure shows the communication directions of all cases in one overview. It is clear that in all cases dialogue taken in a central place. This adds to the truthfulness of the theory by Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) that explains the importance to stay humble, listen and create interaction and feedback. One-way communication is also seen, however this was always in combination with dialogue as a communication direction. The reason behind one-way communication lies in the idea that sometimes sending information to others suffices the goal of informing the stakeholders i.e. informing the stakeholders about public transport delays in the Noord/Zuidlijn case. However, oneway communication can evolve to dialogue, so one has to be prepared to be able handle dialogue when it occurs as a result of one-way communication. One-way communication fits when there is for example emphasis on traditional marketing objectives where Social Media is used for i.e. place branding or project branding. Nevertheless all interviewees preferred dialogue above one-way communication because of the added value it brings. To illustrate, Hartje Eindhoven is a good example to illustrate how the area and the projects were hyped in order to create awareness and publicity to attract potential customers. Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) explains that dialogue is needed and information needs to be shared when using Social Media. When looking at the essence of Social Media it is all about connecting, interacting, building relations, sharing and generating content. Therefore Social Media fits seamless as a communication tool to have dialogue. However one-way communication is sometimes also demanded. Social Media can also provide a solution for one-way communication.

162 Social Media is also utmost effective when it is needed to achieve traditional marketing or, better said, private objectives, when combined with online advertisement. This is confirmed both in the theory by Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) and by the empirical research. To illustrate, AM measured the effectiveness of Social Media, online advertisement and traditional media in reaching the crowd. Social Media and online advertisement scored far better in reaching the crowd and have a higher conversion than tradition media. The costs were also lower. Advisable is to keep striving to achieve these private objectives, but not laying emphasis on them. Social Media are suited for achieving social objectives. These social objectives also delivers tremendous value for a project. Therefore it is important to focus on dialogue instead of one-way communication. This does not mean that one-way communication should not be strived for but rather building stimulating factors for dialogue and being prepared when one-way communicates evolves into dialogue. However this will demand certain competences of the team that manages the Social Media. The social way of managing should not only be carried out externally but also within the organization. In this manner the traditional way of communication in the world of urban area development will change from one-way communication towards dialogizing and increase the need for stakeholders to facilitate a stage for dialogue CASES AND THE DIFFERENT SOCIAL MEDIA APPROACHES According to B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) there are different approaches towards using Social Media. The following Social Media approaches are to be distinguished: 1. Traditional in marketing nature 2. Experimental testing; where there is tested and learned what the critical factors of Social Media are 3. Experimental doing; experimenting with a more human voice than a corporate voice However, B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) distinguish only two approaches, instead of three, namely the traditional and the social approach. This was done because B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan assumed that the most emergent approach was not used back then. However for this research the three approaches will be tested because now the most emergent approach, the experimental doing, was also used. The reason therefore lies in the fact that the Social Media wisdom has increased by the multitude of experiments amongst Social Media initiatives.

163 It is shown that all three Social Media approaches are used, sometimes even a mix of Social Media approaches. The private sector, especially the developers, are both experimental testing with Social Media and using the traditional approach to achieve the traditional marketing objectives. Nevertheless from the interviews with the case interviewees it appeared that there is a tendency to shift towards a more experimental testing approach with some even tending to have a more emergent approach. This is due to the increased Social Media wisdom of all involved stakeholders, from initiator to participant. All interviewees pointed out that one of the biggest problems is to convince the management to use an emergent approach towards Social Media because it is difficult to convince the management of organizations to use Social Media when they keep focussing on achieving tangible ROI. Out of the interviews it appears that there is also a strong focus on achieving a social ROI where they focus on spending on social currency, being authentic, transparent and trustworthy. This adds to the truthfulness of the theory by B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan (2011). The objectives pointed out by the interviewees were to look at the conversation level, sharing of content, collaboration, engagement of the crowd and most important the consumer evangelism or making of ambassadors for the project, which also corresponds with the theory of B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan (2011). Shifting from a traditional approach towards the more emergent approach was done by Spoorzone Delft, Woonapps, Nobelhorst, Haarzicht, Play the City, Verbeterdebuurt and Wikaza. The increasing power of the civic society enables them to self-organize and force other stakeholders to communicate more horizontal with them. This self-organization was facilitated by the mentioned cases. Furthermore all stakeholders are now forced to interact and be connected with each other, especially with the civic society. Elaboration will follow later on when the stakeholders are mapped in the light of the phases of the Urban Area Development process. Nevertheless the traditional approach was still used to reach people online i.e. Haarzicht which had crowdsourcing as an objective, still used Facebook to target specific groups of people to invite them and in order to create awareness of the project. It is important to decide which Social Media approach will be used when starting to use Social Media as an intervention. Nevertheless the chosen approach can shift towards another approach throughout the process, but this will only occur when the objectives and the context changes. From own reasoning and referring to the theory by B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) it is inevitable for the private sector to have the need for achieving private/commercial goals, now and in the future. The public sector however wants to achieve both private/commercial and public goals. According to B.D. Weinberg and E. Pehlivan (2011) this has to do with the lack of Social Media wisdom and the organizations not wanting to re-organize their way of working. This would suggest that when there is sufficient Social Media wisdom attained by the private sector the traditional objectives will not be strived for anymore. From own reasoning there can be stated that traditional objectives will always be strived for. To illustrate, the developer AM measured the effects of Social Media and those from traditional media for achieving traditional objectives next to use the most emergent approach in the Haarzicht case. The outcome was that Social Media were far more effective in achieving traditional objectives and therefore it was possible to invest more in the use of Social Media. It all has to do with the fact that there needs to be profit made by the private sector. But it will eventually be the case that traditional objectives will be wrapped and made invisible in a social emergent approach which strives to achieve social objectives. In the near future Social Media wisdom will increase and it will be inevitable that a more emergent approach will be needed when using Social Media as an intervention. However, this will demand organizations to sacrifice a lot of their traditions, as is mentioned multiple times by case interviewees. Nevertheless the first steps are already made.

164 CASES AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS There are different Community organizations namely; Knowledge sharing Crowdsourcing Crowdfunding Open community organization Closed community organization The knowledge sharing and open community organization were used by all cases. There were objectives set in all cases that resulted for choosing the knowledge sharing community organization and the open community organization. The knowledge sharing community organization was used to enable visitors to find, generate and share information, to attract and invite visitors and trigger them to participate or just to be kept informed. In the knowledge sharing community the visitors do not have to generate UGC themselves to participate or have access to UGC made by others. An open community organization is the best way to achieve these goals; it does not force the visitors to leave specific information behind or the need to register themselves before having access to information or leaving behind information. This degrades the threshold for visitors to participate and visit the Social Media. A closed community organization was also often used. However, this was always combined with an open community organization to begin with in order to trigger the visitors in participating in the closed community organization. In these closed community organizations there was access to more information and extra features, i.e. bookmarking your complaints about the public space in Verbeterdebuurt, which was not available/possible in the open community organization. The information needed from the visitors to enter the closed community organization differed per case, ranging from name and to phonenumber, marital state and more. As mentioned before the Social Media usage depends on the objectives and the context of the project. Crowdsourcing was not always the objective making the use of a crowdsourcing community organization not relevant. For the Crowdsourcing community organization it is important for visitors to participate and generate UGC in order to have access to information. Often the Crowdsourcing community organizations were therefore also closed community organizations. When using this community organization it is important to manage the Social Media carefully and take the time to filter and judge the value of the information.

165 To illustrate, in the case of Haarzicht, a project by the developer AM, all information was filtered by the developer, in this case the initiator of the Social Media initiative. But there were no conclusions drawn after filtering the information. Formulating conclusions out of the filtered information was the task of the urban planner. The urban planner needed to translate the filtered information into a plan, because of his expertise. Setting up a communication organization like this demands a certain approach and management but also other competences, like being social and more which will be elaborated later on. Crowdfunding is powerful because it enables to create financial support from the stakeholders. This also adds to the social support of the same stakeholders. Crowdfunding is similar to Crowdsourcing but instead of generating information the objective is to generate funding. Similar to crowdsourcing crowdfunding is also not always the objective and thus not always relevant to use as a community organization. Although, the same conditions for Crowdsourcing counts for Crowdfunding as well. Regarding the participation of the crowd, crowdfunding demands much more effort to interact with potential participants in order to have them invest or fund a project. There is also the need for a high level of transparency to increase the trust, as it concerns financial risks. This is also seen in the case of the Luchtbrug in Rotterdam, where there was publicly communicated about the projects progress. There can be concluded that for all community organizations it is needed to increase the reach. Connectivity and interaction are taking in an important role to achieve increased reach towards the crowd. This can eventually lead to the activation of the crowd and later in the process to keep the crowd motivated to participate. The communication organization then has a sustainable character en will be kept on-going. This enables not only the initiator but also other stakeholders to reach out to the community whenever necessary i.e. to generate ideas or measure the sentiment around certain subjects. It is shown which community organizations were used in all cases. There can be concluded that it does not matter what kind of initiative there is to be launched, it is important to begin with an Knowledge sharing community organization. Knowledge sharing is a must when using Social Media. Whether it is informing or encouraging sharing of information, in this research both are counted as knowledge sharing activities. The power of knowledge sharing should be used in order to increase the interaction with the crowd. This does not mean that all information has to be openly accessible. There can be more information available in the closed community organization. The knowledge sharing community organization then needs to trigger visitors to participate in the closed community. When using the knowledge sharing community organization one should not expect that all visitors will generate UGC. If this should be the case one should consider using the Crowdsourcing community organization. The open community organization fits perfectly with the knowledge sharing community organization because it provides all information/knowledge to be openly accessible to be shared. As mentioned before, not all information has to openly accessible. This means that the open community can be limited in providing information and just focus on inviting visitors and creating awareness of the project. Visitors are needed to be able to judge whether it is interesting for them to participate in the community. Compare this for example with judging whether an article is interesting or not by looking at the main title. In other cases the open community can also provide the opportunity to share information and post only certain information on the concerned Social Media. In the most extreme situation all information is openly accessible. However the latter will not often be the case. It is not always relevant to use the crowdsourcing community organization, because crowdsourcing is an objective on its own. The Crowdsourcing community organization is characterized by the need for visitors to participate and generate UGC in order to have access to information and extra features. Therefore when using this community organization it is needed to create an optimal understanding between all that participate. Interaction and connectivity are therefore very important parts to be integrated. When using the Crowdsourcing community organization it will be desirable to have both

166 an open and a closed part. In the open part the knowledge is shared and visitors will be invited and triggered to participate. When participating the closed community organization is entered than provides extra information and features. It is not always relevant to use the Crowdfunding community organization, because Crowdfunding is an objective on its own. The Crowdfunding community organization is similar to that of the Crowdsourcing community organization. But as mentioned before the Crowdfunding organization needs more transparency and thus a different approach. When using this community organization it is important to have an open and a closed part. In the open part there is knowledge shared about the project and in the closed part extra information and features are accessible to increase the transparency and convince visitors to fund the project. The closed community organization fits perfectly with the Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding community organizations. It is very important to use a closed community organization in order to tackle problems like online anonymity and helps in judging the value of the information. For developers it even provides the opportunity to have extra information that helps them in Customer Relationship Management. In the closed community there are often only participants that matter and an overkill of information can thus be avoided. With the rise of Mobile Social Media more use will be made of a mix of community organizations to reach out to the crowd. These community organization also stimulates players in the field of Urban Area Development to think about new business models and opportunities to co-create projects. To illustrate, an open knowledge sharing community organization can be used to invite visitors and trigger them to participate in the closed crowdsourcing process. The results of the closed crowdsourcing process will be presented publically so everyone can see what is achieved i.e. Haarzicht. It is then possible, depending on the outcome of the crowdsourcing process, to bind the same community financially by then starting the Crowdfunding community organization. What will thus happen is that during an project there can be made use of different community organization. Maybe in the future there can be made use of some kind of community organization life cycle throughout the phases of the project. But this will not change the fact that the community organization should be wisely chosen in order to fit the objectives and the context of the project.

167 CASES AND THE SOCIAL MEDIA CATEGORIES There are different Social Media categories namely; Platform Social networking sites Blogs Content communities Augmented Reality Virtual game worlds Virtual Social Media Collaborative projects Mobile Social Media The Social Media categories used differ per case and are each characterized by different objectives. There can be concluded that in all cases there was made use of the following Social Media Categories: 1. Platform 2. Blog 3. Social Networking sites And in lesser degree there was made use of the following Social Media categories: 1. Mobile Social Media 2. Content Communities 3. Augmented Reality There was no use was made of Virtual Social Worlds and Virtual Game Worlds.

