# Pre-Conscious Assessment of Trust: A Case Study of Financial and Health Care Web Sites

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4 Trial 2 (avg) PROCEEDINGS of the HUMAN FACTORS and ERGONOMICS SOCIETY 53rd ANNUAL MEETING their responses in the first and second trials (see Table 1). A Chi-Square test comparing the distribution of participants in both experiments was not statistically significant, (p=.45), suggesting that there are no significant differences in the individual results from Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) ranged from 0.18 to.68, with five out of the 11 participants having an r-value greater than.60. Table 3. Significance levels of each correlation coefficient for all participants in Experiment 2 Significance # of Participants % of Participants p< % p< % p< % p> % An examination of the average trust assessments for the 50 screenshots revealed a Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient (r) equal to 0.76, p <.001, with an R 2 value of.54. This is comparable to the results in Experiment 1, r = 0.81, R 2 = Trust Asesments for all 50 Web Sites (Expt 2) Trial 1 (avg) Figure 2. Average trust assessments for trials 1 and 2 for all 50 home pages, averaged across all participants in Experiment 2. Results of Experiment 2 are comparable to Experiment 1. Roughly half of the participants achieved a statistically significant level of consistency of trust assessments between the two trials in both experiments. The correlation coefficients of the 50 screenshots was also comparable, r=.81 in Experiment 1, and r=.76 in Experiment 2, both significant at the p<.001 level. Therefore, it appears as though collecting data remotely (Experiment 1) or in-person (Experiment 2) produces a consistent set of results. CONCLUSIONS The results of Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that individuals are capable of processing trust on a pre-attentive level. Approximately one-half of the participants in Experiment 1, and two-thirds of participants in Experiment 2 demonstrated a consistent level of trust assessments. Furthermore, in both experiments there was a significant correlation between trust assessments in the first and second trial when averaging across all participants. If individuals were not able to process trust on a pre-attentive level, there would not have been any level of consistency between trials. This was clearly not the case. This finding builds upon the work of Lindgaard et al. (2006) by demonstrating that not only is visual attractiveness of web sites pre-attentively processed, but also trust. Taken together, this research suggests that the preconscious mind may play a far more critical role in our conscious decision making and judgments than previously believed. This has significant implications for the design of not only web sites, but any technology that requires some level of trust of the user. Designers should be keenly aware of how visual primitives such as color, closure, and size interact to influence trust assessments on a pre-attentive level. Simply focusing on content to relay the notion of trust may not be enough. Stage two of our research will test the reliability of preattentive trust assessments by comparing trust assessments on pre-attentive and conscious levels. Stage three will isolate specific visual attributes to identify the drivers of trust (and distrust). By doing this, we will be able to provide a set of guidelines on how to design technology to enhance the trust relationship between user and technology. In stage four we will focus on how pre-attentive processing manifests itself in conscious decision making and judgments. Are any biases about trust developed at a pre-attentive level easily dismissed at the conscious level as more information is acquired, or are these biases a powerful force in shaping judgments and decisions? REFERENCES Belanger, F., Hiller, J., & and Smith, W. (2002). Trutworthiness in electronic Commerce: The Role of privacy, Security, and Site Attributes. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11, Corritore, C. K., & Wiedenbeck, S. (2003). Online Trust: Concepts, evolving themes, a model. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58, Fogg, B. (2003a). Persuasive Technology. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. Fogg, B. (2003b). Prominence-Interpretation Theory: Explaining How People Assess Credibility Online. ACM CHI 2003: New Horizons, (pp ). Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Kim, K. and Prabhakar, B.. (2000). Initial Trust, Perceived Risk, and the Adoption of Internet Banking, Proceedings of the twenty first international conference on Information systems. International Conference on Information Systems, (pp ). Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Lindgaard, G., Fernandes, G., Dudek, C., & and Brown, J. (2006). Attention Web Designers: You have 50 milliseconds to make a good first impression! Behavior and Information Technology, 25 (2),

5 PROCEEDINGS of the HUMAN FACTORS and ERGONOMICS SOCIETY 53rd ANNUAL MEETING McKnight, H. C. (2002). The Impact of Initial Consumer Trust on Intentions to Transact With a Web Site: A Trust Building Model. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11, Norman, D. (2004a). Emotional Design. New York: Basic Books. Norman, D. (2004b). Introduction to the Special Section on Beauty, Goodness, and Usability. Human Computer Interaction, 19, Olson, I. and Marshuetz, C. (2005). Facial Attractiveness Is Appraised in a Glance. Emotion, 5 (2), Riding, C., D., G., & B., A. (2002). Some antecedents and effects of trust in virtual communities. International Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11, Wakefield, R., Stocks, M., & and Wilder, M. (2004). The Role of Web Site Characteristics in Initial Trust Formation. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 45 (1), ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the generosity of UTest for providing access and compensation to participants in Experiment 1, and thank the Graduate students at Bentley University who participated in this study.

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