Mesotheliomas of Peritoneum, Epicardium, and Pericardium Induced by Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mesotheliomas of Peritoneum, Epicardium, and Pericardium Induced by Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus1"

Transcription

1 [CANCER RESEARCH 30, , May 1970] Mesotheliomas of Peritoneum, Epicardium, and Pericardium Induced by Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus1 J. F. Chabot, Dorothy Beard, A. J. Langlois, and J. W. Beard Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina SUMMARY Injection of strain MC29 avian leukosis virus into the peritoneal, pericardia!, and air sac cavities of the chicken resulted in high incidence of tumors of the mesothelium of the respective structures. As determined by light and electron microscopy, the growths arose as papillomas or expanding tumors by alteration of the squamous mesothe lium to spheroidal or cuboidal cells characterized by rounded nuclei with clear nucleoplasm and very large nucleoli and cytoplasm deeply stained with hematoxylin. With continued rapid growth, the nuclear features les sened somewhat, cytoplasmic staining diminished greatly, and the cell limits became indistinct. A second stage of metaplasia was marked by frequent alteration of the epithelioid cells to cartilage which increased both by con tinued alteration of peripheral mesothelioma cells and proliferation of chondrocytes. The tumors, sometimes isolated but usually coalesced in masses, were poorly en capsulated, contained little fibrous stroma, and showed no necrosis. They readily invaded contiguous visceral tis sues but did not metastasize to distant sites. Numerous virus particles were observed in the tumors together with occasional budding of the particles from the cell mem branes. The mesotheliomas were an addition to the al ready broad spectrum of responses to strain MC29 virus consisting of myelocytic growths, high incidence of renal tumors, primary tumors of the liver parenchyma, and singular aspects of morphological alteration of chick em bryo cells in vitro. These virus-induced tumors in the chicken closely resembled mesotheliomas of unknown etiology in man and bovines in both morphology and be havior. INTRODUCTION Strain MC29 avian leukosis virus infection in the chicken results in the induction, principally, of myelocytoma and myelocytomatosis (12, 18). In addition to these 1This work was aided by USPHS Grant C-4572, by the Annie Ma bel Sherris Memorial Grant for Cancer Research from the American Cancer Society, Inc., by National Defense and Education Act Title IV Fellowship , by IN-611 American Cancer Society International Research Grant, and by the Dorothy Beard Research Fund. The paper is part of the studies submitted by J. F. C. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Duke University. Received September 12, 1969; accepted November 19, myeloid hematopoietic tissue neoplasms distributed in bone, liver, and other sites, primary renal tumors occur in high incidence, erythroblastosis is occasionally seen, and, in small proportion, growths arise from hepatic parenchymal cells (9). A singular influence of the MC29 strain is the infection and rapid morphological alteration of CEC" in tissue culture not observed with other leuko sis agents (4, 8, 16). Recent studies initiated with the in u/7ro-altered CEC revealed still another unusual host re sponse to this leukosis strain. Cells inoculated into the chicken by different routes gave rise to tumors simulating transplants at various sites in the peritoneum. However, introduction in the same way of cell-free fluid from CEC cultures altered by MC29 virus resulted in the appear ance of growths at similar sites and, also in the pericar dium and epicardium. Further investigation showed that certain of the tumors were the result of neoplastic re sponse of peritoneal and pericardial mesothelium to in fection with the MC29 virus. Studies have been made of the occurrence, pathomorphology, and ultrastructure of some of these tumors, and the results are described in this report. For comparison there are considered, also, 2 tumors in subcutaneous tissue and myelocytic1 growths in visceral organs. Growths induced by response to prep arations of morphologically altered cells will be consid ered in another report. MATERIALS AND METHODS Virus. Isolation of strain MC29 leukosis agent and chicken response to virus obtained from blood plasma from birds diseased with the strain were described (12, 18). The virus for the present studies was in 3 pools from CEC cultures infected with strain MC29 of previous pas sage in vitro. Passage was in primary cultures (14) of embryos from eggs of RIF-free White Leghorn hens4 (22). Fluids in contact with cells of altered morphology for 4.5 to 6 hr in cultures 6 to 15 days following exposure "The abbreviations used are: CEC, chick embryo cells: RIF, re sistance-inducing factor; WW, subcutaneous wing web tissue; i.e.. intracardiac: dpi, days postinoculation. ' The term myelocyte is used in descriptions of strain MC29 virus disease to designate nonmyeloblast myeloid elements at any level of differentiationâ with or without granules (15, 18)â lessthan that of the mature granulocytes. 