DDoS Threat Report. Chris Beal Chief Security Architect on Twitter

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1 DDoS Threat Report Insights on Finding, Fighting, and Living with DDoS Attacks v1.1 Chris Beal Chief Security Architect on Twitter

2 DDoS in the News

3 DDoS Trends Q Compared to Q % Increase in total DDoS Attacks 72 % 46 % 54 % 241 % Increase in average bandwidth Increase in infrastructure layer attacks Decrease in average attack duration Increase in average peak bandwidth Compared to Q % Decrease in total DDoS Attacks 14 % 15 % 0.2 % 36 % Decrease in average bandwidth Decrease in application layer attacks Decrease in average attack duration Decrease in average peak bandwidth Source: Prolexic Quarterly Global DDoS Attack Report Q2 2014

4 DDoS Trends Q Attacks Shorter and Stronger Use of Server-Based Botnets is Up More Infrastructure Attacks Less Application Attacks TCP / UDP Floods Remain Popular Reflection / Amplification NTP down from Q1 but still an issue DNS & CHARGEN SNMP saw significant increase Source: Prolexic Quarterly Global DDoS Attack Report Q2 2014

5 Amplification Attacks NetBIOS 3.8x SNMP 6.3x DNS QOTD 29x - 54x 140x Source: Amplification Hell: Revisiting Network Protocols for DDoS Abuse

6 Amplification Attacks CHARGEN 359x NTP 557x Source: Amplification Hell: Revisiting Network Protocols for DDoS Abuse

7 Common Attack Tools DDoS As A Service

8 Common Attack Tools DDoS As A Service

9 NCREN DDoS Attack Data DDoS Attacks Seen on NCREN in February 2014 CHARGEN UDP Fragmentation NTP Gbps nd 4 th 6 th 8 th 10 th 12 th 14 th 16 th 18 th 20 th 22 nd 24 th 26 th

10 DDoS Attack NCREN Network NTP DDoS Attack Seen on NCREN in February 2014

11 NCREN DDoS Attack Data Gbps DDoS Attacks Seen on NCREN in September Gbps CHARGEN UDP Fragmentation DNS SSDP IP Fragmentation nd 4 th 6 th 8 th 10 th 12 th 14 th 16 th 18 th 20 th 22 nd 24 th 26 th

12 Observations MCNC trends usually correlate with industry trends Shorter attacks, - NTP, + SNMP Most attacks target customers, not MCNC systems or infrastructure Web content security systems are the exception Mostly infrastructure layer attacks Fragmentation, CHARGEN, DNS, NTP, TCP SYN Schools targeted most often ~50/50 split between K-12 & Higher-Ed Attack patterns follow school year Attacks + when school in, - when school out Mix of truly targeted, vs. unlucky victims Targeted attacks shift vectors as mitigation applied

13 Observations Motivations for Attacks Attacks on K-12 Many perpetrated by students Disrupting class Avoiding online testing Revenge Attacks on Higher-Ed Motivations are mixed Taking advantage of vulnerable systems Gaming related DDoS Other

14 Observations Current State of DDoS Protection Some tools in place to identify DDoS traffic Detection only Sometimes the customers call us Communicate with constituents when issues arise Implement targeted filtering when issues identified ACLs, black hole routing Often a blunt instrument Work with upstream providers to address issues as required

15 Observations Desired State of DDoS Protection Proactively Detect and Defend Against DDoS Attacks - Rapid Detection - Automated Remediation - Proactive Communication Clean Pipe for our Customers

16 Questions to Answer What is our responsibility to customers in protecting against DDoS attacks? Is DDoS protection part of our network service, or is it a separate service customers can subscribe to? Should the service have different tiers, and should the approach vary by constituency? What do we do about applications that we provide to our customers (DNS, NTP, etc.) For a built-in service, can customers opt-out? If we market this capability, how do we do it without inviting attacks? Do we have an SLA and if so, how do we measure performance against it?

17 Recommended Approach Focus on Stopping Volumetric / Infrastructure Attacks Well positioned to detect and block these attacks Addressing other application-layer attacks may be difficult for us Provide this Capability as Part of Our Standard Network Service Solution should lower our operating costs related to mitigating these attacks Differentiator in the marketplace Addressing Non-Volumetric / Non-Infrastructure Attacks is a Secondary Consideration Explore vendor offerings to understand how we can potentially grow into this capability in the future This is likely to be a separate offering that customers can subscribe to

18 Solution Requirements Defined 30+ Criteria to Evaluate Solutions Against Spread across 6 different categories - Threat Protection, Alerting & Reporting, Solution Architecture, Administration, Support, & Marketplace Some Important Criteria Include: Automated, rapid detection of attacks Automated, rapid attack mitigation Protection for IP v4 and v6 networks Broad coverage of attack types & continuous, automated updates based on latest threats Fit into our network Ability to communicate to constituents how we are protecting them Integration into our existing customer portal Architecture & scalability for future growth

19 Solution Architecture Design Alternatives Scrubbing Center Inline Pros & Cons

20 Solution Architecture Scrubbing Center Approach Peer 1 RR Attack Detection Peer 2 Peer 3 Peer 4 Peering Router Scrubbing Center Backbone Router Backbone Normal Traffic Traffic to Victim Scrubbed Traffic

21 Solution Architecture Inline Approach Normal Mode Peer 1 Bypass Switch Peering Router RR Backbone Router Peer 2 Peer 3 Backbone Peer 4 Protection Center Normal Traffic Traffic Copy

22 Solution Architecture Inline Approach Attack Mode Peer 1 Bypass Switch Peering Router RR Backbone Router Peer 2 Peer 3 Backbone Peer 4 Protection Center All Traffic Cleaned Traffic

23 Compare & Contrast Scrubbing Center Must purchase enough capacity to handle volume of attack traffic Nothing in path of regular traffic flow, less risk of breakage or misconfiguration Inline Must purchase enough capacity to handle volume of all traffic Less operational complexity No routing updates, No traffic reinjection Visibility into layers 3 & 4. Cannot detect or defend against application layer attacks. Full visibility through Layer 7

24 Where We re At Researched Marketplace 3 Solutions Considered Evaluating 2 Solutions Hands on testing in our network Using evaluation scorecard to guide testing May revisit 3 rd solution if needed Aiming to Make Decision By End of 2014

25 What Can You Do? Regional Network / ISP Make sure network infrastructure is patched and hardened Traffic Filtering / Rate Limiting Prevent spoofed traffic from leaving your network BCP 38 RFC 2827 urpf Coordinate with Peering Partners Answer Questions from Slide 18 Build Your Budget

26 What Can You Do? Enterprise / Campus Network Ensure that BC / DR and Incident Response plans address responding to a DDoS attack Think about internal communication Make sure applications are patched and hardened Make sure network infrastructure is patched and hardened Least Privilege Filtering Inbound and Outbound Prevent spoofed traffic from leaving your network BCP 38 RFC 2827 urpf Rate Limiting Engage your ISP Plan for how to address Application DDoS

27 Questions

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