Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need

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1 12 Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need After studying this chapter, you will be able to explain the trends in society that have led to a growing need for child care services. describe the reasons quality child care is important. list the major characteristics of a quality child care program. describe the role of the administrator of a child care program. identify factors that influence entrepreneurial decisions in child care. Throughout history, families have sometimes needed help and support in caring for their children. Fortunate families were able to count on nearby relatives, neighbors, friends, and older siblings. Many children grew up and stayed in the same community where their parents had lived their whole lives. Children played in safe neighborhoods. They knew trusted adults were keeping an eye on them, 1-1. As times have changed, families have also changed. Families now relocate more frequently. More mothers with young children are working to make ends meet. More families are headed by a single parent. Traditional support systems are not always available. New dangers threaten the safety of young children. The pressures of modern life make successful parenting more difficult than in the past. Why Is There a Growing Need for Child Care? Societal changes have brought an increased need for child care services. Unfortunately, the supply has not kept up with the demand. For many families, child care is simply not available. There is a shortage of trained individuals to staff child care programs. Several factors have contributed to the increased need for child care. These include the growth of single-parent families a shortage of skilled workers changing opportunities for women family economic need for two incomes 11 Growth of Single-Parent Families Today, more children are growing up in single-parent families. This has led to an increased need for child care. Current statistics reveal that one out of every four children will live with a single parent by age 18. Some children will spend their entire childhood with only one parent available to them. This lone parent must provide family income, nurturance, guidance, and basic care. Under the best of situations, single parenthood is hard work. It can often be stressful for both parent and child. Life becomes more difficult when poverty, custody battles, lack of education, and isolation from traditional support services are added. When these additional factors are a part of the family s 1-1 In this neighborhood, children can feel stresses, the quality of life for children can be secure in knowing that caring adults are compromised. nearby. Currently, one-half of all marriages will end in divorce. Many of these divorced couples have children young enough to require constant care and supervision. The custodial parent, typically the mother, often has to work outside of the home, creating a necessity for child care. There has also been an increase in the number of single, never-married parents. Many of these parents are very young. They need help with child care in order to finish their basic education and to help them learn parenting skills. Lack of an education substantially increases the risk of poverty and instability for a family. Many communities and schools view the availability of child care as an essential service to help young parents stay in school. Factors other than divorce, such as the death of a parent, result in a single-parent family. One parent s job transfer, commuter marriages, or a parent s need to care for elderly family members may cause family separations. Military commitments, job training opportunities, or parental incarceration may also separate families. Child care for these children can mean contact with additional compassionate, caring adults. Shortage of Skilled Workers The U.S. population is changing. The average age of U.S. citizens is rising. This means people are living longer and moving out of the workforce into retirement. Fewer young people are approaching adulthood and moving into the workforce to take the places of those retiring. U.S. Department of Labor studies predict there will be a labor shortage in the future. There simply won t be enough trained people to fill all of the jobs that will need to be done. At the same time, there will be young adults with little education, job skills, or training who will be unable to find work. Their opportunities will be limited to the most menial of jobs at the lowest wages.