4The chick embryos were from White Leghorn eggs provided by Dr. Roy Luginbuhl, University of Connecticut, through the Research Resource Program of the National Cancer Institute Bethesda, Md. MAY

2 Chabot, Beard, Langlois, and Beard to virus (14) were harvested and passed through 0.45-^ Millipore filters. Virus particle content and infectivity of the fluids were measured by electron microscopy (24) and focus assay (13), respectively. Chickens and Examinations. White Leghorn chicks of line 15 (28) were inoculated 1 day after hatching with virus amounts and by WW, i.e., or i.p. routes as indicated in Table 1. Blood smears studies (5) were stained made routinely as in earlier with May-Grunwald-Giemsa. At the onset of illness or after appropriate periods of study, birds were killed by bleeding from the heart. Tis sues for light microscopy were taken in Zenker-formol solution, and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Some sections were stained with Alcian blue and by Masson's technique. Cells from peritoneal fluid were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa or hematoxylin-eosin. Specimens for electron microscopy were fixed for 2 to 4 hr in 5% glutaraldehyde (Fisher G-151, Fisher Scien tific Co., Silver Spring, Md.) buffered at ph 7.2 with sodium cacodylate (20, 23); transferred to 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer, ph 7.4, containing 0.3 M sucrose (23); and held for 2 to 5 days at 4Â.The tissues were postfixed for 1 hr with 1% osmic acid buffered at ph 7.2 with Vero nal (19), embedded in Maraglas (7), sectioned with glass knives on a Porter-Blum ultramicrotome, stained with uranyl acetate (29) and lead citrate (21), and examined with a Siemens Elmiskop I at 80 kv equipped with a double condenser and a 50-/Â objective aperture. RESULTS Table 1 summarizes 3 experiments yielding the results described here (Bird Y879, Figs. 18 to 21, from a differ ent study was given an injection i.p. of 8.5 X 10' virus particles). Of 148 birds receiving inoculations into the peritoneal cavity in the 3 studies, 52 had tumors of de monstrable mesothelial cell origin. Incidence was defi nitely related to dose as measured by numbers of virus particles. Introduction of virus into the heart through the chest wall gave neoplasms of the epicardium or pericar dium or both in 4 of 19 birds. Injections into the wing webs of 19 chicks resulted in l (Y148) apparently virusinduced subcutaneous growth. Another tumor in subcu taneous tissue (Y623) arose in the abdominal wall near the site of i.p. inoculation. Generalized response of the myeloid hematopoietic cells consisted principally of diffuse infiltration of the liver by nongranulated myelocytesâ myelocytomatosisâ with few circumscribed cell aggregatesâ myelocytomas; few of the cells contained eosinophilic granules. Except in birds receiving inocu lations i.e. (into the circulating blood), myeloid cell re sponse was relatively small. Line 15 chickens were less responsive to strain MC29 in this respect than the Shaver birds previously used (18). Moreover, as with BAI strain A (myeloblastosis) virus (6), the i.p. inoculation route was much less effective in the induction of generalized mye loid response than the i.v. or i.e. routes. Peritoneal Tumors. Birds with tumors in the peritoneal cavity exhibited general signs of lassitude, droopiness, disinterest, and ruffled feathers. The skin and mucous membranes were pale, and the blood smears of many of the birds showed large mononuclear primitive cells (15, 18) of the myeloid series. Peritoneal fluid in volumes of about 8 to 80 ml was found in a large proportion of the birds, and some animals showed pronounced abdominal distension. The murky, greenish fluid contained large numbers of mesothelial cells and other mononuclear ele ments. Figs. 1 to 4 illustrate the gross appearance of minute beginning MC29 virus-induced growths (Fig. 1) and that of large (Fig. 2) and smaller (Figs. 3 and 4) developing neoplasms. An impressive feature of the process was the high growth response of the mesothelial cells