Decision support for biotechnological produced peptides in a design stage by Sustainability Assessment.

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1 Decision support for biotechnological produced peptides in a design stage by Sustainability Assessment

2 Decision support for biotechnological produced peptides in a design stage by Sustainability Assessment Principle approach and example Ulrike Bos Stefan Albrecht Oliver Schuller

3 Content Introduction of LBP-GaBi, University of Stuttgart Sustainability Analysis Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Costing Life Cycle Working Environment BASE project Modelling example from BASE Conclusions Slide 3

4 Introduction Department Life Cycle Engineering (GaBi) Founded in 1989 by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Eyerer (IKP), since 2006 at the Chair of Building Physics (LBP) of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Phys. Klaus Sedlbauer Interdisciplinary team of 12 full time academic staff (Chemical, mechanical, environmental and process engineers; geoecologist) Kanada USA - Ni/Cu/Co Hersteller - Zn/Pb-Hersteller - Autohersteller - Verschiedene Werkstoffhersteller Chile -Kupfer Brasilien - Erzabbau - erneuerbare Ressourcen - Elektronik EUROPA -Chem. Industrie LBP RSA - Edelmetall -Cr, Si -andere -Al, Mg, Si Werft... -Kupfer -Stahl -Seltene Erden Korea Japan China Malaysia Indonesien -Sn, Ta - Autohersteller - Haushalt Elektr. Maschinenhersteller -Gummi -LNG Australien - Mineralhersteller -Erzabbau - Kohle/Gas Herst. Industry and research projects on ecological-economic-technical analysis and decisionsupport of products, processes and services Methodology development (Life Cycle Engineering and Sustainability, substance flow analysis, Indicators) Software and database development and maintenance (GaBi software, DfE-tools) Slide 4

5 LBP-GaBi Methods and services Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) / Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Product and Process Optimisation Design for Environment (DfE) Product Development Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) Sustainability Assessment environmental / economic / social Environmental Management Support EMAS, ISO Energy Efficiency Analysis (EEA) Material Flow Analysis (MFA) Greenhouse Gas Accounting Technology and Site-Benchmarking Software and Database Development and Update Slide 5