2 Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program Census statistics and school enrollments portray a reasonably accurate representation of the number of young people at each age level. These statistics indicate how many people are growing up, going to school, pursuing advanced education, or dropping out each year. There is concern that the coming shortage of skilled workers in many fields will harm the vitality of the U.S. economy. In past years, most mothers of young children stayed at home to provide child care. Employers recognize these young mothers are a valuable labor source. However, without adequate child care, many mothers are unable or unwilling to return to work. Lack of quality child care programs and trained people to staff them are significant barriers. As employers begin to consider ways to bring mothers back into the workforce, child care has been identified as a major draw. Many employers are taking an active role in trying to make more child care available. Director s Dilemma You are deciding whether you want to open a new child care center. Everyone tells you there is a need for more services to families and children. Do you think they are right? Consider your family, the families of friends, and families in your neighborhood. Do you know any single-parent families with young children? Are you acquainted with young couples who both have careers? What kinds of child care arrangements are young families making in your neighborhood? Community organizations, such as chambers of commerce, service clubs, health care providers, and institutions of higher education, are examining the need for child care. Changing Opportunities for Women Historically, most women in the United States stayed home to care for their children. Many worked in traditionally female careers, such as nursing, teaching, or clerical work. There were few other choices available. Today, women are employed in virtually every career field. The women s movement of the 70s, federal antidiscrimination legislation, and the need for women in the workforce brought about this change. Now there are expanded opportunities for jobs in fields that had been closed to women in the past. As women have found challenging and financially rewarding opportunities open to them, their interest in pursuing careers has increased. More women are continuing their education beyond the secondary level. A woman who has spent time and money on education in preparation for a challenging career is less willing to give that up for full-time motherhood. If a woman takes time off to care for a young child, she may find there is no job when she is ready to go back. If she has goals for advancement, the opportunities can be lost by taking time out for child rearing. Women with high career aspirations desire quality child care, 1-2. For today s women, interesting career directions have not come without a cost. Many in America still hold to the idea that women should be home with their children. They see women s careers as undesirable and unnecessary. There has been a reluctance to acknowledge the changing nature of families and work. This opposition to the added responsibilities of women has been partly responsible for the lack of organized effort on behalf of comprehensive child care. For women with little education, job opportunities, even at a menial level, can be nonexistent. Since single mothers who cannot get jobs often receive public assistance, job training programs have been initiated. One goal of these programs is to help women become gainfully employed. If a trainee has young children, child care will be a necessary part of helping her participate in training. It will also support her efforts to find eventual employment. The expanded need for child care services is directly linked to the movement of women into the workforce. As women develop interesting, satisfying careers, some are reluctant to risk losing opportunities by staying home when their children are young. Family Economic Need for Two Incomes Economic conditions have made it more difficult for young families to establish comfortable 1-2 Today, a large number of women with standards of living. Many of the new jobs created have been minimum wage jobs with no young children are in the labor force and need quality care for their children. health insurance and few other benefits. Young families, especially those headed by individuals without special job skills or advanced education, find it difficult to survive financially without income from both spouses. Even when both spouses are working at minimum wage jobs, the family will still have an income level that is below the federal poverty standards. Many Americans have dreams of home ownership, a college education for their children, adequate health and retirement insurance, a comfortable lifestyle, and financial stability. These have become increasingly difficult to achieve on a single income. For many young families, building a family life similar to what they experienced growing up requires the income of two working parents. The result is a need for child care while both parents work. Two-career families often delay parenthood until their careers are well established. Today, it is not uncommon for women in their thirties to be starting their families. At this point in their lives, these older families have an established lifestyle and financial security that they are unwilling to jeopardize. Although the juggling act required to balance career and parenthood is difficult and stressful, these families feel it is worth it. They have contributed to the increased demand for child care services. Why Is There a Need for Quality Child Care? Currently, in the United States, the quality of child care varies widely. Regulations for child care services are different in each state. The current system of both private and public programs has resulted in many choices for some families and no room at all for others. A large amount of information now exists on the positive outcomes for children who attend quality preschool programs. Research indicates the impact of good early childhood care and educational experience can be long lasting, 1-3.