168 The next step was to take a look which specific Social Media were used within the Social Media categories. Therefore it was needed to map all Social Media that were used in all cases. In the case studies both the official as the on-official Social Media were taken along. However, now only the official channels, which are confirmed by the case interviewees, are taken along in the analysis and the conclusions. All Social Media categories consist out of multiple specific Social Media or elements. Each Social Media category will be discussed individually. Platform The platform is characterised by looking at the following aspects: 1) Informing Informing as one of the objectives. 2) Interactive elements Whether there are interactive elements integrated to invite or trigger users to provide information on the website or to be attractive in order for users to retrieve information from the platform. 3) Crowdsourcing Is the platform able to provide crowdsourcing activities. 4) Crowdfunding Is the platform able to provide crowdfunding activities. The platform was used in all cases as the backbone or central meeting place for all online visitors There can be concluded that all cases use platforms with an informing character, where the function of the Blog was used to fulfil the informing task. Almost all cases integrate interactive elements in the platforms to increase the interaction level with the visitors and increase common understanding. These interactive elements vary from a 3D environment to the integration of a dynamic 2D map. As for the facilitation of Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding on the platforms there can be concluded that this is rarely the case. The reason therefore lies in the fact that Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding are specific objectives which are not always relevant in all cases. When Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding are the objectives a platform will/can be built especially to facilitate Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding. Social Networking Sites There is an abundance of Social Networking Sites available online. But not all Social Networking Sites are as popular or useful. Some are still in a testing environment or are developed for special communities. For this research there will be focussed on the biggest and most popular Social Networking sites on basis of the interviews and own research. These Social Networking Sites are pointed out by the case interviewees, experts, expert blogging websites and from own experience. Use is also made of Social Networking sites. The reason for using Social Networking sites lies in the fact that there are many larger established communities present on the larger Social Networking sites. This creates the possibility to join these communities instead of building own communities from scratch, which is time consuming and very costly. Social Networking Sites also enable to search the

169 crowd according to very specific characteristics like i.e. age, gender, address and so on. Social Networking sites also provides the possibility to make use of their viral power to increase the reach. In addition, the interaction level, connectivity and reach increases when there is made use of Social Networking sites. Facebook; Facebook is the most used Social Networking Site in order to reach the common visitors or potential customers. Furthermore Facebook provides opportunities to achieve commercial objectives, to invite people to participate in the own Social Media initiative and enable the users to share one s Social Media initiative with their own social network. The latter is extremely useful to increase the reach. Linkedin; Linkedin is the Social Networking Site to reach out to professionals. Linkedin enables users to publish their expertise and the business they are active in. Furthermore Linkedin enables users to link with other users creating an expert social network. The reason for using Linkedin was thus to reach out to professionals. Linkedin also offers the possibility for users to share one s Social Media initiative through their expert social network. Hyves; Hyves was only used by the case Verbeterdebuurt. Hyves was one of the biggest Dutch Social Networking Sites. This is also the reason for Verbeterdebuurt to make use of Hyves. Verbeterdebuurt joined Hyves to connect with already existing communities that were formed around a neighbourhood. This offered Verbeterdebuurt the possibility to make the communities aware of the possibility to use Verbeterdebuurt as a tool to improve their living environment. Making use of Hyves spared Verbeterdebuurt the effort to create awareness both online and offline throughout neighbourhoods. However Hyves is losing in popularity and is therefore not always used as a Social Networking Site to reach out to the crowd. But this does not mean that Hyves does not provide opportunities as seen in the case of Verbeterdebuurt. Google+ ; Google+ is an upcoming Social Networking Site initiated by Google, the well-known search engine internet company. Google+ is not used often. Only Verbeterdebuurt made use of Google+ in order to increase the find-ability on the internet and reach the thin available active crowd. Google+ is still developing and there is a lack of wisdom of Google+ making it not the most popular Social Networking Site in Europe. In South-America Google+ is one of the most popular Social Networking Sites. W. Gijsbers (2012) states that being early with the use of Google + can help in being the first to profit from a possible growth of this social networking site. Own Social Networking Sites; There was also made use of own Social Networking Sites. Whereby some fits the term Social Networking Site more than the others. In the foundation all made it possible to login and making an own personal profile that enabled the user to share and generate information. So in essence this is a Social Networking Site as mentioned in theory by Kaplan & Haenlein (2010). The own Social Networking Sites were always connected with bigger Social Media Sites or Content communities to increase the reach, interaction and connectivity because of the viral power and other possibilities these other Social Media adds to the Own Social Networking Site.

170 Blogs All cases made use of the integration of Blogs or set up a separate Blog next to the one integrated within the platform. As Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) explains, the Blog is one of the earliest forms of Social Media. It is now shown that it still proves to be effective regarding the spreading of information. Nowadays there are even very high quality expert blogs as an information source on multiple fields. Blogs enables the initiator to keep stakeholders updated about all developments regarding a project/development/topic. According to Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) Blogs provide the possibility of interaction with visitors by enabling them to comment on the articles. This is also seen in the cases. Content attracts visitors to come back according to the experts and the case interviewees. Therefore the Blog functions as an important Social Media category needed. The importance of content is also mentioned in the theory by Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) that explain that User Generated Content (UGC) is the sum of all ways in which people make use of Social Media. So UGC is directly related to essence of Social Media. The content of the Blogs vary in media types and amount. Therefore there was often also made use of Content communities. The reason for a separate blog next to the one integrated is not clear but there can be assumed that is done to increase the reach or that the separate blog strives other Social Media objectives than the one integrated within the platform. Twitter; According to Bernoff and Li (2008) Twitter can be seen as a micro-blog. Twitter is used in all cases with the exception of Haarzicht. Twitter enables users to connect to other users by following them and then receiving information feed from them, the so called tweets. The users can also spread and generate information very fast. There are special hashtags, #subject, to filter information feed of a subject. All interviewees pointed out the power of Twitter as an ideal Social Media to increase the reach, connectivity and interaction. Twitter also helps in gaining insight in the sentiment around a project by looking at the information feed. There can be filtered on #NoordZuidlijn and monitor what is being tweeted about the project. Twitter enables users to respond very fast and real-time. A perfect example is the Noord/Zuidlijn. Content Communities Almost all of the cases combined Content communities in order to publish media online and enable users to generate and share media. This enables the initiator of the Social Media initiative to reach a bigger crowd and create more interaction with the use of media like video s and images. Youtube; Youtube is one of the biggest Content Communities that enables users to share video UGC. It is possible for the initiator of an Social Media initiative to publish video s on Youtube and integrate Youtube compatible

171 videoplayers on the own platform. It is even possible to publish a link or the video on different other Social Media. Youtube increases the reach, interaction and connectivity and is utmost useful, especially because video s are easily shared and viewed. Flickr; Flickr is one of the biggest Content Communities that enables users to share image UGC. The reason for using Flickr is not to reach out to the Flickr community but rather enable online visitors to view images. For users it is also possible to share the content throughout their social network. Pinterest; Pinterest is rapidly becoming one of the biggest Content Communities that enables users to share image UGC. The reason for using Pinterest is not to reach out to the Pinterest community but rather enable online visitors to view images. For users it is also possible to share the content throughout their social network. Prezi & Slideshare; Prezi and Slideshare both enable users to publish their presentations online. For users it is also possible to share these presentations through their social network. The reason for using these Content communities is not to reach out to their communities but rather enable online visitors to view images. As for Content Communities the main objective is to be able to spread content amongst online users. Furthermore these content communities enables to place media in different formats i.e. video, images and so on, on the internet. Content Communities also have an enormous viral power to increase its reach. The interaction level and connectivity also increases when there is made use of Content Communities i.e. in the case of the Noord/Zuidlijn there were images of the project and the builders going viral, it even resulted for a girl, living in East-Europe, to find her father, who was one of the builders. Mobile Social Media According to Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) there are four classifications to be made within Mobile Social Media namely: 1) Quick-timers Quick-timers are time sensitive but not location sensitive 2) Slow-timers Slow-timers are not time sensitive but location sensitive 3) Space-timers Space-timers are time sensitive and location sensitive 4) Space-locators Space-locators are not time sensitive and not location sensitive The use of mobile apps is also taken along separately. The quick-timers and slow-timers are the most used Mobile Social Media. This is mostly because of the fact that there is made use of bigger Social Media i.e. Social Networking Sites and Content communities, which are also real Mobile Social Media. These bigger Social Media are available on each mobile device via an app or made mobile compatible. This increases the interaction and connectivity tremendously.

172 Verbeterdebuurt and Play the City however also make use of space-timers and space-locators. The space-timers are used to give real time information about a certain location i.e. in the case of Verbeterdebuurt it concerns posting complaints about the public space with a mobile device. The space-locators are not time or location sensitive. Play the City for example enables users to map information about a certain location and which can be addressed by others later one. Play the City goes further regarding the interaction with the crowd. They introduced special City Cards that gives the users access to their social networking sites at certain connection points throughout the city. From these access-points it is possible to publish information when one owns a City Card. Furthermore there were also two cases where there is special app developed to make their initiative usable for different mobile phones and tablets. It is even possible to use the app when there is no internet connection and save what the user has generated, UGC. When there is an internet connection it will be again possible to publish the UGC. This shows that the players in the field of Urban Area Development are seriously innovating on increasing the interaction and connectivity with the users to build sustainable relationships in the hope these users will always stay connected. The importance and variety of Mobile Social Media will rapidly increase. There are many developments on-going at the moment i.e. project like Google Glasses. According to Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) Generation Y and Z will be reached faster and better with Mobile Social Media. This is confirmed by all interviewees and is also the main reason for initiators of Social Media initiatives to experiment now with Mobile Social Media to increase the wisdom and experience. There are enormous opportunities to increase the connectivity and interaction with the crowd when making use of Mobile Social Media or making use of other Social Media categories i.e. the bigger Social Networking sites and Content Communities that are mobile compatible. As for the cases the latter was often the case. Nevertheless the Mobile Social Media will increase in importance and drastically increase the connectivity and interaction with the crowd. Therefore it is very important for initiators of Social Media initiatives to make use of Mobile Social Media. This will enable all stakeholders to generate and share information whenever and wherever if there is access to internet with the use of a mobile device. It is not odd to imagine that this will demand a different management approach i.e. being able to react anytime of the day. Elaboration on the management will follow later on. Collaborative projects In all cases the Collaborative project were facilitated on the platform. All Collaborative projects were custom developed. It is interesting to see that all Collaborative projects made use of a closed community organization. This will be elaborated later on. Collaborative projects weren t often used as a Social Media category. Since the choice of Social Media categories depends on the objectives and the context of the project, it was not always relevant to choose Collaborative Projects to achieve the goals. However, there can be concluded that the Collaborative projects also demand a different management approach where it is needed to filter information and judge information on their value. There is understanding needed between all participants in the Collaborative projects. This will influence the way the platform that facilitates the Collaborative project is designed. Interaction and connectivity is of main importance to

173 increase the usability of the Collaborative project. Only then the Collaborative project will fully come to fruition. Augmented Reality Augmented Reality was only used in the project Nobelhorst to visualize the project for participants of the project and potential customers. Nobelhorst made use of the Augmented Reality provider Layar to visualize the project It was then possible to see the project in 3D with your mobile phone. Augmented Reality usage helps users to generate and share content i.e. 3D environments. When Augment Reality is further innovated it could gain popularity and result in increased usage. In none of the cases that were analysed there was made use of the Virtual Social Worlds of Virtual Game Worlds. But there was made use of 3D elements and 3D environments to enable users to generate their own vision of the project i.e. Woonapps enables the users to design their own home. These elements increase the interactivity and visualize the project for the users to create a better understanding of the project or these elements are used to retrieve visual information of the users. Furthermore using these interactive elements are far more attractive than static information. Virtual Game Worlds & Virtual Social Worlds There was no use made of specific Virtual Game Worlds or Virtual Social Worlds in these cases. It is now possible to state that each Social Media initiative should make use of the first three Social Media categories in order to perform, as these three enable the initiator to reach the crowd, interact and undertake the basic Social Media activities. Later on there can be concluded which Social Media categories are relevant in the Social Media mix in the different phases of the Urban Area Development. Content communities should be added in the Social Media mix in order to be able to share and generate media related content like video s and images. However, intensive management is not always needed depending on the importance of the content and the users. Mobile Social Media should also surely be adopted in the Social Media mix. All developments forecast that Mobile Social Media has a serious future and will surely have a radical impact on the connectivity and interaction with the crowd. More than 58% of the Dutch population are using smart-phones and are mobile connected (Marketingfacts, October 2012). It will be able for every user to provide real time information at any place at any given time when they possess a mobile device with internet access. Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) explains that Mobile Social Media will evolve towards multifunctional control centres that allow a tighter integration of the virtual and real life. Location-based applications which are innovating very fast, will lead to a drastic change of power and connectivity between stakeholders in the field of Urban Area Development. This forces especially the private and the public sector to change their traditional top-down communication. Augmented Reality can help to visualize a project and help to create and share 3D content. There can also be assumed that Augmented Reality will help to improve the understanding between the

174 stakeholders and increase the interaction level. When this SM category will gain popularity, it is most likely the use of AR will increase as well. When Virtual Social Worlds and Virtual Game Worlds are used in the Urban Area Development process they will highly influence the interaction level enabling new ways to retrieve information of the civic society and other stakeholders. This can occur in different ways i.e. like Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) states in the form of strict rules in the context of a massively Game World. Play the City for example experiments both with online and offline gaming. It is not odd to think that it will be able to have a set of rules that are integrated in a virtual environment helping users to guide them through a decision making process. Woonapps and the 3D environment of Hartje Eindhoven are good examples of first steps towards the realisation of these virtual world. As for the Virtual Social Worlds Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) explains that users choose their behaviour more freely and essentially live a virtual life similar to their real life. This allows an unlimited range of self-presentation strategies. Thus leading users to show behaviour that more and more closely mirrors their real life settings. According to Kaplan & Haenlein (2011) this results in a multitude of opportunities to retrieve information from the users. This opinion is shared by myself, but there is caution needed when using these Virtual Worlds. There can be assumed that these Virtual Worlds are far more complex than all the other Social Media categories. In these Virtual Worlds there are a multitude of elements, parameters, that are coming together. This will demand tremendous expertise and other competences of the professionals that need to filter and judge the value of the information. This process will demand a common understanding in order to reduce the time needed to filter the information. Virtual Worlds can be a tremendous information source. This is also confirmed by the interviewees GENERAL CONCLUSIONS URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE Having the conclusions formulated on the level of the cases it is now also possible to formulate conclusions for the different phases of the Urban Area Development process. Each individual case was active in a certain phase of the Urban Area Development process. This makes it possible to relate all information of this individual case to the phase, of the Urban Area Development process, in which this individual case was active. So now all points of the research model are connected to a certain phase of the Urban Area Development process. This enables to see the points of the research model in the light of the phases of the Urban Area Development process. It is now possible to formulate conclusions, generic and non-generic, from the empirical research, regarding the use of Social Media in relation to the phases of Urban Area Development.