in the loose folds of mesentery. This was indicated by the numerous tiny individual growths (Fig. 1) and emphasized by the multitude of nodules coalescing into the extensive nodu- Table I Chicken response to tissue culture-grown MC29 virus inoculated into the wing web. into the peritoneal cavity (i.p.), and into the heart (i.e.) Cor. no., number of chicks surviving early nonspecific deaths; MYE. myeloid growth: PCS, pericardial or epicardial neoplasms; PTS, tumors of peritoneal mesothelium: ERY, erythroblastosis; SUBC, tumor in subcutaneous tissue; and ASC, ascites. Exper- Virus. r particles.. iment v6(x ) no mye pcs pts ery10 (ml) routei.e.wwi.p.i.p.i.p.i.p.i.p.i.p.i.p.i.p.chicks inoculatedy100-i19y y y y y y y y y (20)(19)(19)(18)(19)( Volume 1288 CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

3 Mesotheliomas and Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus lar masses of neoplastia tissue in Figs. 2 to 4. Tumors ap peared anteriorly in the loose mesentery in the region of the triangular dorsal ligament attachment of the gizzard. Throughout essentially the whole length of the gut, growths were widely distributed in the mesenteric layers. Tumors of like appearance occurred also in the mesothelial cells of the abdominal air sacs where virus was inocu lated i.p. or in the axillary air sacs following virus injec tion (intended i.e.) into the chest. Very few and only small growths arose in the mesothelium covering the wall of the intestine; none was seen in the free surfaces of the liver, spleen, or kidney or in the parietal peritoneum. In contrast, the delicate pancreas lying in relatively loose mesothelium-covered areolar tissue was largely covered over by or incorporated in the tumor masses. The numer ous growths did extend readily onto the intestine and other viscera, however, when they originated at or close to the junction of the mesothelium covering the organs with that of the mesentery. As illustrated below (see Figs. 27 and 28), such tumors invaded and infiltrated the contiguous organ tissues. The singular distribution of re sponding cells is strikingly emphasized by the lack of tu mor nodules in the mesothelium along the vascular loops of the mesentery (Fig. 1). Mesothelium of both parietal and visceral peritoneum consists of simple squamous cell monolayers which are closely applied to the viscera and abdominal wall and form both sides of the thin mesentery sheets and air sac walls. Response of the peritoneal mesothelium to MC29 virus infection was marked (Figs. 6 and 8 to 11; see Fig. 7 for comparison with epicardial response) by widespread metaplasia marked by rounding of the cells on both sides of the sheets (Fig. 10). Although morphological changes seemingly occurred in a large proportion of the cells (Fig. 6), growth resulting in tumor formation appeared limited to relatively widely separated foci (Figs. 1, 6, 8, and 11). In many instances, rapid focal cell multiplication exerted pressure laterally, causing outfolding of the tissue to form pendunculated, papillomatous, frequently intricately branched cauliflower or wart-like growths (Figs. 6, 8, 10, and 11). In the initial stages, the tumors in the large pro portion of birds consisted principally of rounded pearshaped or cuboid mesothelial cells with delicate spindle cell supporting tissue (Fig. 11). Growths in some hosts, however, consisted almost wholly of cartilage (Figs. 3, 8, and 9). Such neoplasms were, in fact, cartilage papillo nnas. Mesothelial cells newly altered morphologically, as il lustrated in Fig. 11, exhibited characteristic features re lated to deeply blue-stained cytoplasm, relatively large spheroidal nuclei with clear nucleoplasm, and large nu cleoli, all of which resulted in a "bird's eye" appearance of the elements. A few growths, particularly in the free folds of mesentery and thin flaps of omentum, main tained the papillomatous or cauliflower structure, but most of the neoplasms enlarged throughout to form in dividual or, for the most part, firm confluent nodular masses. With such growth, cell morphology changed pro gressively to that of elements of somewhat different at tributes but which retained the prominent features (Figs. 12 and 22) of spheroidal shape and large nuclei and nu cleoli. The cytoplasm was not notably deeply stained, and the cell boundaries were indistinct, especially in the com pact growths. Tumor architecture varied relatively little, showing a loose arrangement of cells in some growths (Fig. 12) and a very compact arrangement in others (Fig. 22). Small numbers of other cells were spindle shaped with elongated nuclei which were of a structure