3 Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program The most widely reported research on the effects of preschool comes from long-term research conducted by the High/Scope Foundation in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Children from lower-income families who were enrolled in a quality preschool program as early as the mid-sixties have been followed into adulthood. They have been compared with a similar group of children who did not attend preschool. Throughout the childhood and young adult years, the impact of the preschool program was clear. The children who attended preschool were more likely to score higher on school achievement tests have less need for special education classes stay in school until graduation get into less trouble with the law avoid becoming teen parents become gainfully employed as young adults In general, attitudes toward school and skills for success in school were improved by participation in a good-quality early childhood program. The children who participated in the research have now been studied through adulthood to age 40. The data documents that society benefited over the 35 years of the study by a return of $17 for every dollar invested in quality early care and education programs. Other research has shown good programs also nurture creativity. They help children develop positive social skills. They also provide opportunities for children to develop thinking and problem-solving skills. Concerned parents are looking for programs that provide positive experiences for their children. Many community and government officials are also convinced about the value of quality programs. Custodial programs, those programs that do nothing more than keep children safe, are no longer considered acceptable. Serious efforts are being directed toward improving the availability of good programs. What Makes a Good Program? 1-3 Good child care experiences can have positive life-long effects for children. Good programs for children have certain common qualities. They are planned to meet the needs of children. Each of the following characteristics is important in planning a quality program, 1-4. Trained Teachers and Staff Good programs have good teachers! Good teachers understand stages of child development and learning. They have had education that prepares them to work with groups of young children. Training in child development, family and consumer sciences (formerly home economics), or early childhood education prepares teachers to meet children s needs. They are better able to make decisions about program activities and guidance. They know where to go for information. Trained staff also understand that working with young children is a challenging job requiring careful thought and planning. States vary in terms of the training required for different positions. Some states require fouryear college degrees for teachers and administrators. Child development specialists and the major professional organizations in this field recommend this requirement. Other states require a two-year degree (Associate s Degree) for these positions. In some states, a combination of child development coursework and on-the-job experience is acceptable. In general, there is an increasing awareness that trained personnel are necessary for a good program. All states currently have some requirements regarding acceptable levels of staff education and/or training in their licensing requirements. Good Programs Have: Trained teachers and staff Low adult-to-child ratio Small group size Developmentally appropriate activities Child-initiated activities Clearly defined curriculum Positive guidance Parent involvement 1-4 Quality programs for children have certain important characteristics in common. Low Adult-to-Child Ratio Young children need warm, supportive, on-going relationships with consistent, caring adults. They need adults who know them well and understand them. If an insufficient number of adults are assigned to a group of children, the overall quality of care is diminished. When the adult-to-child ratio is too high, each caregiver has a larger number of children under their care. As a result, more time must be spent on basic care routines. Staff has less time to spend interacting with each child, helping them learn, and addressing individual needs. Staff members are more likely to be stressed when they are responsible for a large number of children. When the adult-tochild ratio is low, there are more adults for the group. Each child is able to have individual attention from an assigned primary caregiver. Program activities can be planned with each child in mind. State licensing requirements identify adult-to-child ratios for the different age groups of children. These vary from state to state. In general, younger age groups require more adults than older age groups. Small Group Size Most state licensing standards also regulate the maximum number of children that can be in a group based on the ages of the children in the group. Young infants and toddlers must be in smaller groups. Older preschoolers can be in slightly larger groups. As the group becomes larger, each child must try to cope with both more children and adults. The types of activities that can be planned are limited. The individual attention that each child receives is reduced. Even when the adult-to-child ratio is low, large groups result in a more chaotic environment. Chances are greater that a child's needs will not be responded to appropriately in a larger group.

4 Developmentally Appropriate Practices The program of daily activities is a central part of a quality center. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is a professional organization of people who work in the child development field. It is particularly concerned with identifying characteristics of excellent programs for young children. NAEYC has developed a position statement that defines good programming as using developmentally appropriate practices. This Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need 17 Director s Dilemma A friend wants to open a center with you. Your friend believes that all you have to do is buy some toys and let the children play all day. How would you explain quality programming to your friend? What kinds of conflicts might arise between the two of you if your friend is not interested in providing quality care? means that equipment, activities, and guidance are carefully tailored to the developmental characteristics and needs of each group. The concept and position statement have received a lot of favorable publicity. They are being used as the basis for revised regulations and planning learning environments in several states. Planning developmentally appropriate activities for young children requires a teacher knows age characteristics of the children in the group