1 Ref. Ares(215) /7/215 EU Agricultural and Farm Economics Briefs No 7 June 215 EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 214 An overview of estimates of of production and gross margins of milk production in the EU Contents Need for monitoring milk margin 1. Production have increased since Gross margins: a lot of instability over the past years Annex: methodology In the current market and policy context, tracking the milk margins is essential for policy makers and stakeholders. DG Agriculture and Rural Development has built a tool for the monitoring of milk production and margins. The milk margin monitoring tool is based on the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and overcomes the time-lag in its data availability by using price-trend information from DG Agriculture and Rural Development and Eurostat. Given the availability of information, the tool provides estimates after the end of the reporting quarter (see methodology in Annex). This brief presents the most recent estimates of EU milk production and margin up to the last quarter of 214. After falling in 29, milk production increased progressively and continuously afterwards. They reached a peak in the first quarter of 213, and they had some fluctuations in 214. The overall increase between 27 and 214 is of more than 2%. Developments in milk production per tonne are mainly driven by changes in the cost of purchased feed and energy. The seasonality of milk production also plays a role in quarterly trends: milk yield is higher after calving in the second quarter, which results in lower production /tonne. Between 27 and 29, the average EU milk margin dropped by 4 % due to the milk-price fall. It recovered afterwards in spite of rising operating thanks to the continuous increase in milk price. However, the last five years have been characterised by big variations from one year to another, and even from quarter to quarter. 213 and 214 exemplify this phenomenon: in the first quarter of 213, gross margin was 3 % below the average level of the last five years. Then, driven by first a decrease in operating and later the upward milk price trend, gross margin reached record levels towards the last quarters of 213, to fall again 3% below the average by end 214. Margin developments will also be available at the Milk Market Observatory website. EU Farm Economics Briefs are available on the FADN website: Agriculture and Rural Development
2 1. Production have increased since 27 EU 1 milk production 2 per tonne increased by 8 % between 27 and 28 (Figure 1). This was mainly driven by a rise in feed cost, and more particularly in purchased feed. Costs then dropped by 9 % in 29, mostly driven by purchased feed. They have been steadily increasing since, at the pace of +7 % between 29 and 21, +8% between 21 and 211 and +9% between 211 and 212. As a result, production per tonne were more than 25 % higher in 212 than in 29. In 213 and 214, milk production would in average be stable, but there is an overall increase of more than 2% for the period between 27 and 214 (see Figure 1). Figure 2 shows the quarterly trends in the last two years. After a sharp decrease of more than 1% in the second quarter 213, thanks mostly to a significant decrease in the price of purchased feed and to higher milk production, 3 milk operating have since been increasing again at a pace of nearly +2% per quarter until the end of 213. In 214, there will be some fluctuations, with a decrease of 8% in the second quarter, an increase of 7% in the third quarter and a slight increase of around 5% in the fourth quarter. The methodology applied to estimate and margin is explained in the annex. Figure 1 EU Milk operating Figure 2 EU Milk operating quarters 213, 214 & 215 (estimates) 15 Other direct inputs Contract work Machinery and building upkeep Milk levy purchased feed 28= Taxes Energy (fuel, electricity) Other specific Herd renewal purchases homegrown feed Source: DG AGRI (EU FADN, Model of allocation of for milk, Information from market units) and ESTAT price indices. e: estimate. 1 "EU" refers to the EU-27 aggregate. Data for Croatia will be available in the FADN from the 213 accounting year onwards. In this brief, the most recent FADN data are from In this brief, production refer to operating. They include feed, veterinary, upkeep of machinery, energy, contract work, taxes on land and buildings. They do not include depreciation, wages, rent and interests paid, nor opportunity for family labour and assets.. 3 The seasonality of milk production plays a role in the development by quarter: milk production is higher in the second quarter and makes production per tonne lower. EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 214 2
3 2. Gross margins: a lot of instability over the past years Years 21 to 213 have been characterised by a steady increase in of production. Likewise, after the dramatic drop of 29, milk price has generally been trending upwards. These developments in prices and have an impact in the EU milk gross margin (see Box 1 in Annex), which has experienced a lot of variations over the past seven years, with significant lows in 29 and 212, followed by subsequent recoveries (Figure 3). When looking more closely at the development of gross margin during the quarters of 213 and 214, it appears contrasted (Figure 4a). Figure 3 EU Milk price, operating and margin per tonne, annual data = Milk price Gross margin Operating Increasing milk price and decreasing operating in 213 triggered a continuous increase in gross margin, with a peak in the last quarter of 213, when it was close to 3% higher than in 28. However, gross margin started to fall continuously during 214 due to declining milk prices and picking up, with sharp decreases in the last two quarters. In the fourth quarter of 214, it was nearly 3% lower than in 28, and at the level of the first quarter of 213. These developments show that there can be a lot of variation from one quarter to another. Figure 4a EU Milk price, operating and margin per tonne, quarterly data (estimates) 28 = Milk price Operating Gross margin Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q4 Figure 4b EU Milk price, operating and margin per tonne, quarterly data (estimates) 28 = Milk price 28 = Operating 28 = Gross margin Source: DG AGRI (EU FADN, Model of allocation of for milk, Information from market units) and ESTAT price indices. e: estimate. EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 214 3
