C h r i s t i a n L e r c h, M a t t h i a s G o t s c h, N a d e z d a W e i d n e r & A n g e l a J ä g e r

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1 SERVICE OFFERS AS COMPETITIVE STRATEGY IN INDUSTRIAL FIRMS Why strategic relevance not necessarily leads t o service success C h r i s t i a n L e r c h, M a t t h i a s G o t s c h, N a d e z d a W e i d n e r & A n g e l a J ä g e r F r a u n h o f e r I n s t i t u t e f o r S y s t e m s & I n n o v a t i o n R e s e a r c h I S I, K a r l s r u h e, G e r m a n y S p r i n g S e r v i t i z a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e, A s t o n,

2 Fraunhofer is the Largest Organization for Applied Research in Europe more than 80 research institutions, 66 of them Fraunhofer Institutes employees, primarily with natural or engineering science training 1.9 billion research volume annually Fraunhofer ISI: Staff: 230 Budget 2012: over 21 million 350 research and consultancy projects per year Fraunhofer ISI in Karlsruhe Seite 2

3 Competence Centers of Fraunhofer ISI Seite 3

4 Service offers as competitive strategy in industrial firms - introduction Trend of servitization; service offers are highly diffused in manufacturing industries (see e.g. Baines et al. 2009; Lay et al. 2010; Dachs et al. 2013; Wise/Baumgartner 1999; Vandermerwe/Rada 1988) But still a significant share of industrial firms struggles with its serivce business (e.g. Gebauer et al. 2005) One possible reason for this situation may be seen in the relevance of services as competitive strategy of industrial firms (e.g. Velamuri et al. 2011) Combining products and services leads to competitive advantage (see Vandermerwe/Rada 1988) Differentiation strategy in mature industries (see e.g. Robinson et al. 2002) Bundles of products and services as innovation strategy for industruial firms (Möslein/Kölling 2007) Basic question: Are industrial firms, which compete by services (so-called service strategists), more successfull with services than other comparable firms? Seite 4

5 Service offers as competitive strategy in industrial firms research questions Explorative statistical analysis to get first insights and focusing on the following questions: What are the characteristics of service strategists and what is their role in the servitization of manufacturing industries? What are managerial implications for industrial firms concerning the differentiation through services against competitors? Definition: Service Strategists are classified as those industrial firms, who report services as first or second most important comptitive factor for differentiation against competitors The statistical analysis is basing on data of the German Manufacturing Survey 2012 (see Jäger/Maloca 2013), which..is part of the Euopean Manufacturing Survey (http://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/isi-en/i/projekte/fems.php)..is conducted every three years in the entire German manufacturing industries..holds a representative data sample of approx companies (every round) Seite 5

6 Some Key Figures for Servitization in German Manufacturing Industries 85 % of all industrial companies offer at least one service 14.5 % average share of turnover with services (6.5% directly, 8% indirectly invoiced) 17 % of all service providers don t generate any turnover with their service offers! (service turnover gap?!) Especially companies with traditional service offers are affected Providers of simple and medium-complex products are more affected 20 % of all service providers can t number their service turnover 8.5 % differentiate by service offers (are so-called service strategists) Seite 6

7 Service strategists by industrial sector 8.5 % = share of service strategists in German Manufacturing Industries Printing and paper industry Food and beverage industry Other industry sectors Computer and electronics industry Metal industry Petroleum, rubber, plastic and chemical industry Glass and ceramics industry Automotive industry Machinery and equipment industry Wood and furniture industry 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Share of service strategists per industry sector Source: German Manufacturing Survey 2012, Fraunhofer ISI Seite 7

8 Share of service strategists Service strategists in industrial sectors 30,0% 25,0% 20,0% 15,0% Food and beverage industry Printing and paper industry Sectors with large share of service strategists (traditionally lower service orientation) Sectors without any trend concerning service strategists (trad. lower/medium service orientation) 10,0% Chemical industry Computer and electronics industry 5,0% Wood and furniture industry Metall industry Glass and cheramics industry 0,0% 45,0% 55,0% 65,0% 75,0% 85,0% 95,0% Share of service providers Automotive industry Machinery and equipment industry Sectors with traditionally high service orientation Seite 8