knows the types of equipment and activities preferred by the age group knows how to prepare the classroom and activities for optimum use knows how to plan concrete, hands-on experiences understands the progression of development, so activities can be matched to children s developmental readiness knows each child s unique characteristics knows where to go to get new ideas understands how to create a positive, supportive learning environment is sensitive to the social and cultural context in which each child lives A program that has a good daily program of developmentally appropriate activities requires careful planning. It doesn t just happen. There must be a match between what the children are ready for and the activities available to them. Teachers need to plan the room arrangement and select appropriate equipment. They have to plan the daily schedule, including special activities and group time activities. A good program for young children will fascinate and challenge them. It will not bore or frustrate them. When children are in a quality program, they will look forward to the day s activities. They will end the day feeling successful and good about themselves. The children will take naturally to those activities that are appropriate to their developmental level, Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program 1-5 These children are fascinated by activities geared to their developmental level. 1-6 Child-initiated activities allow children to explore and learn at their own pace. Child-Initiated Activity Young children also benefit from being able to make choices and pursue their own interests, 1-6. Classrooms must allow many opportunities for children to set their own pace. This is a unique kind of teaching that is not common to classrooms for older children. Teachers must be able to recognize the differences that will exist within a preschool classroom. Children will have different background experiences. They will have different interests and talents. They will have different growth rates and varying attention spans. It is unrealistic to think they will all enjoy and benefit from doing the same thing at the same time. Planning child-initiated activities allows children to have some control over their activities and helps them to feel responsible for their actions. They grow in their ability to plan activities and to make choices. Allowing them to control the amount of time they spend on a particular activity can encourage deep involvement and lengthened concentration. By contrast, those programs that are heavily teacher-directed and tightly structured lead to a sense of frustration in children. They tend to feel powerless. It is important that children be given a block of free-choice time. During that time, children can choose among the activities the teacher has made available. They are helped to become initiators of activity instead of becoming individuals who only respond to the suggestions of others. Clearly Defined Curriculum A good program is characterized by a clearly defined curriculum. Caregivers and group leaders are knowledgeable about the age characteristics of their groups. They agree on the basic principles of how young children learn, what they need to know, and how they should be taught. Caregivers are consistent in the guidance used. The level of structure and caregiver control is similar in each classroom. While staff may demonstrate their individuality in certain aspects of their classroom, they agree on the fundamentals of how teachers should facilitate learning and the day-to-day structure of a program.

5 Positive Guidance Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need 19 Good programs are also characterized by staff who use positive guidance when guiding children. There is an understanding that children need gentle guidance to help them grow. Positive guidance helps children learn what behaviors are acceptable. It is matched to the age level and understanding of the children. This is in contrast to negative forms of guidance that focus on what the child does wrong. Negative guidance is often based on unrealistic expectations of children s behavior. It is often harsh and makes children feel worthless and incompetent. Shame, humiliation, embarrassment, threats, and physical punishment are examples of negative guidance. In a good center, staff provides guidance based on each child s needs, rather than responding to children s behaviors emotionally. Children are not overwhelmed by rules. When limits are necessary, the children are given simple explanations that help them to understand the logic of the adult world. Positive guidance is a teaching tool in the classroom. Children are always treated with a respect that helps them grow in self-confidence and self-control. Harsh, demeaning types of control and punishment have no place in the preschool classroom. They work against the goals of a quality program. Parent Involvement Young children s concerns focus primarily around their families. The family is the most important factor influencing them. Any program that wants to have a positive impact on children must include parents. Parents and staff need to share pertinent information regarding the children. Children benefit most when parents and staff communicate with each other. Teachers are often the first to detect special needs. Parents will know if a child has had an upsetting experience outside of school. Good programs involve parents in many ways. Some have parents represented on the governing board. Others plan special activities for children and parents together. Parents can help with fund-raising activities and providing ideas for future planning. There may also be opportunities for parents to volunteer in the classroom or to attend parent education classes. Parent involvement helps parents feel they are an important part of the center. It allows for additional interaction between the staff and parents. Parents are more likely to share important information about their child if they feel comfortable with the teachers. They will feel a sense of commitment to the center if they understand its goals and methods. What Will Be Your Role as the Director of a Center? Directors of child care programs have certain responsibilities that are necessary to ensure the center can operate effectively. The difficulty in carrying out these tasks may be affected by the nature of the center. Small centers with few classrooms are usually easier to administer than large ones. Centers that offer a wide variety of services to families will be harder to direct than less complex programs. 