175 STAKEHOLDERS It is now possible, due to the aforementioned case analysis, to categorize the different stakeholders in the different phases of Urban Area Development. The above figure shows that the civic society and public sector are always involved throughout all phases of the urban area development process. The private sector however were not involved in the cases that were present in the maintenance phase of Urban Area Development. This can be interpreted as if the private sector does not have a position, or is not needed, in this phase of Urban Area Development. However this cannot be concluded. When looking at the cases that were present in the maintenance phase of Urban Area Development it is shown that the private sector was indeed not needed to achieve the goals that were set. And the private sector willingly did not take a position. To illustrate, the cases were utmost specific i.e. in the Noord/Zuidlijn it was the task of the Dienst Metro, the public sector, to communicate with the city. But Prorail who is also involved in the development could be involved more or force involvement regarding the use of Social Media. Whether this is wise or not should be discussed. In the case of the Noord/Zuidlijn it was better to communicate from one point and setting up one department that also represents the private sector. Civic society The civic society is gaining more importance in all phases of the Urban Area Development process. This is not only seen in the case studies but also pointed out by the experts and the theory. The occurrence of this phenomenon is not only due to the economic situation, which leads to a more demand driven market. More importantly it is part of a bigger change in society, hereby referring to the network society of M.Castells (1996). Further elaboration on this topic is beyond the scope of this research. The reach of the civic society is changing now and will change more drastically in the future. because Social Media increases the connectivity and interaction with civic society, Generation Y, Z and other future generations will be reached faster and better through the use of Social Media. These generations are growing up amidst these developments and are adopting these new developments. The other stakeholders thus need to anticipate on these changes. In addition, the civic society demands other stakeholders like the private and public sector to listen to what they have to say. Social Media are part of many developments that helps the civic society to demand attention and to share and generate information. It is shown that the civic society was highly

176 involved in all cases and phases, which strengthens the idea that the civic society is gaining more importance in the Urban Area Development process and thus also regarding the use of Social Media. It is seen in the cases and also pointed out by the experts that the civic society was needed as a source of information, or as both social and financial support. Therefore it is important that Social Media are to be adopted by other stakeholders in the field of Urban Area Development in order to keep connected with the civic society and listen to what they have to say and in some cases make the civic society responsible as well. Public sector The public sector is also involved in all phases of Urban Area Development and has a significant importance. The necessity for the public sector to be involved is seen in the case studies and has been pointed out by the experts. It is not odd that the public sector has a significant importance as they set the regulations, which form the foundation of the development of urban areas. When formulating the regulations the public sector takes future developments and opportunities into consideration. However, the formulation of regulations is often done top-down instead of bottom-up. Communication with other stakeholders is therefore very important in order to avoid misunderstandings leading to regulations that limit successful urban area developments instead of facilitating these urban area developments. The public sector should therefore formulate regulations regarding urban area developments more bottom-up and listen to other stakeholders, especially the civic society, in order to secure future successful developments and satisfied stakeholders. This also counts for the use of Social Media as an intervention tool to reach out to the stakeholders and listen to what they have to say. The case of Nobelhorst, where the municipality provided flexibility in the master plan, is a good example of how an urban area development can be successful when using Social Media as an intervention tool. To illustrate, a group of people have self-organized themselves on Social Media and have a project developer that wants to help them in meeting their demand, let s say the realisation of 30 houses, and are all willing to pay. But when the regulations forbid the development of these houses, the project gets stuck. In short it is needed for the public sector to have a more emergent approach regarding Urban Area Development and collaborate with other stakeholders to formulate regulations that are flexible enough to facilitate urban area development with potential. This will result towards a more horizontal communication approach and redefining the role of the public sector in each project. The role that can be adopted can differ from only facilitation and monitoring to actively filtering and generation information and management. Private sector As seen in the case results the private sector is not always needed to be involved. However this does not mean that the private sector should be excluded or should not conquer a position. The private sector has the ability to translate and formulate the demand of the market/stakeholders and has the knowledge to do so. From architects till project developers, it is needed to realize that the civic society is gaining importance and the traditional top-down approach does not suffice anymore. The private sector should willingly collaborate with the other stakeholders in order to increase the success of urban area developments and also to secure and strengthen their current position or gain new positions. Social Media should be seen as an intervention tool that aids the private sector to listen what other stakeholders have to say. The power of the private sector lies within the capability to converge all information and give form to an urban area in order to start and maintain the urban area development. Social Media can help the private sector in reaching the right stakeholders and to create a knowledge source from which the sector can learn. There can be new opportunities for the private

177 sector to seize due to the use of Social Media, but to achieve this the private sector has to leave the traditional approach towards Urban Area Development behind. To illustrate, Haarzicht and Nobelhorst enabled the customers to think along about their homes and even about customization of the public space. This resulted in making the civic society co-responsible for the decision-making and creating value for the customers. Thus there can be stated that Social Media brings new and creative opportunities for the private sector, which includes architects, urban planners, engineering agencies, project developers and many other players, to seize new positions or to secure and strengthen their current positions as capable parties to give form and implement urban area developments. There will be always experts needed to translate the demand or wishes of the market/stakeholders into a feasible plan. However this demands the private sector to adopt a different approach, one that is more bottom-up, towards Urban Area Development. Social Media should then be an integral part of the approach and will demand other competences to decrease the risks and increase the success of urban area developments. Repositioning Both the public and the private sector need themselves to reposition or secure and strengthen their current positions in the field of Urban Area Development process. As mentioned before the shift towards a more bottom-up approach and horizontal communication is inevitable due to changes in society i.e. the rise of the network society. It is important to listen and collaborate with each other and with the civic society. Getting and staying connected and having interaction with the civic society is of utmost importance. Social Media creates the opportunity to stay connected, interact and communicate more horizontal with the civic society. Social Media can aid from achieving commercial to public goals and from crowdsourcing till keeping the civic society updated. But the pitfalls should not be neglected, as Social Media demands the users and especially the initiators to take many preconditions in mind. There can be changes needed regarding the approach of Urban Area Development, the internal organization, the management of urban area developments and will even demand different competences of the professionals in the field of Urban Area Development. For all stakeholders it is important to mention that there can be surely assumed that leadership will also change. The shift from a rigid top-down approach to a more bottom-up approach already demands a different form leadership. Social Media are an extra channel to communicate and generate and retrieve information but a different approach is needed towards using Social Media when one strives for increasing the success. Thus the use of Social Media will surely influence the approach of Urban Area Development and thus also the leadership. Which form of leadership is appropriate will differ per project. It is important to consider the consequences of a changing leadership will have on the position of the stakeholders when developing an urban area. Further research is needed to see what the influences of Social Media are on leadership in Urban Area Development. Conclusion Traditionally the public or the private sector would initiate urban area developments. (Van t Verlaat and Wigmans, 2010). But with the rise of internet and Social Media it has become possible for the civic society to self-organize themselves and accumulate their interests to a common shared interest or demand. This enables the civic society to initiate or stop an urban area development. The influence of the civic society thus has increased and will increase further as a result becoming the third party that can initiate an urban area development and play an important role as a stakeholder.

178 Social Media increases the importance of the civic society and thus creates opportunities and pitfalls in the playing field of Urban Area Development. For all players in the field of Urban Area Development these opportunities can be seized or they can fall in one of the pitfalls. This forces the public and the private sector to rethink their role and their approach towards developing urban areas. The civic society is not able and will not be able to solve the abundance of problems that comes along and converge all the information to give form and implement an urban area development. However the civic society can position themselves as an initiator of an urban area development. Help will still be needed from the private sector and the public sector to have a successful outcome of the project. This means for: 1) The Private sector; to seize the opportunities to secure and strengthen their current position or conquer a new position as a capable stakeholder that is able to give form and implement urban area developments. But also to identify the pitfalls in order to avoid them or better, provide solutions to keep making progress. 2) The Public sector; to seize the opportunities to secure and strengthen their current position or conquer a new position as a capable stakeholder that is able to give form and facilitate urban area developments in order to meet the demand of the civic society and improve the living quality. But also to identify the pitfalls in order to avoid them or better, provide solutions to keep making progress to fulfil the job. 3) The Civic society; to seize the opportunities to secure and strengthen their current position or conquer a new position as a capable stakeholder that is able to demand or stop an urban area development. But also to identify the pitfalls in order to avoid them or better, provide solutions to keep making progress to fulfil their demands. For the public and private sector this means that they cannot fall behind in developing Social Media wisdom and using Social Media. Social Media wisdom will aid in bridging cultural and social barriers, connect and interact with each other, communicate more horizontal and transparent and to strengthen the position or conquer new positions within the field of Urban Area Development. However, there will still be a problem for the stakeholders to redefine their role, keep focussed on their role and changing leadership SOCIAL MEDIA APPROACHES It is now possible, due to the aforementioned case analysis, to categorize the different Social Media approaches in the different phases of Urban Area Development. It is shown that the traditional approach was not always relevant in the cases that were in the realisation phase of Urban Area Development.

179 Traditional Approach The traditional approach is used more often in the initiative and planning phase. It is odd that the traditional approach was not really present in the realisation phase of the cases. This because of the fact that the traditional approach, seen in theory, fits the characteristics of the realisation phase, namely advertising and selling the project. But the traditional approach was not relevant for the cases that were present in the realisation phase, because they had no traditional objectives. Their objectives focusses on keeping other stakeholders informed as good as possible. It is about functioning as a customer service point. Another aspect is that there can be assumed that the cases i.e. in the initiative and planning phase will use traditional Social Media approaches also when they enter the realisation phase of the urban area development process in the future. For a developer for example Social Media in the realisation phase can serve more than just being a customer service point, it can also be used to create online awareness around the project that is developed in order to increase the saleability by for example branding the project and combining with offline activities. Experimental testing approach During the interviews and the analysis of the case studies it became clear that all cases are also using the experimental testing approach towards using Social Media for all phases of the Urban Area Development process. All case interviewees shared the experimental testing approach with some even using the experimental doing and traditional approach simultaneously. They all focus on looking how to achieve a social ROI and how to behave successfully on Social Media in a manner that fits their role within the field of Urban Area Development. All case interviewees and experts pointed out the importance of consumer evangelism is important to create ambassadors. This fits the thought of the social currency being very important as an achievement or goal when using Social Media. How to achieve this is still a problem for all interviewees. Nevertheless some already have created a certain level of Social Media wisdom that they are able to indicate what the preconditions of success could be. Experimental doing The experimental doing approach, which is currently the most emergent Social Media approach, is also used in all phases. This is the result of, as mentioned before, the increasing wisdom on how to use Social Media. However this only counts for certain parts of the project and not for the project as a whole. Sometimes Social Media has been used to increase the power and awareness of the civic society. This enabled the possibility for more horizontal communication between stakeholders. The fact that this approach entails the discovery of factors inherent to a more human than corporate voice is proven by i.e. the case of the Noord/Zuidlijn, that now is an important information source on how to have a more human voice. The experimental doing approach demands the initiators to allow for the emergence of structures or processes brought about through the practice of Social Media i.e. Haarzicht that used crowdsourcing as an information source. Real transformational effects that significantly influenced the organizations culture are not clearly seen. Nevertheless there can be stated that the first steps for internal transformations within organizations are upcoming because certain departments or persons within the firms, see case studies, are thinking different about using Social Media and are trying to convince the management of the opportunities that Social Media brings. Play the City is a good example that shows how the professionals and the civic society can set the basis for urban area developments by focusing on providing information and finding solutions with each other demanding the public sector to be flexible in the formulation of their regulations to create opportunities for developments to start.

180 Conclusion There can be concluded from the empirical research that a mix of Social Media approaches is possible throughout all phases of the Urban Area Development process and even in individual phases. The mix of Social Media approaches occurs at different parts/levels of each project. For example the traditional approach i.e. advertising in order to sell or invite people can go simultaneously with the experimental testing approach that focusses on creating ambassadors and achieving a social ROI. But it can also be combined with the experimental doing. To illustrate, Haarzicht used crowdsourcing as an experimental doing approach but also combined the traditional approach in order to create awareness and invite people to participate in the crowdsourcing process and simultaneously create awareness around the project. From own reasoning the following was formulated; there will be a shift towards a more emergent approach of using Social Media in the field of Urban Area Development. This emergent approach will focus more on the information flow, finding creative and innovative opportunities, achieving social currencies or social ROI and bonding the community. However, the traditional approach will always be present, but, the form of the traditional approach can differ from being expressive to being concealed in an emergent approach. Which Social Media approach will be used will not depend on the phase of the Urban Area Development process but the objectives and the context of the project. The real opportunities of Social Media can be grasped when using an emergent approach as this approach will increase the Social Media wisdom and the generation and sharing of information DIALOGUE OR ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION? It is now possible to categorize the different communication directions in the different phases of Urban Area Development. It is shown that both one-way communication and dialogue are used throughout all phases of the Urban Area Development process. But the communication direction depends on the project and the objectives. These objectives can differ throughout the duration of the project. To illustrate, the Noord/Zuidlijn was first set up to keep stakeholders of the project informed as good as possible. Eventually the Social Media used by the Noord/Zuidlijn also functions as a customer service point where there is dialogue, both in the public and private environment. It is important to have the goals clear whether or not it is desirable for one-way communication to evolve into dialogue as this will influence the approach towards Social Media regarding management, available resources and so on.

