Cultural Syndromes and Construction of the Self: Effects on Emotion and on Well-Being

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1 :. Cultural Syndromes and Construction of the Self: Effects on Emotion and on Well-Being., &,. psy.soc.uoc.gr :!"# $ :

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3 Abstract The construction of emotion and in particular the affective part of emotion in everyday interaction is not only affected by personality factors but also by social factors, such as cultural syndromes (individualism) and other relevant social constructions of the self (idiocentrism allocentrism). This chapter presents results from a cross-cultural survey of emotion in everyday interaction in Greece and UK. The results of the study showed differences in the levels of positive emotion in Greece (less positive emotion) in interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, the results of these studies demonstrate that the cultural syndromes interact at the social and the individual level of analysis and significantly affect emotions in everyday interaction. At a time of intense observed changes in the construction of sub-societies and the relation between the individual and society these results are interesting in terms of their application, and especially in terms of differences in well-being. Keywords: Emotion, Well-Being, Personality, Cultural syndromes 3

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12 , (' ). " )'# #, ' (- )., "& + $ (## Cambridge 7- (## / 2003 / * # ' # #. ' # ' 50 " 22 "' ' 36% " ' 27,7,. (##' #, 22 ' 20 "' 33%. " ' 908 ", ' 39,. * # ' & "& ) ' / " ' "' (,. 1). 1: # ' " (## (## F (1,40) 1 1/ Happy 5,08 4,34 7,33** 2 / Sad 1,57 1,50 ns 3 +/ Angry 1,54 1,62 ns 4 / Enthusiastic 4,14 3,28 15,22*** 5 (#"/ Anxious 1,87 2,45 Ns 6 / Distressed 1,67 2,38 4,61* 7 8/ Relaxed 4,71 3,89 7,98** 8 / Attentive 4,69 3,12 24,77*** 9 ('% Rejected 1,42 1,24 Ns 10 ## Active 4,43 3,41 8,57** ' # (##, "& " ' %' ',, "& "', : & & -, '. ( ) & & ## ' %"'# (.". Hinde, 1979 Doise, 1986) ) 12

13 , : ' (.". %"#, #, %"# ), ' (.". ', # ), ' (."., #, "), - ' '. * )# & ' %' ', ' ( ') ' ' #' ' #'. (, ' ', " % ' Mesquita (.". Mesquita & Frijda, 1992), ', &. $ $ ) ' & & ('-') (## ' (Nezlek, Kafetsios, & Smith, under review. Kafetsios, 2004; Kafetsios, in press). * # " 2:.# & & # () ) (## (## 1' 9%' 1' 9%' 2' 2' 2' 2' 1 4,64 4,89 4,45 4,08 ' 4,05 4,31 3,69 3,11 8 4,14 4,30 4,00 3,68 1,96 1,84 1,86 2,14 ( " # HLM, Raudenbush, Bryk, & Congdon, 2000). 0 ' 2 ' '. #, %' ' (## %' "' &,&. 13

14 . ' ',& ' ( '#) #' (Diener & Diener, 1996) ) ' '. / )# # ' & % ) %' "' '..,, & )#, ",, & ' 2005 ). 14

15 Berry, J. W. (1994). Ecology of individualism and collectivism. In Kim, U., Triandis, H. C., Kagitcibasi, C., Choi, S. C., & Yoon, G. (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. (77-84). Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage. Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, Diener, E. & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life-satisfaction and selfesteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, Diener, E. & Diener, M. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7, Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1997). Measuring quality of life: economic, social, and subjective indicators. Social Indicators Research, 40, Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1999). National differences in subjective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp ). New York: Russell Sage Foundation Diener, E., Diener, M., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective well being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), Feldman Barrett, L., & Russell, J. A. (1998). Independence and bipolarity in the structure of current affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, Feldman Barrett, L., Robin, L., Pietromonaco, P. R., & Eyssell, K. M. (1998). Are women the 'more emotional'sex? Evidence from emotional experiences in social context. Cognition and Emotion, 12,