20 Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program Perhaps you hope to open a center of your own. This can bring a great deal of personal satisfaction, but it may also entail additional work and commitment, 1-7. Some of the personal characteristics and resources needed to successfully own a center may be different from those needed when you work for someone else. Administering a Child Care Program A child care program needs a director who has a broad overview of the total program, whether it is large or small. It is the director who holds things together and understands how the different parts of the program relate to 1-7 This director is proud of all the children and one another. A teacher focuses primarily on the families her program has served. classroom. The bookkeeper pays attention to the financial records. However, it is the director who must recognize how the budget relates to the cost of keeping the classroom in operation. It is also the director who must be goal-oriented and able to guide the program toward a successful future. Responsibilities of the Director In general, the responsibilities of a child care program director include providing leadership and overall organization for the program finding ways to provide adequate funding for the center choosing well-trained staff who can create a quality program for the children maintaining an awareness of community trends and family needs to plan future direction for the program communicating clearly with staff and being aware of how things are going throughout the program representing the program at various meetings and within the community evaluating and improving weak areas of the program You will learn about each of these areas as you study the chapters in this book. Personal Skills and Abilities Needed to Be a Director It is helpful to examine your personality and abilities as you consider pursuing a career in child care administration. In a small center, you may be handling the administrative tasks and working directly with the children. As your program grows, the

6 Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program administration becomes more complex. The administrative work may become a fulltime position. You may have no direct responsibilities with the children. Characteristics of a successful director include having good interpersonal skills that include a basic respect for all being knowledgeable about both child development programming and administrative responsibilities possessing leadership, problem-solving, and team building skills having the self-confidence to be an independent decision maker having the ability to organize being willing to take on responsibility being willing to work hard, even beyond actual working hours when necessary being flexible in adjusting to necessary, but unexpected, interruptions The director has a unique role within the center. While working comfortably with staff, families, and outside agencies, the director must also be comfortable working independently, 1-8. As the boss of the center, you will find it necessary to develop personal friendships and relationships with people who are not involved with the program. Educational Requirements Many young people start their education for child care administration in high school vocational and/or technical programs. There is a trend for these programs to provide supervised work experience in child care settings as a part of their program curriculum. The competencies attained and the completion of coursework may support entrance into a junior or community college or a four-year college degree program. Strong knowledge of core early childhood competencies along with the work experience may prepare students to apply for the Child Development Associate credential. This credential is approved as acceptable preparation for a variety of early childhood related jobs according to state-mandated regulations. The qualifications for being a child care program director vary from state to state. They are determined by the licensing regulations. The number of children enrolled in the center may 1-8 A child care center director has many administrative responsibilities. Are You Ready to Be an Entrepreneur? Successful entrepreneurs have certain characteristics. Use the following checklist to help you determine whether you have those characteristics. Check those characteristics you feel describe yourself.* I really want to own my own business and be my own boss. I like to set goals for myself and then work toward them. I like to take responsibility for making things work. I'm not foolhardy, but I am willing to take a moderate risk to make my dream happen. By the time I am ready to open my center, I will have studied child development, developmentally appropriate practices, and child care administration. I am willing to work long hours and do whatever needs to be done to make the center a success. By the time I am ready to open my center, I will have money to invest in the project. I am sure I can make my center a success. I have good ideas and want the chance to give them a try. *If you answered "yes" to a majority of these statements, you may have the characteristics of an entrepreneur. 1-9 Do you have the characteristics of an entrepreneur? influence the required qualifications of the director. Programs with larger numbers of children and staff may be required to have a director with more education. Each state may also set different educational requirements for various types of programs. Currently, there is a movement in some states supporting the development of a director's credential. This credential would spell out specific educational requirements for directors of early childhood care and education centers. Qualifications for directors of half-day nursery school-type programs may be different than those for directors of full-day child care programs. Directors of infant/toddler programs may need different training than individuals planning to operate large programs with multiple age groups. You will need to find out what the specific requirements are in your state in order to plan your career preparation. How Do I Open My Own Center? You may have a dream of owning and operating your own child care center. You probably like the idea of being independent and working with children. If you plan to start your own child care business, you will be considered an entrepreneur. An entrepreneur is a person who is willing to take the risk that opening a new business involves. The entrepreneur also expects the new business venture will be successful and earn a profit. In most new businesses, the owner also works as the manager or director. Being an Entrepreneur There are many successful entrepreneurs in the United States. However, there are also many individuals who consider opening their own program and decide against it, at least for a while. They may prefer to work for other private or publicly funded programs. This is a decision you need to think over carefully. Successful entrepreneurs typically have a number of characteristics in common, 1-9.