6 LBP-GaBi Fields of Work and Research Building and Construction Building and Construction Inventory and impact data of all important Inventory and impact data of all important building materials building materials LCE of windows and facades LCE of windows and facades LCE of building modules and of whole buildings LCE of building modules and of whole buildings System Analysis of heating systems System Analysis of heating systems Eco-Design-Tool "Build-it" for prefabricated Eco-Design-Tool "Build-it" for prefabricated houses houses Electric and Electronic Industry Electric and Electronic Industry Inventory data of materials: Inventory data of materials: - precious metals, flame retardants, - precious metals, flame retardants, polymers, ceramics, polymers, ceramics, Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) of Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) of electronic components and products electronic components and products Design-for-Environment (DfE) Design-for-Environment (DfE) with GaBi-approach with GaBi-approach Recycling Recycling LCE of recycling processes: LCE of recycling processes: - material recycling, - material recycling, - raw material recycling and - raw material recycling and - energetic recycling - energetic recycling Material flow models for waste Material flow models for waste incineration plants incineration plants Energy Supply, Commodities, Materials Energy Supply, Commodities, Materials Model of power stations, energy supply chain, country-specific power-mixes Model of power stations, energy supply chain, country-specific power-mixes Supply of all important organic, inorganic and metallic commodities and Supply of all important organic, inorganic and metallic commodities and materials. Mostly for different producing processes; country-mixes materials. Mostly for different producing processes; country-mixes Co-operating Partners Co-operating Partners Automotive and Mobility PE Europe, Fraunhofer-Institut Chemische Automotive and Mobility PE Europe, Fraunhofer-Institut Chemische LCE of selected parts in automotive industry: Technologie, ETH (Zurich), IWB (University LCE of selected parts in automotive industry: Technologie, ETH (Zurich), IWB (University - materials, parts, processes of Stuttgart), CMU (Pittsburgh), CRC - materials, parts, processes of Stuttgart), CMU (Pittsburgh), CRC LCE of subsystems in automotive industry: (Australia), CSIR (South Africa), UBC LCE of subsystems in automotive industry: (Australia), CSIR (South Africa), UBC - alternative drive system fuel cell, new fuels (University of California at Berkeley), NIRE - alternative drive system fuel cell, new fuels (University of California at Berkeley), NIRE LCE of coating plant in automotive industry: (Japan)... LCE of coating plant in automotive industry: (Japan)... - system optimisation - system optimisation Decision support in automotive industry Decision support in automotive industry LCE of whole cars (e.g. for VW, DaimlerChrysler) LCE of whole cars (e.g. for VW, DaimlerChrysler) LCE of diff. transport systems (truck, ship, railway) LCE of diff. transport systems (truck, ship, railway) LBP Renewable Raw Materials LBP Renewable Raw Materials Dept. Life Cycle Engineering... of Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery (fibres, Dept. Life Cycle Engineering... of Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery (fibres, Univ.-Prof.-Dr.-Ing.Dipl.-Phys. K. Sedlbauer wood, energy carriers, commodities, Univ.-Prof.-Dr.-Ing.Dipl.-Phys. K. Sedlbauer wood, energy carriers, commodities, Dipl.-Ing. M. Fischer polymers, foods) Dipl.-Ing. M. Fischer polymers, foods) and 10 Scientists and 10 Scientists Developments and Projects: Software System GaBi 4 Developments and Projects: Software System GaBi 4 Methodology, software, database GaBi Software for Life Cycle Engineering Methodology, software, database GaBi Software for Life Cycle Engineering DfE-tools and additional specialsoftware based on GaBi Impact Assessment data of all important raw Database with Life Cycle Inventory data and DfE-tools and additional specialsoftware based on GaBi Impact Assessment data of all important raw Database with Life Cycle Inventory data and materials, energy carriers, chemical materials, energy carriers, chemical intermediates, polymers, metals, transport intermediates, polymers, metals, transport systems etc. systems etc. Development of Methodology: Development of Methodology: Design-for-Environment (Integration of LCE into developing tools) Design-for-Environment (Integration of LCE into developing tools) Life Cycle Sustainability (Integration of socio-economic aspects) Life Cycle Sustainability (Integration of socio-economic aspects) Analysis of material flow (e.g. energy and material network management, Analysis of material flow (e.g. energy and material network management, ZeroEmission-System Analysis) ZeroEmission-System Analysis) Slide 6

7 LBP-GaBi and PE International- Industry Partners Automotive industry i.e. DaimlerChrysler, Porsche, Renault, Delphi,... Materials industry i.e. Alcan, Borax, Falconbridge, Amplats, ThyssenKrupp... Building industry i.e. Maxit, Heidelberger, Saint Gobain, STO, Electronic Industry i.e. Motorola, Nokia, Bosch, LG Electronics, Sony, Chemistry industry i.e. DOW, BASF, DSM, PPG, Dmc2, Surface technology i.e. BASF, PPG, Dürr, DuPont Energy Supply i.e. NWS, NIRE/MITI, NorskHydro, Icelandic NewEnergy,... End of Life / Recycling i.e. DGfH, ECVM, Siemens, Noell, Thermoselect, Development and distribution of GaBi Software-system and databases in co-operation with our partner PE International GmbH LBP / PE International co-operation builds the world wide biggest LCA working group Slide 7

8 Content Introduction of LBP-GaBi, University of Stuttgart Sustainability Analysis Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Costing Life Cycle Working Environment BASE project Modelling example from BASE Conclusions Slide 8

9 Sustainable development - History and definitions Brundtlandt Report (World Commission on Environment & Development, 1987) sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development:. integrates economic progress and ecology, putting them on a parallel where decisionmaking and legislation aim towards maximizing growth while improving the environment aims for social equality between and within generations Slide 9