resem bling fibroblasts and greatly different from the predomi nant mesothelial tumor cells as well demonstrated in electron micrographs (see Figs. 42 and 43). The origin of these stremai cells as seen in Fig. 11, for example, was not clear, but the framework probably represented nonneoplastic spindle cells of the original mesenteric areolar tissue stimulated to proliferation rather than the result of further change in the morphology and function of the mesothelial tumor cells. However, appreciable numbers of cells of these characteristicsâ but not necessarily the same typeâ appeared to participate in the formation of cartilage (see Fig. 13 and the electron micrographs of Figs. 42 and 43). A second metaplastic process marked by alteration of the epithelioid mesothelioma cells to cartilage was of very frequent occurrence, not only in different growths but in multiple foci of the same growth (Fig. 13). Carti lage formation began apparently by morphological and functional alteration of typical mesothelioma cells and progressed both by continued change of contiguous tu mor cells at the periphery of the tissue and by multiplica tion of cells embedded in the matrix. As noted before, extensive growths in some birds, as exemplified particu larly by Y160 (Figs. 8 and 9), consisted largely of carti lage. Transitional alteration to cartilage in these growths seemed to proceed almost directly from altered mesothe lial cells with but fleeting intervention of neoplastic ele ments of the predominant type such as those of Figs. 12 and 22. Fig. 9 illustrates a cartilage growth with only a few of the usual tumor cells. The cartilage was of somewhat aberrant form, different from the normal structure and from that occurring in other avian virus tumors (10, 11). Cell arrangement was irregular without lacunae or distinct cell pairing such as that evident in the BAI strain A virus-induced nephroblastoma (10). With Alcian blue, intercellular material showed varying intensities of stain (Fig. 14), most pro nounced at the cell surface and light in areas of widely spaced cells. With few exceptions, the blue-staining ma terial, tumor cartilage, was sharply separated from the other structure. Frequently, however, deeply bluestained strands formed small or extensive branched net works between the ordinary tumor cells in the absence of recognizable cartilage. Enlargement of the cartilage nod ules was attended by nutritional difficulties and damage to the cells away from the periphery. There was never any evidence either of calcification or osteoid formation. Amounts of connective tissue varied relatively little in the various tumors. Encapsulation was scant, and most of the growths consisted of tumor cells extending to the MAY

4 Chabot, Beard, Langlois, and Beard periphery (Figs. 6 and 33). The outer layer of other tu mors, particularly of those in the epicardium, was squamous epithelium (Figs. 7 and 31). Many of the compact growths, like that of Fig. 22, contained no intercellular material stained by Masson's technique, but some of the same growths showed branched fibers of unidentified material stained with Alcain blue (17). Variations ranged from these thin strands to distinct but narrow intercon necting bands (Fig. 15) stained by Masson's technique. There were no predominantly fibrous growths as such. Most of the tumors of loose structure (Fig. 12) did not show staining of the intercellular material with either Alcian blue or the Masson stains. Necrosis was not ob served in any of the tumors. Pseudoglandular formations were encountered in only a few instances. The survey picture of Fig. 18 reveals numerous tubules formed of cells of the morphology demonstrated at higher magnification in Fig. 19. The tubule-like arrangements consisted of epithelial cells ly ing in a loose "stroma" of elements indistinguishable from those of the typical mesothelioma growth. Fibrous connective tissue was not discernible. In another section of the same growth (Fig. 20), many "tubules" were cut both lengthwise and crosswise. This aspect of the tumor has the appearance of an unusual papillomatous struc ture. Fig. 21 illustrates another type of pseudotubular structure consisting of epithelioid cells bounded in bun dles or strands by well-defined stroma and traversed by thin delicate capillaries. With few exceptions, the mesotheliomas were of char acteristic histological morphology and easily distinguish able from other MC29-induced growths. Occasionally, however, the mesothelioma cells exhibited features sur prisingly similar to analogous aspects of myelocytic growths. Fig. 22 illustrates the morphology characteristic