7 Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program Willingness to Take a Reasonable Risk Starting a business involves the risk that it may not be successful. What will you have lost and what will you do if the center does not enroll enough children to continue to operate? Knowledgeable About Child Care and Business Factors Director s Dilemma You have inherited some money from a deceased relative. You are trying to decide whether to use the money to open a new center. What should you consider before committing your money to this venture? Your chances of success are much greater if you know about what it takes to operate a successful center. Courses in child development, child care administration, and experiences working directly with children and families improve your chances. The risk of opening a center would be high for someone with no training in the field. However, your knowledge about child care administration will make the risk a more reasonable one. This course in administration will help you become familiar with the basic business techniques that are necessary to create a financially stable program. Hardworking and Responsible If you start your own center, you will quickly find out being your own boss is hard work. Entrepreneurs feel a need to be sure everything is going as it should. They keep a close eye on center activities. They may do the work of several people in order to save money. They may pitch in and help with menial tasks in order to get a job done. They take the responsibility of doing whatever needs to be done to keep the program functioning smoothly. Goal-Oriented A successful child care entrepreneur has a strong desire to start and own a child care center. If you are just thinking about starting a center because someone else thinks it is a good idea, you are less likely to be successful. Most successful entrepreneurs are very definite about their goals for center ownership within a specific time frame. Self-Confident and Innovative Entrepreneurs have belief in their own abilities to succeed. They are creative in finding new and better ways to create a successful program. They are not afraid to try out new ideas. Advantages and Disadvantages of Entrepreneurship There are both advantages and disadvantages to starting your own business. Many capable individuals decide business ownership is not for them. As you study this course, your own goals for your career will probably become clearer. There are several important advantages to owning your own program. They include Independence and personal satisfaction. Owning your own center gives you the freedom to create the very best center you can. As long as you conform to all licensing and regulatory requirements, you can bring your own ideas to the operation of the program. The decisions made about the program are your ideas. You can take pride in the success of the program. There is usually a deep sense of satisfaction in seeing families and children benefit from your program. Profit. As the owner of a program, you will receive any income left over after expenses have been paid. The time and effort you put into making the center successful will come back to you in the form of increased profit. Job security. As an entrepreneur, you are not subject to the whims or business practices of others above you. You cannot be fired, transferred, or forced to retire. As long as your center is financially healthy with a strong enrollment, you will have a job. Status. Business ownership is valued highly in the United States. As a program owner, you would have a social status above many others in the workforce. There are also several important reasons why you may choose not to become an entrepreneur. Among the reasons are Low or unpredictable income. Child care is an expensive business to operate. Tuition must be kept low enough to attract families. Salaries must be high enough to attract employees. Supplies and equipment must be adequate to support a quality program. If the center has low enrollment for a period of time, the profit may be minimal. Loss of investment. As an entrepreneur, you will have to invest your own time and money to start the center. If the center is not successful, you may lose all of the money and effort you have put into it. Along with those losses, you would also have lost your job. Hard work. Most business owners work long hours and do whatever is necessary to get the business started. Successful child care centers usually offer care for more than eight hours a day. Your staff will only work part of that time. As the owner, you may find yourself finishing up menial tasks, required reports, and even equipment repair. Hiring others to do these jobs would require additional cash outlay. You will need to consider all these factors in deciding whether or not owning your own center is really for you.