181 Conclusion It is important to consider when to dialogize or to communicate one-way with other stakeholders. Beforehand defining the objectives is thus very important. The resources and the management should be flexible and ready to anticipate on occurrences when communication takes a different direction as was defined before. Despite the fact that Social Media fits both ways of communication, they be can be optimally used when it concerns dialogue. This can be stated from the aforementioned analysis, the case interviews and the expert interviews that the way of communication regarding Social Media often emphasizes on having dialogue, this is also confirmed in theory by Kaplan & Haenlein (2010).Therefore it is important when using Social Media to communicate with the targeted stakeholders in a manner that stimulates dialogue. This demands certain competences and behaviour of the persons responsible for the communication. This means that the team that manages the Social Media have more social competences like i.e. being able to listen. Later on there will be elaborated on these aspects. In an Urban Area Development process, all stakeholders want to be heard but the civic society is the group that is gaining more and more importance. The civic society demands other stakeholders to listen to what they have to say. Dialogizing between all stakeholders is desirable for the progress of getting the job done. The public and the private sector cannot formulate what the civic society wants anymore without consulting the civic society. This top-down approach makes place for a more bottomup approach and thus result in more horizontal communication between all stakeholders. Social Media can aid in stimulating dialogue in all phases of the Urban Area Development process. Nevertheless there are still many pitfalls, which will be explained later on, that are to be taken into consideration when using Social Media. From own reasoning and the research done there can be concluded that there is a change of the traditional way of communication in the world of urban area development from one-way communication towards dialogizing. It is important to provide a stage for the dialogue between the stakeholders. Social Media can play an important role in making the dialogue transparent to increase the trust and the understanding between all stakeholders. Further research is needed on how this process should be organized COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS It is now possible to categorize the different community organizations in the different phases of Urban Area Development. There can be extracted which of the Community organizations are used in which phases of the Urban Area Development process.

182 Knowledge sharing It is seen that the community organization knowledge sharing is always present during all phases of the Urban Area Development process. From the case studies and the interviews with both case related persons and experts there can be pointed out that knowledge sharing is the basis for undertaking activities on the internet. In this research the term knowledge sharing represents both the presence of one-way communication, i.e. project information, and dialogue. So therefore knowledge sharing forms the basis to create dialogue. When using the knowledge sharing community organization one should not expect that all visitors will generate UGC. If this should be the case one should consider using the Crowdsourcing community organization. Crowdsourcing & Crowdfunding Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding are special community organizations that differ from the knowledge sharing community. Online knowledge-sharing communities is about sharing knowledge and not forcing the crowd to generate UGC to participate or have access to information. The online crowdsourcing communities on the other hand are characterized by the need or the invitation of the crowd to generate UGC and to participate in the community. Crowdfunding can be seen as a similar community organization as Crowdsourcing but concerns financial means. Crowdfunding demands other competences of the team that manages the community because there is a high public transparency needed for at least the participants of the community to increase trust and understanding. In the interviews and the workshops it was pointed out that the complexity of Crowdfunding should be taken seriously because there are financial risks involved. Open and Closed Not less important is the fact to consider the use of an open or a closed community organization. It is shown that in all phases of the Urban Area Development process there is made use of an open community. In this research the open community is characterized by the fact that anyone who has a computer or mobile device has access to information through the internet, without having to leave any information behind. The closed community however demands visitors to register themselves and in some cases these visitors are needed to meet certain criteria in order to access, share and generate information. The closed community was used in combination with the open community during all phases of the Urban Area Development process. The combination of an open and a closed community is used in almost all cases in order to tackle problems like online anonymity, judge the value of information and avoid the overkill of non-relevant information.. It is also important to retrieve information about the participants to understand the information or i.e. in the case of the developer the customer information enables the developer to make contact with the participant, being a potential customer. The trigger to convince visitors to participate is done by embedding interactive elements in the Social Media. For visitors to become members or participants in the closed community the trigger is extra available information or enabling the participants to make use of extra features that are unavailable for the open community. It is important to combine these two communities. The open community contributes to the knowledge sharing aspect and invites visitors to find information. The closed community is important because it contributes to the Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding aspects and secures the information for a selected group op relevant people thereby giving the possibility to tackle problems like online anonymity and the possibility to judge the value of the information shared and generated by the participants. Notions regarding Community organizations From the case interviews and expert interviews there were some aspects pointed out that are relevant to mentioned now regarding community organizations. One of the aspects is that it is important to clearly define which story should be told and choosing the community organization or community organization mix that fits to achieve the objectives. Also important is that the larger Social Media

183 enable to find communities on specific criteria like themes, interests, age, gender and so on. This is very useful when considering which community organization to use. This also counts for online advertising. This makes it possible to connect to relevant communities. Caution is needed when analysing the information as opportunities or new insights can occur. It is important not to limit the community to generate and share creative content leading to new opportunities and insights. Sometimes there are answers formulated on questions that were not asked thus creating added value for the project. A mix of open and closed communities can work perfect but the community organizations depends on the story you want to tell and thus also depends on the objectives and the project. To illustrate, a municipality wants to create a development plan with the direct and indirect residents and possible future residents. The possible future residents are taken along because they declared to have interest to live in the municipality when there is a certain living quality guaranteed. The municipality thinks this is a good opportunity to counter the current shrinkage of the municipality. The municipality wants to use Social Media as an tool to have these groups to think along. It is important to have these groups in a community. Therefore a community organization is needed that fits the job. It is possible to have a mix of community organizations because the co-creation of the development plan consists out of multiple phases each containing specific characteristics. Also important to categorize the different groups in order to make the filtering of information easier. For example an open knowledge sharing community can be set up in order to invite these groups and trigger them to participate in the closed crowdsourcing community. The latter community enables the filtering of information and only contains the most interested and relevant groups to participate. But as mentioned before caution need to be taken when filtering the information because there is the risk to oversee creative and new opportunities or insights. The creation of profiles for the users in the closed community can be provided with a rank order that can help to filter the information provided by each user. Conclusion In all phases of the Urban Area Development process the community organization, the project and the objectives will decide which Social Media management and competences are needed. The creation of the community will always be a challenge but the thought of J. van Zuidhof (2012) to focus on the groups that want to move along instead of standing still, is shared by the other interviewees as well. In order to have the community on-going, productive and relevant it is very important to increase the connectivity and interaction with the crowd or better said community. The greatest challenge to tackle will be to bind the community to the urban area development. People do not always want to wait multiple years for a new house. Urban area developments are long-lasting developments that takes in a considerate timespan making it difficult to bind people to the project. For this problem there is now no solution available. Nevertheless there can be concluded that using Social Media as an intervention tool in the Urban Area Development process demands the initiators to think about the community organization mix and the management. Decisions for choosing the community organization mix should be thought through. The initiator should also be able to adapt to changing circumstances. But the opportunities that community organizations brings also stimulates the initiators to think creative and innovative about Urban Area Development resulting in new concepts and knowledge. So this can result that during an urban area development different community organization are used. Maybe in the future this can result in some kind of community organization life cycle throughout all phases of the Urban Area Development process.

184 SOCIAL MEDIA CATEGORIES It is now possible to categorize the different Social Media categories in the different phases of Urban Area Development. There can be extracted which of the Social Media categories are used in which phases of the Urban Area Development process. It can be seen that in all phases of the Urban Area Development process there is made use of the following Social Media categories: Platform Blogs Social Networking Mobile Social Media Content Communities There can be concluded that the use of these Social Media categories were needed in the Social Media mix to perform regardless of the phase of the Urban Area Development process. These Social Media categories can be seen as the core of the Social Media categories needed. The platform functions as the backbone of the online channels where all information and more features are available. According to the case studies and the interviews, the other Social Media categories are used to increase the reach, connectivity and interaction with the crowd to generate and share information. This is also confirmed in the theory by Kaplan & Haenlein (2011). Mobile Social Media are gaining more importance because they increase the connectivity and interaction level enormously with the crowd. All case interviewees and experts believe that Mobile Social Media will rise in the future and will be one of the most important Social Media categories. Even nowadays most of the people can be reached via their mobile phone, laptop or tablet when there is access to mobile internet or Wi-Fi hotspots. Thus making Mobile Social Media important to use in all phases of the Urban Area Development process. The collaborative projects were not present in the case studies in the realisation phase of the Urban Area Development process. This has to do with the specific objectives that were set for the concerned cases. However, there cannot be concluded that collaborative projects do not work or will not work for projects in the realisation phase of the Urban Area Development process. Collaborative projects can work for example to build and design the project during the realisation phase for example Building Information Modelling. This fits the thought that the use of Social Media just depends on the objectives and the context of the project.

185 The two other Social Media categories, Virtual Socials Worlds and Virtual Game Worlds, as defined by Kaplan & Haenlein (2011), were not used in any of the cases that have been researched. However, 3D applications like Augmented Reality and 3D environment embedment in the platforms were used to clarify to the crowd what to expect of the project, to give feedback on the project and help to visualize their own vision of the project. Augmented reality is an upcoming tool in the field of Urban Area Development to aid in combination with Mobile Social Media to increase the interaction with the crowd. Augmented Reality was used in the cases that were in the initiative and planning phase to aid in illustrating what kind of project was to be developed or as an tool to trigger the crowd to give feedback on the project. The project Nobelhorst by Dura Vermeer used the Augmented Reality provider Layar to have the crowd seeing the project in 3D. Nevertheless the first steps are made by i.e. Play the City to use an own social networking site existing out of professionals to think about the urban environment. And some experts like W. Velthoven (2012) suggests the bold vision of using a World of Warcraft looking environment as an tool to develop urban areas. This shows that there are lots of developments on-going and many professionals thinking about the use of Virtual Social Worlds and Virtual Game Worlds as tools in the Urban Area Development process. As all Social Media categories, Virtual Game Worlds and Virtual Social Worlds will also have their specific restraints, pitfalls and opportunities. These Social Media categories will also demand other competences than the other Social Media categories of the team that needs to manage these Social Media and filter the information. Conclusion There can be concluded that none of the phases are characterized by specific Social Media categories. Each Social Media category can be used in a creative and innovative manner in each phase of the Urban Area Development process. There can be concluded that the decision for using certain Social Media categories or better said defining the Social Media mix, depends more on the context of the project and the objectives than on the phase of the Urban Area Development process. There can be assumed that in all phases of the Urban Area Development process there should be made use of the Social Media mix consisting out of the following Social Media categories: Platform Blogs Social Networking Mobile Social Media Content Communities This Social Media mix can form the basis from which the activities regarding Social Media are planned. There is made use of Social Media categories that increases the connectivity, interaction and reduces the effort of reaching the crowd by making use of the viral power of bigger established Social Media platforms. Furthermore all Social Media categories are able to provide a stage for dialogue. The other Social Media categories can also be used but there should be considered if they fit the objectives and the context of the project. The available resources should not be forgotten when determining the Social Media mix. It is important to take the available resources for managing Social Media along when deciding which Social Media mix will be used. This is to avoid unnecessary losses as a result of the lack of the right resources causing the Social Media initiative not fully coming to fruition. It is important to see the total picture in order to choose the Social Media mix that fits the project best. However this does not mean that the available resources should be the leading factor for deciding the Social Media mix. It should rather be taken into consideration. There should always be effort made to make free enough resources to achieve success with the Social Media initiative. The Social Media categories need to be adjusted to each other to create a Social Media mix that performs and increases the connectivity and interaction with the crowd. This will increase the chance of success. To achieve success a different approach,

186 competences and behaviour is needed. Proper Social Media management also contributes to the success of a Social Media initiative. To conclude, Social Media offers a multitude of opportunities but also pitfalls. Social Media demands resources to be made available. But also the fine-tuning of the use, alignment, integration and management of these Social Media. By doing so the interaction level and connectivity will be increased to enable the crowd to make better use of these Social Media. For the initiator of the Social Media initiative this will hopefully lead to a higher quality of information input, creating awareness and increase the chance of achieving the Social Media objectives. 5.2 CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION The old top-down or command and control model of urban governance does not suffice in a world of urban competition where cities and regions compete for inward investments, visitors, real estate development and inhabitants. (Wigmans and Van Hoek, 2011). This also influences the planning of urban areas and the urban area development process. As Kearns and Paddison (2000:847) put it, urban governance is not an attempt to regain control so much as an attempt to manage and regulate difference and to be creative in urban arenas which are themselves experiencing considerable change. Stoker (2006) argues that governance is about the capacity to get things done in the face of complexity, conflict and social change. Urban government needs to empower itself by using resources and skills from other organizations. Wigmans and Van Hoek (2011) concluded from this that urban governance can provide new ways to achieve strength, creativity and resources. Peek and Franzen (2007) explained that it is important to recognize that the major challenge of Urban Area Development is to involve stakeholders appropriately within the Urban Area Development process. When involving stakeholders it is important for stakeholders to communicate with each other and listen. Communication is an important part of organising capacity as a development strategy of the EUR school. (Van den Berg, Braun and Van der Meer, 1997). Good communication between the stakeholders is needed to develop a broadly supported vision for urban developments. Through successful implementation and evaluation of this joint vision this could create sustainable economic growth and an improved local context. (Wigmans and Van Hoek, 2011). Therefore a shift is taken place in the approach towards developing urban areas from top-down to a more bottom-up approach. The importance to listen to the civic society in order know what they want, or in other words what the market asks, is increasing more than ever. The occurrence of this phenomenon is not only due to the economic situation, which leads to a more demand driven market. More important, it is part of a bigger change in society, hereby referring to the network society of M.Castells (1996). Nevertheless there will be differences amongst the civic society in what they want or ask. By mapping these different demands, managing the Urban Area Development process will be far more complex. But listening to the civic society makes it possible to anticipate better on changes in the market. This will help to increase the organisational talent and thus increase the possible success of an urban area development both on the product and process level. In today s digital world, Social Media are taking an important position as they provide a stage for everyone to ventilate their thoughts. It is possible to reach, connect and influence huge numbers of people today and in the future. However, the use of Social Media also comes with many pitfalls. But when these pitfalls are recognized Social Media offer many opportunities to be seized. (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). For the field of Urban Area Development it is getting more important to address the necessity and the added value of using Social Media. They offer the players in the field of Urban Area