9 Service strategists by firm characteristics Service strategists Company Size Product development Batch Size Product Complexity Service Strategists in % Non Service Strategists in % Total n up to 49 employees 9,8% 90,2% to 249 employees 8,2% 91,8% and more employees 6,4% 93,6% 204 Customer s specifications 7,4% 92,6% 653 Stand. program incl. variations 8,6% 91,4% 420 Standard program 13,6% 86,4% 147 Not existing 7,1% 92,9% 98 Single batch size 9,7% 90,3% 372 Small/medium batch size 8,3% 91,7% 721 Large batch size 7,0% 93,0% 229 Simple products 8,7% 91,3% 253 Medium complex products 9,5% 90,5% 663 Complex products 6,3% 93,7% 397 Source: German Manufacturing Survey 2012, Fraunhofer ISI hold a higher share of small and medium-sized companies are more diffused in firms developing their products in standard programs Hold a higher share of companies with simple or mediumcomplex products Seite 9

10 Service strategists and share of service turnover No difference between the total turnover with services (~14/15 %) BUT: Difference in type of invoicement Higher discrepancy between directly and indirectly invoiced turnover Directly invoiced Indirectly invoiced Service strategist (with service revenues) Non service strategist (with service revenues) 5% 6% 10% 8% = 15% = 14% Average share of saleswith services 0% Services sales 25% (Share of total turnover) Source: German Manufacturing Survey 2012, N=715, Fraunhofer ISI Seite 10

11 Type of invoicement and service turnover Is there a coherency between type of incoivement and share of turnover? 54 % invoice services directly (only or dominantly) 10 % hold a balanced type of invoicement 36 % invoice services indirectly (only or dominantly) directly only dominantly directly 11% 20% Pure types of invoicement hold lower shares of service turnover (~10 %) balanced directly and indirectly dominantly indirectly 15% 17% indirectly only 10% 0% Share of turnover with services in % 25% Source Modernisierung der Produktion 2012, Fraunhofer ISI Mixed types hold shares between 15 and 20 % Mixed types, depending on context and service type, seem to have advantages in contrast to pure types Seite 11

12 Service set and type of invoicement Seperated between service sets with traditional serivces only (as e.g. maintenance & repair, installation, training, documentation etc.) and sets including at least one advanced service (e.g. software developement, financing, Pay on Production, etc.) indirectly only 74% 26% Traditional services commonly more indirectly invoiced dominantly indirectly balanced directly and indirectly 51% 46% 49% 54% Traditional services only Providers of advanced services use more mixed types of invoicement dominantly directly directly only 38% 56% 62% 44% incl. Advanced services Strong relationship between complexity of products and advanced service offers Seite 12 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Share of companies

13 Service Strategists Overview & Findings The decision of competing with services is driven by market conditions as well as by technological aspects Service Strategists appear in markets with low share of service providers (traditionally less service-oriented sectors) Service Strategists produce less complex products and use standard programs 8.5 % of all industrial firms in Germany compete with service offers Printing and paper & food & beverages are the sectors with highest share of service strategists Machinery & equipment and automotive are sectors with lower shares of service strategists Do not generate a higher turnover with services (differentiation by services is no silver bullet for financial success) Understand their service offers as complete solution and cover costs in the product price No direct strategy for boosting turnover but a Niche strategy for improving satisfaction and loyality of the customer Seite 13

14 Managerial Implications & Conclusion Managerial Implications niche strategy for firms, which have problems to differentiate with their products Strategy for supporting the sales of technical products (as a driver for customer loyality and satisfaction, not for generating individual turnover In markets with a lower service orientation in general With traditional/obligatory service offers Conclusions Service Strategists play an individual role within the context of servitization (maybe underestimated in servitization research) Not comparable to traditionally high-service oriented industrial firms (complex products, small batch sizes, automotive, machinery & equipment, electronics etc.) Service Strategists as hidden and slowly driver of servitization Servitization aspects beyond highly advanced PSS of high-tech firms Seite 14

15 Contact Thanks for your interests! Christian Lerch Tel: Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI Breslauer Straße Karlsruhe, Germany Seite 15

16 Machinery and equipment industry Computer and electronics industry Automotive industry Glass and cheramics industry Chemical industry Metall industry Total Wood and furniture industry Other industrial sectors Printing and paper industry 97% 95% 94% 88% 87% 85% 85% 79% 76% 71% Food and beverage industry 54% 0% 0% Share of firms 100% 100% Source Modernisierung der Produktion 2012, Fraunhofer ISI Seite 16

17 Service strategists - overview Service Strategists 61,0% 39,0% Traditional services only Non-service Strategists 53,4% 46,6% incl. Advanced services 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Seite 17

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