4 Annex Box 1: Milk gross margin: definition In this exercise, we focus on the gross margin, which correspond to milk revenues minus operating, defined as follows: - Revenues: milk and milk products revenues exclusively - Operating : specific (feed, veterinary ) and other non-specific operating (upkeep of machinery, energy, contract work, taxes on land and buildings ) The reader should keep in mind that labour, land and capital still have to be paid out of the remaining amount. Likewise, it should be noted that neither receipts from 'by-products' of milk production (calf, cull dairy cow) nor subsidies (except coupled ones) are taken into account on the revenue side. More information on these aspects and on income of dairy producers can be found in the EU dairy farms report (FADN website). Box 2: Principles of the method The milk margin follow-up tool built by DG Agriculture and Rural Development aims to monitor the trend of the EU milk margin up to the most recent possible market situation. It is based on FADN data and price and yields indices from different sources (market units of DG Agriculture and Rural Development, EUROSTAT). FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network) is a European system of sample surveys that take place each year and collect structural and accountancy data relating to the farms. Costs are given for the farm as a whole, not by enterprise. Therefore, in order to calculate milk production and margins, it is necessary to allocate part of the farm to the milk enterprise (see Box 3). Furthermore, because of the time needed to collect, check and correct the data from all the EU Member States, data are available with a time-lag: the most recent FADN data available at the time of drafting this brief were for the 212 accounting year. That is why, for the purpose of the tool, it is necessary to estimate the years 213, 214 and the quarters of 213 and 214 (most recent indices information available at the time of creating the tool) (see Box 4 and Box 5). Box 3: The allocation of to the milk enterprise The EU FADN unit has created several models to estimate and margins for the various products: arable crops, milk and beef, and permanent crops. These models allocate farm to a particular product using different ratios. The schema below illustrates the principles of the model for the allocation of for milk. Costs at farm level Allocation to milk Purchased feed for grazing livestock, Farm use of non-fodder crops, Specific forage (seeds, fertilisers, crop protection) X DLU/GLU + Milk herd renewal, Milk levy + Other specific livestock (veterinary ) X DLU/TLU + Specific + Total milk operating Machine and building upkeep, Energy, Contract work, Taxes and other dues, Other direct, Taxes on land and buildings, Insurance for farm buildings X MO/TO + Non specific + DLU/GLU: DLU/TLU: MO/TO: Dairy livestock units / Grazing livestock units Dairy livestock units / Total livestock units % of milk output & subsidies in the total output & coupled subsidies EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 214 4
5 To obtain reliable estimates of production and margins, it is necessary to focus on specialised dairy farms. To qualify as such, a farm has to dedicate more than 4 % of its production potential to milk production. On top of this main criterion, an actual specialisation rate of more than 35 % is required. In FADN 212, sample farms fulfilled these criteria. The total number of dairy cows represented by these FADN farms corresponds to 84 % of the total number of dairy cows. Box 4: The estimates for the years 213 and 214 The yield, output, operating and gross margin for 213 and 214 are estimated on the basis of milk yield indices, milk price indices and detailed input price indices. Specific indices for each Member State are used. In the Member State where the accounting year does not correspond to the calendar year, the underlying data are adjusted using the same methodology (indices) to fit the calendar year (which is not the case in the EU dairy farms report). It is assumed that structures (number of cows per farm, input quantities) remain unchanged as compared to the base year (212). The sources of the indices used are the following: - For milk price: DG Agriculture and Rural Development - For milk yield: EUROSTAT databases - For purchased feed: EUROSTAT databases when available, DG Agriculture and Rural Development FEEDMOD (adjusted) otherwise - For other inputs: EUROSTAT databases (Agricultural prices and price indices). These estimates are calculated at individual farm level using FADN information system. This allows distribution analysis. Box 5: The quarterly estimates in 213 and 214 The estimates of the quarters seek to closely monitor the situation for dairy farmers. The estimates of 213 quarters are made to enable comparison of each quarter of 214 with its equivalent the year before. The output, operating and gross margin for quarters are estimated at aggregate level (EU groups and Member State level) on the basis of milk yield indices, milk price indices and simplified input price indices for feed and energy. The aggregate level and the simplified indices make it possible to obtain quick results. For milk price and purchased feed, we use the same source as mentioned above. The milk yield is taken from the Medium Term Outlook done by DG Agriculture and Rural Development. For energy, after investigating the available data, we used the EU weighted average of the Consumer prices of Heating gasoil inclusive of duties and taxes, after having adjusted it to better fit our historical data series. For home-grown feed, the oil price index has been applied to the fodder produced on the farm (to reflect the trend in seeds, fertilisers, crop protection to produce the fodder) and the purchased feed index has been applied to the grain part of the feed (the grains are valued at market price in FADN so that is the best index). The seasonality of milk production is taken into account: For 214, the actual fluctuations of milk production during the year have been applied (average share of milk production by quarter at national level). This document does not necessarily represent the official views of the European Commission Contact: DG Agriculture and Rural Development, Unit Economic Analysis of EU agriculture Tel: / European Union, Reproduction authorized provided the source is acknowledged EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 214 5
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