of a mesothelioma and Figs. 23 and 24 are sections of tu mors in the same bird invading the liver and spleen, re spectively. The 3 growths show both similarities and differences related particularly to prominence of the nu cleoli and relatively large nuclei with clear nucleoplasm. Certain attributes of these tumors are likewise similar to the cells of the minute myelocytoma in the liver seen in Fig. 25. Further comparisons are made to the mylocytes of myelocytomatosis massively invading the liver as in Fig. 36 and permeating the hepatic sinuses as illustrated in Fig. 37. The tumors of Figs. 23 and 24 were of uncer tain origin, but both arose at the respective surfaces of the spleen and liver. The neoplasm of Fig. 23 bore a striking resemblance to the mesothelioma of Fig. 21; the cells of the growth in the spleen (Fig. 24) exhibited a syncytial appearance singular with respect to the mor phology of the other tumors exemplified. Attributes of tumor malignancy were expressed by rapid growth and by invasion and infiltration of contig uous organ tissues but not by distant mã tastases.the pancreas was regularly involved. Small circumscribed growths often appeared at the surface of the organ, but in many regions the tumor cells penetrated and de stroyed the pancreatic structure (Figs. 26 and 27). Inva sion was usually effected by encroachment on a broad tumor front (Fig. 26), but highly irregular and anaplastic growth was also evident (Fig. 27). Frequent infiltration of the intestinal wall resulted in overgrowth and destruc tion of muscle with extension through the muscularis mu cosa into the lamina propria (Fig. 28). Fig. 29 illustrates typical invasion of the ovary. Epicardial and Pericardia! Tumors. Like the perito neum, the epicardial and pericardia! mesothelium is a monolayer of simple squamous epithelium. Pathomorphological response of the epicardial cells to infection with strain MC29 was similar to (Figs. 5, 7, and 30 to 34) but yet different in some respects from that of the peri toneum. The gross appearance of the epicardial growths (Fig. 5) was characterized by sheets or masses of con fluent cauliflower-like papillomatous protrusions, as in the auricular region (upper arrow), or somewhat individ ual tumors of like appearance in the epicardium of the ventricles (lower arrow). Similar papillary growths oc curred in the pericardium. The pronounced response of the epicardium closely adherent to cardiac muscle was in marked contrast to the comparatively few and minor tu mors in the peritoneum covering the walls of the intes tine and other organs and the lack of growths originating in the parietal peritoneal layer. Papillomatous growth of the epicardium (Fig. 7) con sisted in numerous pendunculated and filiform processes, some consisting mostly of epithelial cells (Fig. 31) and others with a preponderance of connective tissue. In Fig. 7 it is evident that the epicardial cells were less respon sive to the virus, since most of them that were not a part of the growths retained the squamous morphology. Cells which did respond were of low cuboidal shape (Fig. 30) with deeply stained cytoplasm. The spheroidal nuclei ex hibited clear nucleoplasm and prominent nucleoli which, nevertheless, were distinctly smaller than those in cells of the peritoneal tumors. The tumors were often pearly white and hard and contained nodules of cartilage (Fig. 31). The growths invaded the cardiac muscle and formed extensions deep in the heart wall (Fig. 32). The crosssection histology of a pericardia! papillary process (Fig. 33) resembled that of analogous growths from the peri toneum (Fig. 11). Subcutaneous Growth. A tumor (Fig. 34) in the sub cutaneous tissue at the site of virus inoculation occurred in the wing web in only 1 bird. Masses of individual cells permeating the muscle and interstitial tissues and consti tuting the associated solid growth were morphologically indistinguishable from neoplasms like that of Fig. 22. The invading cells at the edge of the main growth were of indistinct outlines but contained large spheroidal nu clei and large nucleoli. The origin of the tumor could not be determined. Although the cells were like those of the peritoneal growths, they likewise exhibited some charac teristics of myelocytoma. It does not seem too remote to regard the tumor as a derivative of vascular endothelium in the inoculated 1-day-old chick. Another growth in the subcutaneous tissue was in a bird inoculated into the peritoneal cavity and appeared 1290 CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