10 Sustainability Analysis Sustainability is according to the Brundtland Report (1987) defined as equal consideration of Environmental (by LCA - Life Cycle Assessment) Economic (by LCC - Life Cycle Costing) and Societal aspects (by LCWE Life Cycle Working Environment) supplemented by Technical characterisation of products, processes and services. Slide 10

11 Sustainability Analysis LCA (environmental) Continous data updates and controlling Data collection Inventory Data evaluation Characterization Decision tool Decision Goal and Scope definition Preparation of a decision economic technical environmental Structure of costs Technical Characterization Impact analysis technical C t w economic Environm. u social Company specific goals social Social profile Slide 11

12 Methodology for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Assessment Analyzing life cycles Impact assessment Global Warming, Ozone Depletion, Summer Smog, Acidification, Eutrophication, Human-Toxicity, Eco-Toxicity, Land use Resource Consumption (Materials and Energy Carriers) Emissions & Waste Life Cycle Inventory OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT INPUT Resources Life Cycle steps Raw material extraction Production of intermediates Production of main product Utilisation Recycling, recovery, deposition... Life Cycle phases P r o d u c t i o n p h a s e Use phase End-of-life phase Slide 12

13 Life Cycle Assessment according to DIN ISO LCA framework Goal and scope definition Inventory analysis Impact assessment dfhj Interpretation Direct applications Product development and improvement Strategic planning Public policy making Marketing Slide 13

14 System boundaries from gate to gate to cradle to grave Emissions Gate Gate to to gate gate Intermediates Intermediates Resources Exploitation Exploitation Preparation Preparation Production Production Utilization Utilization Disposal Disposal Emissions Energy Energy Cradle Cradle to to gate gate Cradle Cradle to to grave grave Slide 14

15 Environmental Parameters within the Life Cycle Engineering approach Material (kg) Intermediates (kg) Environment: All important material and energy flows are collected. Product (amount) Intermediates (kg) Energy (MJ) By-products (amount) Waste (kg or m 3 ) Emissions (kg) Slide 15

16 Life Cycle Assessment - Modeling of a system Raw Raw materials materials Main Main products products Primary Primary products products Additives Additives Process Process 1 Process Process 2 Process Process 3 Co-products Co-products Emissions Emissions to to air air Auxiliary Auxiliary materials materials Emissions Emissions to to water water Energy Energy Residues Residues Products Materials Energy Waste Waste Energy Energy System boundary Process 3 Main products Co-products Emissions Waste Process Processn Slide 16

17 Impact Assessment Aggregation of inventory data to impact categories Resources... Emissions to air CO 2 CF 4 CH 4 N 2 O NO x SO 2 HCl HF... Emissions to water Phosphate NH 3 NH 4... CO 2 CF 4 CH 4 N 2 O NO x SO 2 HCl HF GWP 100 (kg CO 2 Equiv.) Σ GWP i * Emission i [kg] Σ GWP AP (kg SO 2 Equiv.) 0,7 1 Σ AP 0,88 i * Emission i [kg] 1,6 Σ AP EP (kg Phosphate Equiv.) NO x 0,13 Phosphate 1 Σ EP i * Emission i [kg] NH 3 0,33 NH 4 0,33 Σ EP Slide 17

18 Aggregation of single factors to potentials GWP = Σ i GWP i * kg i AP = Σ i AP i * kg i Hundreds of emissions are aggregated to a few potentials! Slide 18

19 Content Introduction of LBP-GaBi, University of Stuttgart Sustainability Analysis Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Costing Life Cycle Working Environment BASE project Modelling example from BASE Conclusions Slide 19

20 Sustainability Analysis LCC (economic) Continous data updates and controlling Data collection Inventory Data evaluation Characterization Decision tool Decision Goal and Scope definition Preparation of a decision economic technical environmental Structure of costs Technical Characterization Impact analysis technical C t w economic Environm. u social Company specific goals social Social profile Slide 20

