Large-Scale Internet Crimes Global Reach, Vast Numbers, and Anonymity

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1 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section Large-Scale Internet Crimes Global Reach, Vast Numbers, and Anonymity Albert Rees Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) Criminal Division, United States Department of Justice Junio

2 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section REMJA Working Group on Cybercrime Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section +1 (202) Junio

3 Agenda Globalization of crime Some vexing problems Anonymity Botnets Carding Digital currency Junio

4 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section Globalization of Crime Junio

5 Globalization of Crime The Internet knows no borders Criminals exploit the Internet Global reach Anonymity Safe havens Mass targets Junio

6 Global Cybercrime Snapshots 2009 Botnets * 6.8 million bot-infected computers 47,000 active each day 17,000 new command and control servers *Symantec Internet Security Threat Report, Vol. XV, April 2010 Junio

7 Geographic distribution of infected computers in a single ZeuS botnet. Junio

8 Symantec Internet Security Threat Report, Regional Data Sheet Latin America, April 2010 Junio

9 Global Cybercrime Snapshots million new malicious code threats * Data breaches from hacking examples ** 160,000 health insurance and medical records university 530,000 social security numbers government agency 570,000 credit card records business 750,000 customer records mobile telephone service provider 130,000,000 credit card numbers credit card processor *Symantec Internet Security Threat Report, Vol. XV, April 2010 **Open Security Foundation, Dataloss Database, 2009 Junio

10 Symantec Internet Security Threat Report, Regional Data Sheet Latin America, April 2010 Junio

11 Online Underground Economy Symantec Internet Security Threat Report, Vol. XV, April 2010 Junio

12 The Players Cyber-economy crime organizations Traditional organized crime drugs, guns, goods, people Gangs Extremists terrorist organizations Professional hackers Spammers Cybercrime organizations Junio

13 Junio

14 Some Vexing Problems Anonymity Botnets Carding Forums Digital Currency Junio

15 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section Anonymity Junio

16 Attribution is Difficult Impossible? Savvy online criminals know how to hide False identification Domain name registration Stolen credit cards Services that do not verify user information Online tools Proxies Anonymizing network Peer-to-peer Decentralized Segmented Redundant Resilient Junio

17 Web Proxy Sits between ISP and web server ISP and web server no longer talk to each other directly Result: user anonymity from web server WEB PROXY USER ISP WEB SERVER Junio

18 Web Proxies Type in the site you want Junio

19 Web-Based Proxies The proxy gets the site and passes it to you You are still communicating with the proxy Junio

20 Peer-to-Peer file sharing (P2P) Sharing files, using servers as little as possible 20 Junio 2010

21 Old style P2P Relied on a server to keep track of the peers Who has KIDDIE.MPG? 21 Junio 2010 Second computer from the right.

22 Newer style P2P Uses supernodes instead of central servers Who has KIDDIE.MPG? Junio 2010 I ll ask the other supernodes. One of my nodes has it. 22

23 P2P today: Gigatribe and Darknets Small, private communities sharing files Difficult to find and enter 23 Junio 2010

24 P2P today: BitTorrent Efficient technology for a huge number of people to share huge files Tracker: knows which computer has which pieces of the file To join, get a.torrent file that identifies the tracker. Leacher: peer still downloading Seeder: Peer offering all pieces 24 Junio 2010

25 Anonymizing Network: Tor Tor = The Onion Router, an anonymity network that routes communication through multiple proxies, each with an independent layer of encryption (like an onion) Client = computer using Tor for anonymity Onion Router (OR) = computer that forwards data and anonymizes it (currently about 1200) Circuit = path taken by data through ORs Client OR OR OR Web Server Junio

26 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section Botnets Junio

27 What is a Botnet? A network of robots (bots) Robot : an automatic machine that can be programmed to perform specific tasks Also known as Zombies Thousands of computers controlled A powerful network at no cost Junio

28 Purpose of a Botnet Distributed denial of service attacks Advertising spamming Sniffing traffic Keylogging Spreading new malware Installing advertisements Attacking IRC networks Manipulating online polls or games Mass identity theft Junio

29 IRC Botnets Earlier Botnets controlled by Command and Control (C2) server Botnet user Junio

30 IRC Botnets Newer Botnets distribute and have redundant C2 servers Botnet user Junio

31 P2P Botnets Distributed control Junio

32 P2P Botnets Hard to Disable Junio

33 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section Carding Junio

34 What is Carding? Carding: large-scale fraudulent use of stolen credit or debit card information Carding forums: websites and bulletin boards dedicated to carding Data usually comes from phishing/spamming or data breaches, rather than real world thefts Bulk transactions ( dumps ) are the norm Credit card data can be encoded on plastic cards for card-present transactions Junio

35 What do Carding Forums Offer? Identity documents Stolen financial information User names and passwords Full info package of data on victim Card-making equipment and blanks Tutorials on how to be a carder or hacker Junio

36 Junio

37 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section Digital Currency Junio

38 Junio

39 Characteristics of Digital Currency Often backed by a precious metal such as gold May involve both an issuer and an exchanger Can be transferred to other digital currency Popular with cyber-criminals Junio

40 Example: WebMoney Transfer (www.wmtransfer.com) Based in Russia Open account by downloading WebMoney client and providing name, address, and address Accepts bank transfers, credit cards, money orders, and cash Can transfer funds from one account to another Junio

41 Summary Globalization of crime Some vexing problems Anonymity Botnets Carding Digital currency Junio

42 Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section REMJA Working Group on Cybercrime Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section +1 (202) Junio

The author(s) shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S. Department of Justice and prepared the following final report:

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