16 Gabriel, S. & Gardner, W.L. (1999). Are there 'his'and 'hers'types of interdependence? The implications of gender differences in collective versus relational interdependence for affect, behaviour and cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 3, Georgas, J. (1989). Changing family values in Greece: From collectivist to individualist. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 20, Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures revisited. Behavior Science Research, 18, Hyun, H. J. (2001). Is an independent self a requisite for Asian immigrants psychological well-being in the U.S.? The case of Korean Americans. Journal of Human Behaviour in the Social Environment, 3, Kafetsios, K. (in press). Social support and well-being in contemporary Greek Society: Examination of multiple indicators at different levels of analysis. Social Indicators Research. Kafetsios, K. (2004, August). Cross and within culture relationships between day-to day affect and self-construal. In J.B. Nezlek, Symposium on Cross cultural studies and daily experience. 17 th International Congress of the International Association for Cross-cultural Psychology, August 2-6, Xi an, China. Kafetsios, K. & Nezlek, J.B. (2004, July). Attachment and Wellbeing: A study of emotion and social support in everyday Interaction. Paper presented at the biannual conference of the International Association for Relationship Research, University of Madison-Wisconsin, Madison, July. Kashima, Y., Yamaguchi, S., Kim, U., Choi, S.C., Gelfand, M. J., & Yuki, O. (1995). Culture, gender, and self: A perspective from individualism-collectivism research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., & Kurokawa, M. (2000). Culture, emotion, and wellbeing: Good feelings in Japan and the United States. Cognition and Emotion, 14, Kreft, I. G. G., & de Leeuw, J. (1998). Introducing multilevel modeling. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Laosa, L.M., & Brophy, J.E. (1972). Effects of sex an birth order on sex role development and intelligence among kindergarten children. Developmental Psychology, 6,

17 Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, Matsumoto, D. (2001). Culture and Emotion. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.) The Handbook of Culture and Psychology (pp ). NY: Oxford University Press. Mesquita, B. (2001). Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, Mesquita, B., & Frijda, N. H. (1992). Cultural variations in emotion: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 112, Mesquita, B., & Karasawa, M. (2002). Different emotional lives. Cognition and Emotion, 16, Mesquita, B., Frijda, N., & Scherer, K. (1997). Culture and Emotion. In W. Berry, P. R. Dasen, & T. S. Saraswathi (Eds.) Cross cultural Psychology, vol. 2 (pp ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Nezlek, J. B. (2001). Multilevel random coefficient analyses of event and interval contingent data in social and personality psychology research. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, Nezlek, J.B., Kafetsios, K., & Smith, V. (under review). Cross and within culture relationships between self-construal and daily affect. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Rusting, C. L. (1999). Gender differences in well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, and N. Schwarz (Eds.) Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp ). NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Oishi, S., Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Suh, E. (1999). Cross-cultural variations in predictions of life satisfaction: Perspectives from needs and values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, Oysermann, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., & Congdon, R. T. (2000). HLM. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International. Robinson, M. D. (2000). The reactive and prospective functions of mood: Its role in linking daily experiences and cognitive well-being. Cognition & Emotion, 14, Robinson, M. D., Johnson, J. T., & Shileds, S. A. (1998). The gender heuristic and the database: Factors affecting the perception of gender-related differences in the 17

18 experience and display of emotion. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 20 (3), Rozin, P. (1999). Preadaptation and the puzzles and properties of pleasure. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp ). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (2000). Value priorities and subjective well-being: Direct relations and congruity effects. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1999). Reports of subjective well-being: Judgmental processes and their methodological implications. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, and N. Schwarz, (Eds.) Well-being: The foundations of hedonic Psychology (pp ). NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent selfconstruals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, Singelis, T. M., & Sharkey, W. F. (1995). Culture, self-construal, and embarrassability. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P., & Gelfand, M. J., (1995). Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement, Cross-Cultural Research, 29, Suh, M., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. C. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgements across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts, Psychological Review, 96, Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview press. Triandis, H. C. (2001). Individualism and collectivism: Past, present, and future. In D. Triandis, H. C., & Vassiliou, V. A. (1972). Interpersonal influence and employee selection in two cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, Triandis, H. C., Leung, K., Villareal, M., & Clack, F. L. (1985). Allocentric versus idiocentric tendencies: Convergent and discriminant validation. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, Van de Vijver,V., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 18

19 Wheeler, L., & Nezlek, J. (1977). Sex differences in social participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, Zelenski, J. M., & Larsen, R. J. (2000). The distribution of basic emotions in everyday life: A state and trait perspective from experience sampling data. Journal of Personality, 34,

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