8 Summary Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need 25 Societal changes have increased the need for child care services. The rising number of single-parent families has contributed to this trend. Mothers have opportunities available to them for more diverse careers. Often, young families find two incomes are needed to provide them with adequate financial resources. Projections for the future indicate there will be a significant lack of educated workers. This means even more parents with young children will be taking jobs in the future. There is a serious shortage of available quality child care services. Although the benefits of a good preschool experience are recognized, many families cannot find appropriate care. Government, communities, and employers are looking at ways to support the growth of new and expanded programs. Good programs for children have many similarities. Teachers and staff have special training to understand children and their needs. Activities and equipment are carefully chosen to match the interests and abilities of the children. The adult-to-child ratio is low and the overall group size is age-appropriate and not too large. There is a clearly defined curriculum. Positive guidance is warm and supportive. Successful experiences with adults, other children, and activities help children grow and learn. The director must be familiar with all of the program. It is the director s responsibility to make sure all licensing and regulatory requirements are met. The director must plan for the future, guide the program toward financial security, and ensure quality care is being provided. Individuals who decide to own and operate their own centers can be defined as entrepreneurs. Not everyone has the personality or resources to become an entrepreneur. Successful center owners must be knowledgeable about the field of child care and have confidence in themselves. They are willing to work long hours and to take the risk of investing their own money. Terms custodial programs developmentally appropriate practices child-initiated activities positive guidance negative guidance entrepreneur Review 1. Identify four trends in society that have led to the need for more child care. 2. Explain why the quality of child care varies widely. 3. List six long-term benefits that have been related to attendance in a quality early childhood program. 4. Explain why custodial care is no longer considered acceptable. 26 Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program 5. What is the purpose of NAEYC (National Association for the Education of Young Children)? 6. Identify four factors teachers must consider when planning developmentally appropriate activities. 7. Explain the difference between child-initiated and teacher-directed activities. 8. Explain why the director of a child care program must have a broad overview of the entire program. 9. Identify four areas of responsibility that directors of child care programs must address. 10. List three advantages and disadvantages of becoming an entrepreneur. Applications 1. Invite several young working parents to your class to discuss how they made child care decisions. 2. Survey child care centers in your community. What ages do they serve? How many children do they serve? What are their hours of operation? 3. Interview an entrepreneur about the risks and benefits involved in opening a new business. 4. Talk with other students in your class to find out how many of them want to own and operate their own centers. How many of them want to become directors for already existing centers? 5. Find out what the requirements are in your state to become the director of a child care center. Additional Reading Bredekamp, S. (ed.) (1994). Accreditation criteria and procedures of the national academy of early childhood programs. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Brown, Janet F. (ed.) (1984). Administering programs for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Cherry, C., Harkness, B., and Kuzma, K. (1978). Nursery school and day care center management guide (rev. ed.). Belmont,CA: Pitman Learning, Inc. Click, P. (2004). Administration of programs for young children (6th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. J. P. Shonkoff and D. A. Phillips (eds.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Decker, C., and Decker, J. (2005). Planning and administering early childhood programs (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

9 Chapter 1 Quality Child Care: Today s Growing Need Part 1 Organizing a Quality Child Care Program Doherty-Derkowski, G. (1995). Quality matters: Excellence in early childhood programs. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley Publishers Limited. Galinsky, E., and Friedman, D.F. (1993). Education before school: Investing in quality child care. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc. Hearron, P., and Hildebrand, V. (2003). Management of child development centers (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hewes, D., and Leatherman, J. (2005). An administrator's guidebook to early care and education programs. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc. Koralek, D., Colker, L., and Dodge, D. (1993). The what, why, and how of high-quality early childhood education: A guide for on-site supervision. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Phillips, D. (ed.) (1987). Quality in child care: What does research tell us? Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Phillips, D., and Howes, C. (1987). Indicators of quality child care: Review of research. In D.A. Phillips (ed.), Quality in child care: What does research tell us? Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Rust, F., and Williams, L. (eds.) (1989). The care and education of young children: Expanding contexts, sharpening focus. New York: Teachers College Press. Schiller, P., and Dyke, P. (1990). Managing quality child care centers: A comprehensive manual for administrators. New York: Teachers College Press. Schorr, L. (1997). Common purpose: Strengthening families and neighborhoods to rebuild America. New York: Doubleday Publishing Co. Schweinhart, L.J., Montie, J., Xiang, Z., Barnett, W.S., Belfield, C.R., and Nores, M. (n.d.). Lifetime Effects: High/Scope Perry preschool study through age 40. (Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 14). Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press. Forthcoming. Schweinhart, L.J., Barnes, H.V., and Weikart, D. P. (1993). Significant benefits: High/Scope Perry preschool study through age 27. (Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, 10). Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press. Sciarra, D., and Dorsey, A. (2003). Developing and administering a child care center (5th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning. Shoemaker, C. (2000). Administration and management of programs for young children (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall, Inc. Taylor, B. (2002). Early childhood program management: People and procedures (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Weikart, D. (1989, March). Hard choices in early childhood care and education. Young Children, Zinn, M., and Eitzen, D.S. (1999). Diversity in families (5th ed.). Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman. You can determine the needs for child care in your community by talking with parents.

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