187 Development the possibility to improve certain parts within the Urban Area Development process in each of the four phases. There are many possibilities to use Social Media as an intervention in the Urban Area Development process to increase the chance of successful urban area development. But therefore it is needed to prepare properly before applying Social Media and the management for maintaining the Social Media must be taken into account in order to create a sustainable character instead of wasting time and financial means. Thus it is important to have a proper Social Media strategy, clearly defined goals, creative solutions and execute social management. Still we must not forget, as Hobma (2010) mentioned, that the presence of a given success factor does not guarantee success for developing urban areas but rather increases the likelihood of success. The problem is that there is currently a lack of Social Media wisdom amongst the players in the field of Urban Area Development. The opportunities, pitfalls and conditions for using Social Media are not clear. There are still a lot of unanswered questions and one does not know where Social Media can fit in the Urban Area Development. On the basis of this notification this research sets out to answer the following main research question: How can Social Media be integrated within the Urban Area Development process in the Netherlands, in order to improve the efficiency in communication, regarding time reduction and transparency, and the creation of social and financial support amongst stakeholders? To answer this research question it was important to explore the field of Urban Area Development and Social Media. The theoretical framework is fragmented and functioned as an knowledge reservoir to provide grip to the research. The sub-research questions are answered in the empirical research. The following conclusion will build upon the combined insights from both theory and empirical investigation to answer the main research question. Before answering the how question it is important to answer the following questions: What are the opportunities and pitfalls or consequences that come along when using Social Media in the phases of the Urban Area Development process? How do Social Media affect the different phases of the Urban Area Development process? How do Social media affect the position of the stakeholders in the phases of the Urban Area Development process? How is a Social Media team formed and which competences should be developed? How can Social Media be managed? After answering these questions it will be possible to answer the main research question by illustrating the answer of the how question as an exploration into outer space. While reading the subsequent conclusion please take into consideration that there is only limited research done in this direction and therefore not all results can be generalized beyond the cases and insights investigated in this study. Future research is needed to verify and extend upon the results OPPORTUNITIES First there is a short summing up of all opportunities that Social Media brings along. Then there will be elaborated on these opportunities. Social Media help to reach the target group faster. Social Media increase the reach, connectivity and interaction tremendously.

188 Social Media enable to find the target group on themes, interests and other criteria. This makes it possible to join already established and relevant communities to achieve the objectives faster. Social Media enable to spread information and generate knowledge faster than before, i.e. crowdsourcing. Social Media enable that everyone can raise their voice and force others to listen. Thus Social Media provide the possibility to give a voice and a stage to everyone. Social Media are very accessible communication channels. Social Media provide a direct contact point 24 hours a day. Social Media enable to activate and mobilise target groups. Social Media facilitate dialogue and interaction with the target groups with an informal character. It is imaginable that Social Media could partially host a participation course. Social Media are transparent if the users are transparent on their Social Media Social Media lessen the hierarchical relations. Social Media provide the possibility to involve target groups easier and faster in the decisionmaking process regarding their living environment. Social Media offer the possibility for the crowd to be co-responsible for decisions. For example when budget cuts are to be made on amenities, Social Media enable to measure the sentiment, i.e. whether it is desirable to have the municipal swimming pool to disappear or the sports hall. If there is an established community similar questions can be posted on to the community environment. Because of monitoring and dialogue, Social Media enable to gain insights faster and easier, on what is apparent on the local and (inter-) national level. Social Media aid in developing new business cases, i.e. a new investment model where the crowd acts as a co-investor for projects where they would like to live or believe in the project s success. Social Media offers a multitude of opportunities but also pitfalls. They demand resources to be made available and the need for fine-tuning the use, integration, alignment and management of these Social Media. By doing so, the interaction level and connectivity will be increased enabling the initiator and crowd to make better use of these Social Media. For the initiator of the Social Media initiative, this will hopefully lead to a higher quality of information input, creating awareness, creating common understanding and ambition and increase the chance for successful Urban Area Development. In the Urban Area Development process Social Media can aid in reaching the target groups faster and easier while increasing the range as well. These target groups are findable on themes, interests and other criteria like age and so on. This makes it possible to join relevant and interested communities by filtering the communities on different criteria, i.e. if only youngsters are to be reached. This possibility increases the connectivity with the crowd, provides more room for improved interaction and reduces the time to form a crowd or find a relevant crowd. Social Media are easy and accessible communication channels that can be used 24 hours a day. They provide the possibility to spread, share and generate information faster and more transparent than ever i.e. with the help of Crowdsourcing or connecting to larger established Social Media. To illustrate, multiple cases connected to larger Social Media i.e. Facebook, Twitter e.d. in order to make use of the increased reach coming forth out of joining these larger Social Media. And in the case Haarzicht all information was accessible for all participants. Social Media facilitate dialogue and interaction with the target groups and sometimes even in an informal manner increasing the willingness to cooperate. This alters the hierarchal relations between

189 stakeholders and provides the opportunity to involve stakeholders i.e. the civic society to be part and co-responsible for the decision-making process about their living environments. Mobile Social Media enlarges the range of opportunities as well as the pitfalls. They increase the connectivity and interaction with the crowd radically. According to Kaplan & Haelein (2010) Mobile Social Media offer two types of information that are not available through any other channel: data on the consumer's time and place. This makes it possible to gain more insights in consumer wishes and needs, which is also confirmed in the empirical research. Even nowadays most of the people can be reached via their mobile phone, laptop or tablet when there is access to mobile internet or Wi-Fi hotspots. It is imaginable that cities in the future will integrate an internet infrastructure as if it is a traffic infrastructure. By doing so, the internet infrastructure can be interwoven in the urban layers as the traffic infrastructure layer is interwoven nowadays. This digital layer will always be accessible, which opens a city in a digital manner. Mobile Social Media will then even be more powerful as they provide the possibility to get and stay connected. Social media increase the elbowroom for initiating urban area developments as they provide the generation of more creative solutions, with i.e. Crowdsourcing, or launching new business models. Crowdfunding for example makes it possible to get the crowd co-financing urban area developments, i.e. the Luchtbrug in Rotterdam. However, the crowd consists out of individuals each having different interests regarding the project as is always the case in Urban Area Development. The challenge will always be to manage these interests and translate this into a feasible project. In Urban Area Development it is always important to form and execute a common ambition that is shared by as many stakeholders as possible to develop urban areas. Social Media provide everyone both a voice and a stage to be heard, offering everyone the opportunity to form a common ambition with others or take part in a common ambition. Forming a common ambition demands a common understanding. Social Media, especially the Virtual Social Media combined with Mobile Social Media offer the possibility to increase the common understanding by having dialogue and visualizing the demands with all available means i.e. a Virtual World where the civic society can participate by playing a game which generates information about behaviour and the wishes of these participants. Or, the possibility for groups of participants to use their mobile device in an undeveloped area and on provide information, on location, about what they think there should be developed. The increased connectivity and interaction that Social Media offer, are a possibility to create a common understanding and generating information closer to reality. This information can also be related to the time and place when the information was generated. Forming the common ambition is part of the organising capacity that is needed to increase the success of Urban Area Development. With this information it is then possible to form a better common ambition shared by many. Social Media are perfect facilitators for dialogue and monitoring the sentiment about certain subjects on a local and (inter)national scale. Having an established community is valuable because the crowd is already available and more importantly, accessible. This provides the opportunity to measure the sentiment, i.e. political and societal support, which are also important aspects of the organizing capacity of Urban Area Development, for a project. To illustrate, there could be a community formed online concerning a problem neighbourhood. This community could exist out of involved key-persons of the public and the private sector and a considerable number of residents. This community can be used to Crowdsource ideas for cheap solutions to improve the spatial quality. A poll can be posted to announce that ,- is available to improve the spatial quality. The community can then think of creative solutions ranging from ideas

190 to new business models i.e. by investing the money in and around the neighbourhood centre will result in local businesses to invest along. There are many possibilities. The community can still be valuable in a later stage. For example when there is another actuality i.e. a car theft, the community can be used as an information source by giving them the opportunity to be co-responsible to increase the safety of their own neighbourhood. Or it is possible when subsidies are reduced, the community can have a say about what parts of the subsidies need to be reduced. However, the community should not be the only leading factor in the decision-making process as they are no experts and due to the fact that not all residents are participating or willing to participate in such a community. This problem will remain and hopefully there will be new insights available throughout time how to design the decision-making process. Social Media are transparent but only if the publishers of the content do not hide information. However, total transparency is not always needed. To illustrate, being totally transparent during i.e. a crowdsourcing initiative can result that participants are giving social acceptable answers because they are referring their information input to the information input of others. However, being transparent about the results is demanded and necessary. Social Media can also lead for stakeholders forcing each other to be transparent. One should be aware that this could happen and should thus be prepared to provide the right answers. Nevertheless, this can increase the organizing capacity regarding the improvement of communication, the forming of the vision and the possibility to form strategic networks or anticipate on how to join already existing strategic networks. Social Media help to achieve traditional marketing objectives, i.e. increasing sales, as well as social objectives, i.e. creating ambassadors or gaining support. This is seen both in theory and the empirical research. However, preparation and good implementation is needed. Social Media are more relevant to achieve social objectives, as they enable the forming of relationships and empowering those who need a voice i.e. smaller firms or the civic society. Social Media fits both one-way communication, i.e. informing followers about the latest update, as well as dialogue, inviting followers to discuss about a certain subject. The communication direction should fit the objectives that need to be achieved. There is a change in the traditional way of communicating in the world of urban area development from one-way communication towards dialogizing. It is important to provide a stage for the dialogue between the stakeholders. Social Media can play an important role in making the dialogue interactive, transparent and keep the dialogue on-going, i.e. by increasing the connectivity, reach and interaction. However, the problem how to increase the trust and the understanding between all stakeholders still remains. That Social Media can aid in the organizing capacity of Urban Area Development is already partially clarified. For the organizational talent it is all about searching for the right balance between the three angles of approach, spatial quality, market quality and the necessary means. The organizational talent profits when using Social Media as they are capable to function as receptors that were not available before. Social Media aid in listening what the market demands. The Social Media that are set up can have a temporary or permanent character depending on the objectives and the available resources. Social Media can provide the generation of information to create a common understanding of the spatial quality needed and simultaneously set out the Social Media as receptors to find out what the market demands. The means are influenced as Social Media can reduce costs, i.e. it could be possible to have a smaller team rather than a whole department to translate all information into a plan or by

191 Crowdfunding a project. In the end it is all about listening to stakeholders and anticipating better on the market to reduce risks and improve the whole approach on developing urban areas. In the theoretical framework there was also a hunch that Social Media could provide opportunities in the sectoral and facet related aspects of Urban Area Development. It can be seen now that Social Media provides the possibility to influence the sectoral aspects as they can be used to measure the demand of the market, referring back to i.e. Crowdsourcing but also to brand certain functions i.e. hyping a certain mix like the trend of working, living and relaxing in a trendy area i.e. the case of Hartje Eindhoven. As for the facet related aspects it appears that Social Media indeed provide opportunities on the level of the social en socio-cultural facet related aspects. With Social Media it is possible to build strong relations in the form of online communities which can strengthen the offline community in an urban area, as well. The example of Self-building of Amsterdam illustrates how this can work perfectly. However, a lot of conditions determine the success of the online community. It is important to be, as mentioned multiple times before, prepared and have the objectives clearly defined. When there are no pullers of the community the community will not be formed or will collapse. Persons are needed that are responsible of managing the community and be creative about launching new initiatives i.e. having an online auction in second hand clothing or furniture. The opportunities are endless, but a combination of certain competences, behaviour and offline activities is needed. The (socio-)cultural facet relates to the degree to which the previously mentioned social structure is based on a common culture (or cultures), in the sense of commonly used standards, values, expectations, etc; ultimately, this can be expressed through a commonly held feeling of identity within the area. Social Media can be used to create a common culture and so forth to brand an area i.e. in the cases Hartje Eindhoven, Nobelhorst and so on. The users of Social Media like to identify themselves with certain brands, in the case of Urban Area Development this could be an area or a certain project. When the users of Social Media identify themselves with a project they automatically become ambassadors because others in their social networks see that they are proud to be identified with a certain project. This can increase the credibility and image of a project and trigger others to share the same identity, values, standards and so on. To illustrate, a young couple with a certain background can adopt certain values, standards or even the identity of their ideal living environment and the way they feel they should live. This goes deeper than just living in a family house with a dog and two kids. It is about organizing your life according to certain standards and values and searching a living place that fits that ideal. This young couple can thus choose to live or identify themselves with a project as Nobelhorst which is rural and tends in projecting the family life or choose a project as Hartje Eindhoven which is trendy and tends to project the city life which is fast and so on. So Social Media can provide a tool in influencing the socio-cultural facet related aspects enormously. There can be concluded that Social Media are reaching out to all players in the field of Urban Area Development to be used as an intervention tool that provides many opportunities. It is shown that Social Media can aid in Urban Area Development to improve the organising capacity, the organisational talent and the sectoral and facet related aspects. They also increase the connectivity and interaction amongst all stakeholders, stimulating dialogue and forming a common understanding. It is clearly shown that Social Media transcends being merely an extra communication channel. This illustrates the need for adopting Social Media in the Urban Area Development process. However, Social Media are not miracle tools. There are many consequences when using Social Media. Setting up and maintaining Social Media demands resources to be made available, both in time and money. Social Media also demands other competences and behaviour. Therefore it is important to formulate clear objectives and a strategy that fits the urban area development as well as the Social Media initiative.