21 Environmental and Economic Parameters within the Life Cycle Engineering Approach Material (kg) Material ( ) Intermediates (kg) Intermediates ( ) Energy (MJ) Energy ( ) Working time (h) Working time ( ) Machines (h) Machines ( ) Environment: All important material and energy flows are collected. Economic: All costs for material and energy flows, machines and working time are collected. Product (amount) Product ( ) Intermediates (kg) Intermediates ( ) By-product (amount) By-product ( ) Waste (kg oder m 3 ) Waste ( ) Emissions (kg) Emissions ( ) Slide 21

22 Concepts of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) The concept of Life Cycle Costing answers several questions where the addressee is a) A user of a product is interested in the potential costs that are connected with the use phase or the end-of-life of a product Principle of Total Cost of Ownership. TCO sums up costs related to the usage of a product: Acquisition costs, operational costs and end of life costs like energy consumption, maintenance, water use, disposal/recycling costs. b) A single company or consortium of companies which work together in the development or manufacturing of a product: In this case the addressee is interested in several steps of the value chain Concept is called Total Production Cost. production process chain Costs Costs Costs Distributor Costs Process 1 Process 2 Process n Product value Client Profit Profit Profit Slide 22

23 Content Introduction of LBP-GaBi, University of Stuttgart Sustainability Analysis Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Costing Life Cycle Working Environment BASE project Modelling example from BASE Conclusions Slide 23

24 Sustainability Analysis LCWE (societal) Continous data updates and controlling Data collection Inventory Data evaluation Characterization Decision tool Decision Goal and Scope definition Preparation of a decision economic technical environmental Structure of costs Technical Characterization Impact analysis technical C t w economic Environm. u social Company specific goals social Social profile Slide 24

25 Environmental, economic and social parameters Process model according to the sustainable life cycle approach Material (ecol. profile) Materials (costs) Materials (manpower) Energy (ecol. profile) Energy (costs) Energy (manpower) Machines (ecol. profile) Machines (costs) Machines (manpower) Manpower (ecol. profile) Manpower (costs) Manpower (manpower) Environment: All All material material and and energy energy flows flows are are collected collected Economic: All All costs costs for for material material and and energy energy flows, flows, machines machines and and working working time time are are included included Manpower: All All human human labor labor including including qualification qualification will will be be considered considered Products (ecol. profile) Products (Price) Products (manpower) Intermediates (ecol. profile) Intermediates (Price) Intermediates (manpower) Waste (ecol. profile) Waste (costs) Waste (manpower) Emissions Emissions Emissions Slide 25

26 Social indicators addressed in LCWE 1 Qualified Working Time (QWT) -Establishment of qualified jobs and support of socio-economic welfare- Duration of work Qualification profile of work Training / Qualification on the job 2 Health & Safety of Working Time (HSWT) -Protection of human health- Lethal and non-lethal accidents Heaviness of work (noise, dust, heat, cold, contact with irrigating or unhealthy substances, odour etc.) 3 Humanity of Working Time (HWT) -Humanity and flexibility of working conditions- Worst forms of child labour Child labour Forced labour Right to organise in trade unions Slide 26

27 Content Introduction of LBP-GaBi, University of Stuttgart Sustainability Analysis Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Costing Life Cycle Working Environment BASE project Modelling example from BASE Conclusions Slide 27

28 BASE - bio-based functional materials from engineered selfassembling peptides Project goal: Funding: Advancing the science and technology of sustainable and functional materials, specifically innovative nano-coating for plastics, metals and ceramic objects, exploiting the self-assembly capabilities of short (<25) amino-acid sequences (peptides) in industrially relevant applications. 6FP[FP NMP-TI-3-main] Project duration: 01/ /2008 Coordinator: Partners: Project content: Dow Benelux B.V. USTUTT, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations, Center for Electrochemical Research and Development, Mare Engineering s.r.l., Procter & Gamble Eurocor N.V., Ghent University, SupraPolix BV, University of Leeds, Interchem Hellas S.A., Fudan University, University of Queensland BASE targets innovative nano-coating for plastics, metals and ceramic objects, exploiting the self-assembly capabilities of short and amino-acid sequences (=peptides) in industrially relevant applications. Main task of LBP:sustainability study to assess the environmental, economic and societal impact of the biopeptide production and the novel applications of these self-assembling materials. Slide 28