192 5.2.3 PITFALLS First there is a short summing up of all pitfalls that Social Media brings along. Then there will be elaborated on these pitfalls. Social Media frightens organisations because of loss of power and status. Many feel discomfort because Social Media threatens privacy. Social Media hinder for not being transparent towards society. This brings many risks along when it regards large scale urban area development projects. Still many do not agree that this is a disadvantage but rather a point of attention. Social Media are not always manageable, i.e. the snowball effect of negative reactions that can occur due to the absence of controllability. Still many do not agree that this is a disadvantage because it offers the possibility to know which and where negative reactions are spread, making it possible to intervene adequately which can result in a positive turn of circumstances. Social Media provide an overload of information which lessens the understanding and interpretation of information. This is at the expense of the quality of information, i.e. there can be erroneous information posted. In Urban Area Development it is necessary to secure a certain quality of information, but this problem will still remain now and in the future. Social Media will never provide the total overview because not everybody can use or wants to use Social Media. Social Media demand much attention and resources to be made available. When started, one should carefully use the Social Media channels. In the end it is about an involved community consisting out of real people that want to be kept informed. The main problem is the magnitude of Social Media that comes along with many consequences and conditions to secure proper Social Media usage. Today there is a lack of Social Media knowledge which gives rise to a gap between the opportunities that are available and the proper use of Social Media by knowing the conditions. The Social Media knowledge will however increase making the use of Social Media easier and defining which guidelines are to be followed CONTEXT OF URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT IMPEDING PROPER SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE Social Media develops faster than urban areas are developed. So there is a problem between shifting from the fast Social Media developments on the one hand and the slower urban developments on the other hand. Another problem is that organizations cannot shift very fast and adapt as fast to Social Media. This is a serious problem for which there is no one-size fits all solution available. Further research is needed how this process should be organized. However, there can be concluded that this will demand a different approach on developing urban areas and thus also requires different management and competences. Another problem is that Urban Area Development comes along with a long development time and will exist for many years to come. Embedding Social Media and securing activity and interaction is very difficult. Just ask the question how many people want to wait 5 years to live in a house? By asking this question the problem is perfectly illustrated. The creation of the community will always be a challenge but the thought of J. van Zuidhof (2012) to focus on the groups that want to move along instead of standing still, is shared by the other interviewees as well. In order to have the community on-going, productive and relevant it is very important to increase the connectivity and interaction with the crowd, or better said community. The greatest challenge to tackle will be to bind the community to the urban area development. People do not always want to wait multiple years for a new house. Urban area developments are long-lasting developments that take in a considerate timespan making it difficult to bind people to the project. For this problem there is no clear cut solution available. Community management is an important aspect in successful use of

193 Social Media throughout the Urban Area Development process. To illustrate a possible approach for the aforementioned problems; by building in flexibility in, i.e. the plan making process, it could be possible to create an online community, consisting out of future users, to think along about the master plan. This community could be set up by both the public and the private sector. In a later stage it could then be possible for one of the private parties to filter information about how the public space and the house should be designed. This could then be realized, where there can be room for small adjustments i.e. design & build. In the last phase the community is then given back to the municipality to facilitate the continued existence of the community to i.e. have them strengthen the social stability of the neighbourhood. Social Media aid in focusing on the people that want to move and become ambassadors of the urban area develop project. This increases the chance for both financial as societal support. So Social Media can be used throughout the Urban Area Development process but demands different approaches and competences depending on the objectives at that specific moment in which the initiative resides. Flexibility is needed to be able to shift between the online world and the offline world. To illustrate, Nobelhorst had the freedom to fill in the plots of land making them more flexible to use Social Media and adapt their plan to what was being said on the Social Media. Another form of flexibility is found that the team of Noord/Zuidlijn was not restricted to many regulations for their communication making it easier to shift from what is happening offline and post or respond in the online world. The Social Media can be extended or cut down in their dimensions depending on the objectives and the effectiveness of the Social Media that are used. Mobile Social Media can also provide an answer to increase activity within an online community. Social Media also can lead to divergent communication because of official and un-official Social Media. This was not highlighted in theory but after the empirical research it appears to be a serious threat. The un-official Social Media can function as if they are official Social Media and spread or generate information on their own by making use of the project. This can lead to divergent communication which can disturb other stakeholders and increase the misunderstandings coming forth out of the diverged communication. This can seriously harm the image of a project. This can be avoided by clear and plain communication and marking the official Social Media, so visitors can distinguish the official from the un-official Social Media THE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANISATIONS TOWARDS SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE Social Media frighten the management of many organizations both in the public and the private sector because Social Media threaten the privacy, their position of power and status. Social Media force transparency to the society. Social Media cannot always be controlled and this also discourages people to make use of Social Media. But all stakeholders in Urban Area Development must accept the fact that there a lot of aspects where there is no control. However, Social Media make it possible to enlarge each mistake that is made. The management of organizations and more players in the field of Urban Area Development lack believe for Social Media to bring added value to their activities, because they are often stuck in old traditions. According to some, this brings risks when developing urban areas and as some would like to call it; Social Media can trigger sleeping dogs to wake up i.e. environmental activists which can cause a project to get stuck. But both in theory and in the empirical research the ones that use Social Media

194 are aware that Social Media are not be frightened of but are considered as a tool to wake up the sleeping dogs, talk with them and take their problems into consideration to reduce risks, so in the end all stakeholders can have a pleasant sleep. In the end the chance for successful Urban Area Development can be increased but management of organization have to be willing to make resources available to seize the opportunities that Social Media brings. The management of organisations whether or not under the direction of the head of the department or chief executive and others alike, want to have profitable Return On Investments. They have to see the necessity for using Social Media. The management of organisations after all determine how much resources can be made available. In addition they also determine the direction or course the organisation has to follow, thereby directly and indirectly influencing the course of the Social Media initiative. The cases show that the management of organisations and the teams that want to set up, manage and maintain the Social Media initiative can substantially differ in their opinion. And in some cases the management fills in both roles. The task of the management of organisations is, and will always be the case regarding Social Media, to steer on the broad lines. Involvement of the management of organisations is strongly recommended and desirable. However, it is the team that will have to do all the work and give account to the management of the organisation. The latter can judge on the broad lines whether the initiative is still on the planned course and is relevant. Problems and chances that are seen should be communicated with the management of organisations after which there can be decided which path is to be taken. In reality there is expected that the larger part of this process will still lay with the Social Media team. The management of organisation shall only be consulted when it concerns chances and problems of large extent. Since the management of organisations is responsible for launching Social Media initiatives the prudence of organisations is understandable. Organisations are not willing to invest money, time and people in projects of which they are not certain if it will be successful. Organisations are still submerged in traditions and still function as such. It is then wise to launch initiatives with an experimental character to learn more like i.e. the Noord/Zuidlijn. In addition, monitoring of trends and knowing what is going on around Social Media and Urban Area Development is essential to understand the added value of Social Media. It is important to learn from the competition. Which techniques are used? How are the objectives achieved? There is room for many questions that organisations should keep asking themselves to learn, increase their knowledge and stay sharp. To keep innovating and formulating objectives sharper will strongly contribute and increase the ROI, the trust and the ease when using Social Media in Urban Area Development. The management of organisations should use Social Media because they provide a range of possibilities to increase the chance of successful (re)development project in Urban Area Development. Social Media offer the possibility to have an extra pair of eyes and ears, which can function as receptors. This enables to anticipate better on the market demand, unforeseen circumstances and chances. Social Media are an extension on the current toolbox of organisations that are active in the field of Urban Area Development. In addition, Social Media can radically change the way of working in all phases of the Urban Area Development process. There are many tools available already both free and paid that can help in making Social Media more controllable, from monitoring to management and even social advertisement. There are no pitfalls when one is prepared to handle all possible situations on Social Media. The management of organizations needs to understand that they have the power to stimulate the use of Social Media by setting flexible guidelines for the use of Social Media and making more resources available. But the

195 strategy, the added value and the consequences should be taken along in the decision-making process for using Social Media and how to use these Social Media. Social Media offer organisations both small and large to have the same reach because Social Media provide a stage for everyone that wants to raise their voice. This enable also smaller organisations instead of only the larger organisations to ventilate their ideas faster and service the stakeholders i.e. in the case of Wikaza where individuals form a collective, through online self-organisation, around similar ideas how their new living environment and home should look like. Social Media provide the possibility to reach and get into dialogue with large groups in a shorter timeframe as well as achieving commercial and public goals. Social Media should not be seen as the replacement of all activities as they will never provide a total overview. The biggest problem is that Social Media and the digital landscape develop faster than Urban Area Development making it difficult to switch fast between both. This is a problem that will remain. Social Media usage and Urban Area Development demand that one should be able to see far beyond and think of the consequences when launching an initiative. Social Media demand the initiators to switch faster between information and the actions that need to follow. The management of organisations should be aware that this takes time and competences. In short, the management of organisations needs to understand the power of Social Media and open their traditional thinking in order to adopt Social Media. Furthermore, not only Social Media but Urban Area Development as well, demand of everyone that is active in Urban Area Development to think constantly about (re-)positioning themselves and adapt intuitively to present-day and future developments that affect the field of Urban Area Development. Therefore it is of utmost importance to increase the knowledge concerning Social Media usage. This will help to achieve the objectives set and understand which conditions are to be taken into account to increase success. Organisations should not be led by fear but rather see Social Media as an opportunity to develop better projects both on the product and process level SOCIAL MEDIA AND FILTERING THE INFORMATION SUPPLY Social Media offer the possibility for tremendous amounts of information to be accessible. This information can be generated, i.e. by Crowdsourcing, or can be sought up by monitoring, i.e. by scour online areas. Social Media are not always able to provide quality information, because of the overload of information. Another problem is how to filter large amounts of information. The intelligibility of information decreases due to the overload of information, which causes it to be more difficult to differentiate between what is relevant and what is not. I. van Frankenhyzen (2012) also points out another problem, namely online anonymity. Due to no responsibility for the input of information there is a risk that information is not trustworthy. This impedes the filtering of information even more. However, this is a problem that can partially be solved by using a community organisation that fits the objectives and by judging the person that posts the information on relevancy. However, this is not a remedy for the problem of online anonymity. The expert and case interviews already provide a helping hand how to manage the information supply. In Urban Area Development there are a lot of legal, economic and other criteria that can function as guidelines to filter information. These guidelines could help the responsible persons to filtering the information to judge which information is relevant or not. However, these guidelines should not limit the creativity and alertness of the responsible filterer which can lead to overlook creative solutions, opportunities or other problems. This demands the responsible filterer to have certain competences.

196 The management approach and the strategy should also offer room to make this work. Also it is needed to make clear what the meaning is of the initiative, in other words there should be effort spend on focussing which story needs to be told. Furthermore it is needed to create a common understanding about the assignment between all stakeholders and responsible filterers. This demands proper interaction, connectivity and facilitation of dialogue. Social behaviour also contributes to achieving these goals. These steps will help in decreasing the threshold for the crowd to participate. All interviewees point out that the coverage of negative news should be moved from the public environment to the internal/private environment. Subsequently the negative news coverage should be tackled by responding fast and adequate. This can result in giving a positive twist to the negative news coverage. If it is not possible at a certain moment to respond fast and adequate, let the crowd know why. Adopt the social attitude. Do not remove negative news coverage but show the crowd that problems are solved, except when the news coverage is not relevant or does not belong within the context of the project. The crowd needs to feel that the information is total transparent. In the field of Urban Area Development it should be clear that stakeholders should strive for a mutual understanding between each other. There is time needed for other stakeholders to understand complex information and the meaning of the initiative. One needs to understand that not all opinions can be taken along in the process. This is not possible now nor in the future because of all the different interests. Social Media offer all stakeholders in the field of Urban Area Development the possibility to improve their information supply, which provides tremendous added value for the Urban Area Development process. However, this comes along with more complexity, because of the long-term of Urban Area Development projects, and the skill to translate information faster to solutions within all sorts of boundaries and conditions. Therefore experts with certain competences both in the area of Urban Area Development and in the area of Social Media will always be needed to understand the story behind the story. And when the experts are filtering the information it is important not to overrule information that does not fit within the personal conceptual framework, there needs to be filtered in the best interest of the project.

197 Figure 19- Social Media Management pyramid Filtering information will be problem that will ever remain. To ease the filtering of information the Social Media information pyramid was set up. This enables to manage Social Media and filter information with the pyramid, consisting out of different levels, each with their own information quality. There are responsible persons assigned to each layer which need to secure a certain level of information quality. This can be compared with the position of moderator and bureaucrat in the system of Wikipedia. J.Hoogendoorn en H. Swen (2012) point out that this is a way to use open-source as a tool to have the crowd coproduce and profit to generate social-public, cultural and economic value. All have different positions and exclusive rights to post and change content/information. From the start there should be properly communicated which quality is strived for, the purpose of the assignment and which goals are to be achieved. Furthermore, it is not always necessary to filter all information. There should be strived to filter what information is relevant for the project without being limited. One should be able to foresee, be creative and unique. The purpose is not to limit the filtering process but rather find the right balance on all levels. Furthermore, it is important to create ambassadors who are willing to help. An ambassador can vary from the average person that participates to experts in different fields. But there is no certain knowledge profile required from the ambassadors. However, these consumers are capable to sell the project in their own network by acting as an ambassador of the project. The credibility of the ambassadors is greater because people rather trust their friends than the salesman or de next so called expert. Furthermore, ambassadors are able to help to filter information as a double check by giving them certain exclusive rights over the information management.

198 To illustrate, layer A is the layer that only needs monitoring and when necessary it is needed to respond. The concept is based on giving the control back to the community whereby the social control of the community is given a chance like Wikipedia. Ambassadors and at least one person of the Social Media team are monitoring from the side-line. From this first compartment in the information reservoir the information reaches layer B. In this layer all information is already filtered at least one time for so far the knowledge and skills could reach. But still certain chances or problems will be missed. The mass is not present anymore in this compartment. Only relevant persons and ambassadors are active in this compartment regarding the generation, gathering and spreading of information. The management of this layer is mostly done by the ambassadors and at least one person of the Social Media team, who are also actively filtering in this layer. The information then enters the last compartment and is filtered for the second time for so far the knowledge and skills reach. It is now possible for the Social Media team to filter which information is relevant and which is not without being overrun by an overload of information. By using this method large amounts of information are made controllable without the need of using too much resources and delay or accelerate the pace of the project. However, it should be pointed out that the pyramid can only ease the filtering of information but is certainly not the perfect remedy for the problem. Be transparent regarding the information that is being generated. It is not obliged to communicate everything during the filtering process, so there can be chosen to wait what should be communicated and what not. After filtering the information, the half-time scores or the outcome can be published. Be clear and distinguish the official from the un-official Social Media to guarantee the correctness of information. The trustworthiness of information will always be a problem. For example online anonymity whereby everyone can post all kinds of information or provide social acceptable answers. Prioritising or ranking persons provide partial solutions. But in the end it is about the consumer being the customer and the expert making the translation of the customers demand into a product. However, the democratic perspective for using Social Media seems to disappear. On the other side, it was never democratic because there will always be experts needed to make the translation. Discussion is needed to judge whether this has negative consequences. However, it increases the controllability on its turn. The ranking should therefore be done according to the relevancy of the participant for providing information i.e. the information given by a future resident of a neighbourhood should weigh more than information given by someone that lives outside the designated development area. But as mentioned before this ranking should also not totally limit the responsible filterer/expert which can lead to overlook creative solutions, opportunities or other unforeseen problems. Ranking could help to categorise target groups and keep pieces of information public or internal available. The information filtering process can be seen as a reservoir in which each compartment consists out of different types and quality of information. Each compartment is ranked and can be judged according to that rank. Furthermore, it is helpful if ambassadors or community members can help to secure the correctness and quality of information like Wikipedia whereby the social control is very strong. There is nothing wrong when there is a mix of experts and layman. The advantage lies in the fact that both parties are forced to have contact, get into dialogue and show understanding towards each other in order to progress within the process. Furthermore, it is then possible to generate more creative solutions. The disadvantage lies in the fact that getting into dialogue and filtering information is time consuming. It is therefore important to limit the process properly by indicating the different phases of the process, i.e. when there are questions to be answered and when to progress to the next phase. Caution needs to be taken in account when cancelling the Social Media initiative because of many consequences that can follow. Therefore, it is important to fulfil the promises made and clearly explain the expectations.

199 THE INCREASING DIGITAL DIVIDE Castells (1995, 2001) explains that the emergence of the network society under the influence of ICT possibilities increases the discrepancy between spatial territories in the physical sense and the scope of economic, social, and cultural networks. Burgess, Brenner (2004); Graham and Marvin, (2001) were pointing out that spatial fragmentation, social differentiation and inequalities between regions, countries, cities and social groups is taking place with a rapid pace. One of the biggest problems is the rise of digital fragmentation or in other words a digital divide in society. This digital divide will increase and further triggered with the increasing use of Social Media. There will be a division between the ones that can access the digital world and the ones that cannot. The groups can differ from old to poor or just somebody that is not able to use Social Media. Compare this when people without a car or telephone are excluded from the decision-making process for giving form to their own living environment. In spite of Social Media being a useful tool and more than merely communication channels, it is important for players in the field of Urban Area Development to see Social Media not as tools that provide the total picture of what is going on. Social Media are no replacement of other tools. They are useful as an extension of the existing toolbox for players in the field of Urban Area Development. Social Media should be polished in being accessible and useful for anyone disregarding age, gender, income and so on. However, this is difficult to achieve. Therefore help is needed from players in the field of Urban Area Development. The Indian government for example makes it possible for students to buy the Aakash mobile tablets for just 35,-. Thereby students are stimulated to be connected. These initiatives are good examples of enabling the crowd to be accessible and connected. To illustrate, it could be possible when (re)developing a neighbourhood to set up a crowdsourcing platform and provide all relevant participants a mobile device for free, with a deposit or to be bought for an affordable price. Explanation videos online and some offline meetings can be used to set up the common understanding of the meaning of the initiative. Also physical elements can be built in the neighbourhood that function as access points to the Social Media. The digital divide will certainly increase. There are measures needed, i.e. providing mobile devices, to decrease the digital divide for growing out of proportions ending in being a problem when using Social Media and developing urban areas. These measures enable to cover enough ground to form the fundament for the Urban Area Development project. However, it is important for all stakeholders in the Urban Area Development process to contribute and take their responsibility for not letting the digital divide to increase THE INTEGRATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE URBAN AREA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Urban area development is described as the sum of a large number of complex processes performed by many individual stakeholders where they can claim a say at different scale levels. And thereby involving international competition between cities on an international stage and subject to the direct influence of events from far outside the region in question Every stakeholder has their own definition of the problems involved, and the interests of the various factors may differ markedly. (Verlaat and Wigmans, 2010). In this chapter there will be elaborated on how Social Media affect the urban area development process on the level of the different phases of the Urban Area Development process. The process of Urban Area Development is divided in four phases namely: 1) The initiatory/initiative phase 2) The planning phase 3) The realisation phase 4) The management/maintenance phase

200 THE INITIATIVE PHASE According to Van t Verlaat and Wigmans (2010) the first initiative for urban area development can originate in both the private and the public sector. In this phase, the ambition (including ambition level) of the urban area development must be laid down. In this phase the context of the project determines the elbowroom for imaginable future possibilities in the area. The achievement of this ambition is the subject of a process, wherein support will have to be found for the ambition with parties that are important in this phase, but possibly in other phases as well. It must become a common born ambition. The organisational talent comes to the fore in this phase, especially in the skill to achieve the latter, in other words: in turning everyone s nose in the same direction". Social Media enable the civic society to self-organize faster than ever and very effectively into a crowd with a common ambition. In the case of Verbeterdebuurt it is seen that organizing a crowd through Social Media made it possible for youngsters to demand a skating park to be built within six months where the municipality was first not willing to spend or allow the realisation of a skating park. Another example is Wikaza that facilitates groups of people to self-organize in building-groups to realize their own houses and the character of the public space. These are just two examples where there can be seen that the civic society demands to be listened to and have power, legitimacy and the need of urgency. According to Mitchell, et all. (1997) these are indicators to identify the importance of stakeholders. Therefore from own reasoning there can be stated that the civic society is gaining more importance because Social Media provide them to self-organize and offer a stage from where they can demand other stakeholders to listen to what they have to say. Social Media also create new business models i.e. by Crowdfunding an urban area development. And now the first initiative for urban area development can not only be initiated by the private and the public sector but by the civic society as well. This results in the need for all stakeholders to reconsider their current positions in the field of Urban Area Development. The need for a common ambition is formed by involving all stakeholders. As mentioned the achievement of this ambition is the subject of a process, wherein support will have to be found for the ambition, with parties that are important in this phase, but possibly in other phases as well. Social Media provide the opportunity to involve other stakeholders both public and closed to form a common ambition as it increases the reach, the ability to connect, generate and share information. Thus Social media can aid in turning everyone s nose in the same direction" and increase the elbowroom for solutions when developing an urban area. However this will demand proper preparation and certain competences that will be discussed later on. This results in the need to communicate more horizontal between all stakeholders and is also pointed out both in theory and in the empirical research. The need for horizontal communication does not only count for the initiative phase but for the other phases as well. However, the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders will differ per project and the objectives. Further research is needed to gain more insights how these roles are to be defined. In an Urban Area Development process, all stakeholders want to be heard but the civic society is the group that is gaining more and more importance. The civic society demands other stakeholders to listen to what they have to say. Dialogizing between all stakeholders is desirable for the progress of getting the job done. The public and the private sector cannot formulate what the civic society wants anymore without consulting the civic society. This top-down approach makes place for a more bottomup approach and thus requiring horizontal communication between all stakeholders.

201 Social Media can aid in stimulating dialogue in all phases of the Urban Area Development process to achieve both commercial and public objectives. Nevertheless there are still many pitfalls that are to be taken into consideration when using Social Media. From own reasoning and the research done there can be concluded that there is a change of the traditional way of communication in the world of urban area development from one-way communication towards dialogizing. It is important to provide a stage for the dialogue between the stakeholders. Social Media can make this dialogue transparent to increase the trust and the common understanding between all stakeholders THE PLANNING PHASE For the planning phase it is important according to Van t Verlaat and Wigmans (2010) that the sectoral and facet related aspects should be integrated in a plan having the objective to achieve the best possible spatial and functional quality. Feasibility in terms of available means should also be taken into consideration. This phase is important because of the important influence on the subsequent success of the following phases. As explained before, Social Media provide many opportunities to positively affect the sectoral and the social and socio-cultural facet related aspects. Social Media can increase the involvement of stakeholders, creating a common ambition, increasing the common understanding and gaining both social and financial support in an early phase, like the planning phase. Maybe more important is the opportunity to improve the information supply through the use of Social Media. Crowdsourcing is an important part of improving the information supply. It provides the stakeholders and the experts the opportunity to improve the plan making process by asking the crowd, which can differ from residents to professionals, what their opinion is about the plan. This gives room for finding creative and new solutions or answers on questions that never were thought of. The information supply can drastically change the way urban planning is conducted. From Mobile Social Media and 3D to using GPS positions, all available means can help to increase the amount and the quality of the information supply. To illustrate, the urban planners are able to receive information from participants using their GPS location to see the traffic patterns of people. Or it is possible for participants to send pictures from the area creating extra eyes for the urban planners. The possibilities are endless. Further research is needed to provide more insights how to organize this process. In the planning and initiative phase it is useful to start forming a community that can be used as an information source and central point to spread information. This community can than move and add value throughout all phases of the Urban Area Development process. Social Media also provide the possibility to decrease risks and provide information to weigh the risks that are involved when developing urban areas. To illustrate, by providing a stage for dialogue with the use of Social Media it is possible to get into contact with all who oppose to the project. This dialogue is transparent and creates the possibility to make an inventory of more problems and complaints, than traditionally was the case, regarding the project. It is important that the complaints are not enlarged because of the snow-ball effect that can occur on the uncontrollable Social Media. Therefore it is needed to be clear about the objectives and have certain competences and resources to be prepared. However, there will always be an expert needed to translate all the information into a feasible plan. As explained before, the filtering of information is also a challenge to overcome. These development affects the positions of experts in the field of Urban Area Development like the architect/urban planner or developer. How are these experts supposed to carve their way in the field of Urban Area Development? It is seen that the world of Urban Area Development is changing the positions of all stakeholders. This phenomenon will be especially seen in the initiative and planning phase of Urban Area Development because these are the phases to give form to a common ambition, creating a feasible plan, setting out the framework needed and all other activities concerning the launch of a project.

202 THE REALISATION PHASE Theory shows that in the realisation phase of the Urban Area Development process there is tension between the laid out outline of the plan on one hand and the need for flexibility during the execution phase on the other. The skills needed to find creative solutions for all kind of problems that pop up during the realisation phase is especially called upon during this phase. Many practical problems must be tackled decisively. All kind of reasons of the most diverse nature can result in delay (for instance, an archaeological finding in the development area, a threatened animal species living there, the discovery of soil pollution, etc.). But, the process must keep pace. However, at the same time there is heavily called upon the organisational talent to tackle these tensions in an appropriate way. As explained before, Social Media can be used to improve the organisation talent. To illustrate, the tension between the outline of the plan and the need for flexibility during the realisation can be done by i.e. using BIM technologies combined with Social Media to improve the information supply and the design process, which can deliver a new sort of design & build process. To illustrate, the Noord/Zuidlijn project perfectly shows how Social Media can aid to improve the organisational talent. Communication and transparency reached a new level in the case of the Noord/Zuidlijn. By informing the crowd as good as possible, i.e. noise nuisance or traffic delays, many problems are handled and it resulted in more room for understanding and support. During the realisation phase Social Media appears appear to function perfectly as a counter where the crowd can post their complaints, questions or positive reactions. When the managements of the Social Media are handled properly this can result in a community i.e. in the case of the Noord/Zuidlijn. But creativity can lead to more Social Media initiatives. To illustrate, Crowdfunding during a design & build process value can be added to the project by giving the end-users the possibility to pay extra for ideas that are crowd sourced. In this way value can be added, the project can increase popularity without pressuring the private or the public sector. It can also be possible to launch initiatives like build along with the local community centre or the neighbour s house to strengthen the relations within a community. In the end initiatives launched in the realisation phase also affects the success of the maintenance phase. Another idea is to create a tackle-community that consist out of professionals that can aid to tackle problems. The members of the community can be rewarded in many ways, i.e. financially or by gaining popularity. In the future there will certainly be more creative Social Media initiatives launched in the realisation phase of the Urban Area Development process. But these new initiatives will also come along with other conditions and resources needed to accomplish the objectives THE MAINTENANCE PHASE The maintenance phase of the Urban Area Development process is about managing both the public space and the buildings. During this phase organisational talent is needed to cope with the complexity in this phase. Creative solutions are to be found in a tensed arena where financial means, political priorities and cultural aspects all want to dominate. Therefore it is important to have an offensive management approach to create a continuous process, aimed at maintenance and exploitation, timely signalling of shortcomings and opportunities, and the initiating and steering of improvements.