29 BASE - bio-based functional materials from engineered selfassembling peptides Self-assembly of short (< 25) amino acid sequences at surfaces boundary leading to industrially relevant nano-coatings applications conditions through inexpensive, large scale bio-technological engineering. This project received research funding from the European Community s Sixth Framework Programme under Project number Slide 29

30 BASE - early design stage approach LBP is in the BASE project responsible for the sustainability analysis environmental, economic and social aspects of biopeptide production and proposed applications will be examined. The analysis for the biopeptides is made: on an early design stage where the material and its biotechnological production route is in the development phase. for possible applications with the biopeptides which have to be identified and evaluated. Sustainability analysis is carried out in two steps: Comparison of different biotechnological production routes. Comparative assessment of targeted/specified applications (peptide application vs. conventional solution). Slide 30

31 Principle approach for sustainability assessment applied in BASE 1) Biotechnological production process development 2) Development of possible applications 3a) Modelling and comparison biotechnol. production routes 3b) Life Cycle Modelling 4) Sustainability Assessment of Life Cycle regarding LCA, LCC, LCWE 5) Decision support Slide 31

32 Principle approach for sustainability assessment applied in BASE 1) Biotechnological production process development 2) Development of possible applications 3a) Modelling and comparison biotechnol. production routes 3b) Life Cycle Modelling 4) Sustainability Assessment of Life Cycle regarding LCA, LCC, LCWE 5) Decision support Slide 32

33 1)Biotechnological production process development Laboratory synthesis of known peptides and their evaluation Experimental biosynthetic production of peptides Fermentation process using yeast (pichia pastoris) Fermentation process using bacteria (E.Coli) Slide 33

34 1)Biotechnological production process development Pichia Pastoris route (yeast) pre culture fermentation A fermentation B fermentation C cleavage filtration precipitation and spray drying E.coli route (bacteria) e.coli culture media fermentation filtration e.coli homogenisation cleavage precipitation filtration Vacuum distillation/spray drying peptide pure solid peptide pure solid Slide 34

35 Principle approach for sustainability assessment applied in BASE 1) Biotechnological production process development 2) Development of possible applications 3a) Modelling and comparison biotechnol. production routes 3b) Life Cycle Modelling 4) Sustainability Assessment of Life Cycle regarding LCA, LCC, LCWE 5) Decision support Slide 35

36 2)Development of possible applications Identification and derivation of possible applications and determination of principle competing applications serving as a benchmark. Exploring the coating capacity of tailored peptides for various substrates and environmental conditions and their functionality evaluation for selected applications. LCA, LCC, LCWE regarding the life cycle to assess the environmental, economic and societal impact of these novel applications. Possible application Anti-microbial coating Aircraft de-icing Improving of several filtering properties Anti corrosion coating... Slide 36

37 Principle approach for sustainability assessment applied in BASE 1) Biotechnological production process development 2) Development of possible applications 3a) Modelling and comparison biotechnol. production routes 3b) Life Cycle Modelling 4) Sustainability Assessment of Life Cycle regarding LCA, LCC, LCWE 5) Decision support Slide 37

38 3)Life Cycle Modelling Modelling and simulation of the entire life cycle of each BASE-peptide and competing application in professional LCA Software GaBi4. For example: De-Icing of Aircrafts with ethylene glycol vs. peptide coated wings Production Ethylene/ propylene glycol Production Utilisation phase End of Life Production of de-icing H 2 O Mix with water Spraying on aircraft De-icing Emission Additives Energy Effluents Slide 38

39 Principle approach for sustainability assessment applied in BASE 1) Biotechnological production process development 2) Development of possible applications 3a) Modelling and comparison biotechnol. production routes 3b) Life Cycle Modelling 4) Sustainability Assessment of Life Cycle regarding LCA, LCC, LCWE 5) Decision support Slide 39