203 Social Media offer a multitude of opportunities in this phase of the Urban Area Development process. The biggest developments are going on in the maintenance phase of the Urban Area Development process. New urban area developments are just a small part. The management of already established urban areas is a big challenge. Social Media can be used as extra tools to search for solutions in the tensed arena of the maintenance phase. By using Social Media as receptors it is possible to strengthen the offensive management approach needed in the maintenance phase to secure stability in the urban areas. An initiative like Verbeterdebuurt serves as a perfect example which used Social Media on different levels. It is possible for users of the public space to post their complaints accompanied with a picture. This information is processed by the municipality which sends the assignment to the servant of the maintenance team which receives the message on a mobile device. When the complaint is handled, the servant than makes a notion which is send to the whole community. They also provide the civic society to have both a voice and a stage i.e. two boys were able to create societal support for the realisation of a skate park forcing the municipality to meet their demand. In the case of Spoorzone Delft, there is a platform launched to offer the civic society a stage to post new ideas and create support for their ideas where the municipality then looks whether the ideas are feasible or not. But it could also be possible to Crowdfund ideas i.e. a neighbourhood fair, or the realisation of a playground and more. Even the small things can make a difference in the maintenance phase of the Urban Area Development process to increase the stability of urban areas. In the maintenance phase of the Urban Area Development process there can be thought of all kind of solutions, where Social Media can be part of, to improve the activities needed to secure stability in the urban areas. They offer the possibility to generate information and evaluate what is going on in the urban areas, being an extra pair of eyes and ears OVERALL CONCLUSION All phases of the Urban Area Development process are both negative and positive affected by Social Media. In practice this results in the boundaries between the four different phases becoming less clear. The activities that are needed to increase success can be the same during all phases of the Urban Area Development process. As explained before, Social Media usage depends more on the objectives and the context of the project rather than on the phase of the Urban Area Development process. With the advent of Social Media it is needed for all stakeholders during all phases of the Urban Area Development process to be more involved. However, this also leads to the repositioning of certain stakeholders. This will be explained later on. Social Media can be used in all phases and functions as extra tools in the toolbox of all stakeholders to undertake activities needed to get the job done in all phases of the Urban Area Development process. Being creative and staying sharp will also influence the range of use for Social Media in all phases of the Urban Area Development process. In the near future it will be possible to create the basis of a Social Media lifecycle that shows the approach and the use of Social Media for an stakeholder during all phases of the Urban Area Development process for a certain project. The case of Spoorzone Delft serves as one of the first attempts to achieve this.

204 5.2.5 SOCIAL MEDIA FORCING STAKEHOLDERS TO RETHINK THEIR POSITIONS In the theory by L. Bourne (2005) a stakeholder s significance and support depends on the situation and the issues; continuing support cannot be assumed (Savage, et al., 1991). Categorising stakeholders is based on assessing the stakeholder s power to influence the outcomes of the project, the legitimacy of each stakeholder s relationship with the project, and the urgency of that stakeholder s claim on the project, leading to specific managerial actions (Mitchell, et al., 1997). The concepts of power, legitimacy and urgency, and social network theory, (Mitchell, et all., 1997) are valuable for identifying important stakeholders, as is the idea of centrality and density (Rowley, 1997) for attempting to recognise and show the power and communication ties within the stakeholder community. Communication is both a process and an activity. It is a process for information exchange using a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviour (Cleland, 1994, PMI, 2004). Important is to understand that culture differs in each context in which an event is happening. Differences are also found on a local level because of the people living in i.e. a multicultural and dense area. Both the above mentioned theory and the empirical research led to the question; How do Social media affect the position of the stakeholders in the phases of the Urban Area Development process? Based on the theory and the empirical research it can be stated that both the public and the private sector need themselves to reposition or secure and strengthen their current positions in the field of Urban Area Development process. As mentioned before the shift towards a more bottom-up approach and horizontal communication is inevitable due to changes in society i.e. the rise of the network society. As seen in theory the stakeholders are categorized on basis of power, legitimacy and urgency by Mitchell, et al. (1997) and the idea of centrality and density of Rowley (1997). The traditional context with these aspects of power, legitimacy and urgency is changing. The citizens and other (current) users or representatives of the urban area, where urban area development takes place, form an important group that needs to be addressed. Important is to consider that the interests of these groups and future groups can be contradictive. This can also occur between owners and users of the plots or buildings. Creating support amongst these groups is important when developing an urban area (J. van t Verlaat, 2007). It is important to listen and collaborate with each other and with the civic society. Getting and staying connected and having interaction with the civic society is of utmost importance. It is about involving stakeholders in the Urban Area Development process, which is still a challenge today. This leads to a different position for stakeholders in the phases of the Urban Area Development process. Social Media create the opportunity to stay connected, interact and communicate more horizontal with the civic society. There is room to increase the density of the stakeholder management i.e. according to the social network theory of Rowley (1997). Social Media can aid from achieving commercial to public goals and from crowdsourcing to keeping the civic society updated. But the pitfalls should not be neglected, as Social Media demand the users and especially the initiators to take many preconditions in mind. Changes are needed regarding the approach towards developing urban areas, the internal organization, the management of urban area developments. Using Social Media properly will demand different competences of the professionals in the field of Urban Area Development. Both the position of the stakeholders and the aspect of leadership in Urban Area Development are affected. The shift from a rigid top-down approach to a more bottom-up approach already demands a different form of leadership. Social Media are an extra channel to communicate and generate and retrieve information. However, there is a different, more social, approach needed towards using Social Media in order to increase the chance of success. Thus the use of Social Media will surely influence the approach of Urban Area Development and thus also the leadership that is needed to

205 develop an urban area. Which form of leadership is appropriate will differ per project. It is important to consider what the consequences are when leadership changes and there is a repositioning of stakeholders in the Urban Area Development process. For now the influences of Social Media on leadership in Urban Area Development are still a blank spot. Traditionally the public or the private sector would initiate urban area developments. But with the rise of internet and Social Media it has become possible for the civic society to self-organize themselves and accumulate their interests to a common shared interest or demand. When this common shared interest or demand is formed it enables the civic society to initiate or stop an urban area development. The influence of the civic society thus has increased and will increase further. As a result the civic society becomes a third party that can initiate an urban area development and play an important role as a stakeholder. Social Media increase the importance of the civic society, will change leadership and thus create opportunities and pitfalls in the playing field of Urban Area Development. For all players in the field of Urban Area Development these opportunities can be seized or they can fall in one of the pitfalls. This forces the public and the private sector to rethink their role and their approach towards developing urban areas. The civic society is not able and will not be able to solve the abundance of problems that comes along and converge all the information to give form and implement an urban area development. However the civic society can position themselves as an initiator of an urban area development. Help will still be needed from the private sector and the public sector to have a successful outcome of the project. This means for: 4) The Private sector; The private sector consists out of many stakeholders ranging from investors, banks, builders to the developers, architects, urban planners and many more. The private sector strives to achieve commercial goals and sometimes social goals as well. The developer can be seen as the spider in the web. The developer represents the transition from the planning phase to the realisation phase. Realising the plan and creating turnover with an as high as possible margin and a small capital is the most important objective of the developers. The art of working together is thus crucial for the developer. (Putman, 2010). In other words, the organisational talent of the developers needs to be effective and efficient in order to achieve success. It is currently trending that more stakeholders in the private sector are more involved and sometimes take leading roles in integrated urban area developments. Architects and urban planners have a huge impact on the total urban area development. These stakeholders are also part of the private sector. Estate agents also play a part in urban area development, namely in the realisation phase as an intermediary for selling buildings; this counts for the property management phase as well. Estate

206 agents can also play a part in the pre-trajectory of urban area developments: when determining the market potentials of an area. This is because they have a high degree of market knowledge, even though this is seldom long-term oriented. All these private sectors often take financial risks upon themselves both short and long term. By responding and anticipating better to the demand of the market, it is possible to reduce the risks. Their position is as mentioned before threatened as they need to collaborate with all other stakeholders. Social Media enable them to seize the opportunities to secure and strengthen their current position or conquer a new position as a capable stakeholder that is able to give form and implement urban area developments. But also to identify the pitfalls in order to avoid them or better, provide solutions to keep making progress. The civic society is no expert in the field of Urban Area Development and needs help from experts that are capable to formulate a feasible plan. The public sector sometimes need help from the private sector to get things done, and vice-versa. 5) The Public sector; The municipalities and other public institutions set out the public law (zoning plans, building permits, and so on), but can also be utilised in private law, namely when an approach for municipal land development is pursued (also called active land policy). They can also play part as a (co)building developer (when significant municipal interests are involved). But the so called role of director" of urban area developments can also be taken upon by the municipality; in other words, the process management of the urban area development. Because the public sector has is powerful, they are often involved in the process of Urban Area Development. It is the task of the public sector to serve the civic society and set out a total management of an area/country that envisions stability and progression. They have to achieve and secure public goals. Social Media enable them to seize the opportunities to secure and strengthen their current position or conquer a new position as a capable stakeholder, that is able to give form and facilitate urban area developments in order to meet the demand of the civic society and improve the living quality. But also to identify the pitfalls in order to avoid them or better, provide solutions to keep making progress to fulfil the job. The civic society are no experts and they need help. The private sector sometimes needs help from the public sector to get things done, and vice-versa. 6) The Civic society; As mentioned before the citizens and other (current) users or representatives of the urban area, where urban area development takes place, form an important group that needs to be addressed. Important is to consider that the interests of these groups and future groups can be contradictive. Other stakeholders need to understand that creating support amongst these groups is important when developing an urban area. (J. van t Verlaat, 2007). The civic society demands other stakeholders to listen to what they have to say. The civic society is seizing the opportunities to secure and strengthen their current position or conquer a new position as a capable stakeholder that is able to demand or stop an urban area development. Because the civic society is understanding more and more how to create an organized voice it is more important for other stakeholders to underline this phenomenon. However, the civic society needs to understand that they are no experts and cannot see the total overview of Urban Area Development i.e. what all the consequences would be when building a road. They need help from the public and private sector to launch feasible projects. Interesting to see is that the civic society is able to create collective power faster and easier, which was a lot more difficult in the past, with the use of Social Media. This collective can be seen as the new client for whom there should be an urban area designed, developed and maintained. The private sector and public sector are not the leading entities anymore. This trend is already seen with the CPC s, Collective Private Commission or in Dutch Collectief Opdrachtgeverschap. Social Media stimulate the rise of more CPS s.

207 To illustrate, Wikaza facilitates the self-builders to organize themselves better and strengthening their voice. With this happening both the public and private sector will need to serve these CPC s. This influences their position in the traditional top-down construction to take in a less hierarchical, more equal, position. It is seen that the involvement of stakeholders is increasing more and will increase even more in the future. It is needed to have a higher involvement, referring to the social network theory by Rowley (1997). For the public and private sector this means that they cannot fall behind in developing Social Media wisdom and using Social Media and reconsider their position. Compare this with sustainability as a trend, years ago, which resulted in all players in the field of Urban Area Development to reconsider their position and their activities. It was needed for all to think about sustainability, which resulted in a permanent character of sustainability, making it part of their organization structure and activities. The same is expected for Social Media. But stakeholders need to address and understand the necessity to be properly prepared and have clear objectives when using Social Media. This process is an iterative process of trial and error. Social Media wisdom will aid in bridging cultural and social barriers, connect and interact with each other, to communicate more horizontal and transparent and to strengthen the position or conquer new positions within the field of Urban Area Development. To illustrate, AM, Dura Vermeer and Heijmans use Social Media to understand their target-groups, get into dialogue and in order to develop almost total custom projects. Social Media has conquered a place in the design and develop process as a tool. Furthermore, the stakeholders that are to be involved during the erection and maintenance of the Social Media initiatives differ per project and depend on the objectives of the project. Stakeholder involvement can change during the project and depends on the progress of the project. The expectations of the involved stakeholders also differ per project and per phase of the project. Therefore it is of great importance to identify stakeholders beforehand to be prepared for unforeseen circumstances. The involved stakeholders or target-groups, that need to be reached, also determine the range of use for Social Media usage in a project. To illustrate, the Social Media team of the Noord/Zuidlijn combined offline visits/meeting to understand who their target-groups were. They even tried to set up sub-communities for neighbourhoods surrounding the subway. It is important to understand with whom to communicate or cooperate. To increase the chance of success for a project it is important to have all stakeholders to listen to and understand each other. This will demand the responsible persons of the Social Media initiative to develop social competences.

208 5.2.6 USING SOCIAL MEDIA, AN ITERATIVE FILTERING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS As mentioned earlier the process of filtering information is an iterative process whereby the information supply keeps continuing, during a process whereby the purpose of the process strives to achieve a goal that is set, starting from nothing. When the goal is achieved the process can then start-again. All phases of the Urban Area Development process are characterized by this iterative information filtering and decision-making process when using Social Media. This process shows that there is a certain hierarchy whereby the one that filters or the expert decides which information is taken along and which information is left behind. In the case of Urban Area Development one can best speak of an urban professional acting as an intermediate that is capable to arbitral filter the information. This expert is situated on the boarders of filtering the continuing information supply while maintaining the total overview of the process, that strives to achieve the goal that is set. The risk of discrimination and missing opportunities or problems by the expert will always be present. It is thus clearly seen that both the vertical approach and horizontal approach, when using Social Media in Urban Area Development, are clashing. This makes it difficult to join Social Media and Urban Area Development. Still Social Media offer a range of possibilities to improve the Urban Area Development process. Furthermore, one has to be prepared to devote themselves in doing their best to make optimal use of Social Media. However, there will always be an expert needed that is capable to translate the information into useful material to achieve the goals. To illustrate, the developer AM only filtered the information during the crowdsourcing project of Haarzicht. But they did not attach conclusions to the information, this task was left for the urban planner to interpret and translate the information. The responsibilities should be laid down and made transparent for all i.e. the case Haarzicht where the developer AM only filtered the information, where the translation of the information into a plan was made by an urban planner, who is the expert in that field. But there is a clear objective needed to filter information. It is evident that not all opinions and other information can be taken along in the process. There are still questions like; Is the urban planner needed to filter the information at the very

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