40 4)Sustainability Assessment of the entire life cycle Sustainability assessment regarding ecological, economic and societal impacts over the entire life cycle. Optimisation potentials of the biotechnological production of BASE-peptides. Sustainability assessment of the BASE-peptides targeted application and their principle competing applications. Comparison of options. Decision support in design stage when choices have to be made e.g. between different products, production processes or raw materials. Slide 40

41 Principle approach for sustainability assessment applied in BASE 1) Biotechnological production process development 2) Development of possible applications 3a) Modelling and comparison biotechnol. production routes 3b) Life Cycle Modelling 4) Sustainability Assessment of Life Cycle regarding LCA, LCC, LCWE 5) Decision support Slide 41

42 5)Early stage decision support The development is responsible for the technical, economic and environmental performance of a system. The expenditure (costs, energy, waste, etc.) takes place in production-, usage- and endof-life phase (consequences of the R&D phase). Slide 42

43 Content Introduction of LBP-GaBi, University of Stuttgart Sustainability Analysis Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Costing Life Cycle Working Environment BASE project Modelling example from BASE Conclusions Slide 43

44 BASE: Modelling in GaBi examplarily for de-icing application Slide 44

45 BASE: Modelling in GaBi examplarily for de-icing application Slide 45

46 BASE: Modelling in GaBi examplarily for de-icing application Slide 46

47 BASE: Modelling in GaBi aggregated LCI data for 1kg BASE peptide Slide 47

48 Content Introduction of LBP-GaBi, University of Stuttgart Sustainability Analysis Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Costing Life Cycle Working Environment BASE project Modelling example from BASE Conclusions Slide 48

49 Conclusions and future activities LCA modelling of biotechnological production process is ongoing in parallel with technical development. Uncertainties occur because the development of peptide production has not been completed. LCA modelling of applications and their principle competitors are in progress. Adaptations of the applications and the functional units have to be done in parallel with technical development. For the holistic view of the production process of biopeptides and their proposed application data collection for LCC and LCWE is in progress. Weak point analysis will identify main drivers of environmental and economic impacts. Approach how to assess totally new developed technical material attributes/features, e.g. self healing surface due to self assembling properties, has to be discussed and set up. Slide 49

50 Contact Dipl.-Geoökol. Ulrike Bos Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Albrecht Universität Stuttgart Lehrstuhl für Bauphysik Abteilung Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung Hauptstrasse Echterdingen Germany Tel. ++49(0) Fax ++49(0) Slide 50

51 Backup Slide 51

52 LCI Assessment: Global, regional and local impact assessment categories Global Criteria Resource depletion Global Warming Potential (GWP) Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Regional Criteria Acidification Potential (AP) Land use Local Criteria Human and Eco Toxicity Potential (HTP / AETP / TETP) Eutrophication Potential (EP) Photochemical Oxidant Creation Potential (POCP) Other Criteria Disturbances (Noise, odor, demand on land fill sites) Slide 52

53 Life Cycle Efficiency Analysis: Evaluation steps Material properties technical criteria Process properties Assembly Utilization... Evaluation economic criteria Life cycle costs Qualitative internal criteria Qualitative external criteria Resources Climate change environmental criteria Ozone layer depletion Acidification Human health... Overall efficiency evalucation Efficiency evaluation Criteria Weighting Slide 53

54 Data for LCC and LCWE For modelling LCC and LCWE data is needed as for example: Prices of products, intermediates and resources as well as production costs Location of the plant that is considered (which country) Yearly output of a product of a certain plant Lethal and non-lethal accidents Number of employees at the certain plant Number of female employees Qualification level of the employees Slide 54

55 Implementation of LCWE into GaBi 4 software The LCWE functionality is implemented since 2003 The LCWE database is presently build up to be made available around late 2007 Slide 55

56 Results of LCWE modelling Lethal accidents for 1 kg Polyamid 1,00E-08 9,00E-09 8,00E-09 lethal accidents [cases] 7,00E-09 6,00E-09 5,00E-09 4,00E-09 3,00E-09 2,00E-09 1,00E-09 0,00E+00 Polyamide from corn Conventional polyamide Slide 56

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