5 Mesotheiiomas and Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus in the abdominal wall near the inferior aspects of the rib cage. This growth (Fig. 35) consisted of large spheroidal mononuclear cells. These elements enmeshed among bands of connective tissue showed some resemblance to myelocytes seen in other locations (Figs. 25, 36, and 37). Figs. 36 and 37 illustrate some characteristics of the cells of myelocytomatosis. In Fig. 36 the cells are invad ing the liver and replacing the parenchyma. Such growths not infrequently show large blood-filled sinuses. The myelocytes in Fig. 37 are crowding the liver sinuses with attendant damage to and replacement of liver pa renchyma. In these growths as in the myelocytoma of Fig. 25, the myelocytes (15) show the same large sphe roidal nuclei with clear nucleoplasm and prominant nu cleoli as the cells of the mesothelioma. Fibrosarcomas comprise no part of the strain MC29 oncogenic spectrum. In neither the present studies nor in others including many hundreds of birds inoculated with MC29 leukosis virus has there been a single tumor ascribable to primary growth of fibroblasts. This is the more remarkable in view of the profound influence of the strain in the morphological alteration of chick em bryo cells (8, 16). Peritoneal Cells. Fluid associated with the peritoneal growths was slightly viscid and of a greenish tint. Fluids from different birds contained variable numbers of cells which occasionally were sufficiently numerous to form a definite buffy coat on centrifugation. Most of the cells in smears prepared from the buffy coat and stained with May-Griinwald-Giemsa were large, squamous, mesothelial elements of normal appearance (Fig. 16) with thin widespread pink-stained cytoplasm containing small vac uoles and indistinct peripheral cell membranes. The ovoid nuclei were distinct, pink stained, and of uniformly granular appearance. Cells of other morphology occur ring in smaller numbers and staining densely blue with May-Griinwald-Giemsa were of spheroidal shape with well-defined limiting membranes and cytoplasm. The cytoplasm containing numerous small vacuoles stained deeply also with hematoxylin-eosin (Fig. 17), in contrast to the faint coloring of the mesothelial cells in the same smears. The nuclei were relatively large, and nucleoli were not notable. The identity of the cells was obscure. There was no correlation between cells in the peritoneal fluid and those in the circulating blood. Although it seemed likely that the cells were altered mesothelium, the morphology of the cells could not be unequivocally identified with that of the tumor elements viewed in sec tions. Ultrastructure. A notable feature of mesothelial re sponse to MC29 virus was a relative uniformity in the sequential alterations in morphology from the simple squamous cell type to the rounded epitheloid forms and the further metaplastic change to cartilage-producing cells. Fig. 38 illustrates some of the finer aspects of the tumor cell morphology already indicated by the histopathological findings. In the growths occurring most com monly, such as those of Figs. 12 and 22, the large nucleoli and the paucity of condensed chromatin in the spheroidal nuclei were characteristics shared by various cell typesâ chick embryo fibroblasts (8) and myelocytes (15)â in re sponse to the MC29 agent. Except for size, the structure of the nucleoli was not unusual (Figs. 38 and 39). The organdã es exhibited the characteristic components of dense ribonucleoprotein granules and the fibrillar net work. There were included, also, masses of amorphous relatively electron-lucent material which closely resem bled the substance of the nearby nucleoplasm. The nu clei were approximately spheroidal with somewhat irreg ular outline. Few cells contained more than traces of condensed chromatin; rather, the material was distrib uted largely in the diffuse state with much of it as fibrils of the dimensions of deoxyribonucleoprotein strands as seen in altered chick embryo cells (8). In the cytoplasm, ribosomes and polysomes were numerous, and, in most cells, the rough endoplasmic reticulum was rather sparse. A notable feature was the formation of fibers of the di mensions of collagen at the peripheral membranes of the cells of morphology typical of the mesothelioma. A characteristic of the mesothelioma cells of both peri toneal (Fig. 40) and epicardial (Fig. 41) origin was the formation of hyaline substance and collagen fibers in varied amounts. In some tissue (Fig. 41) there was little or no intercellular hyaline material, and collagen, like wise, varied greatly (Figs. 40 to 43). In some sections (Fig. 40) there was much lightly stained intercellular ma terial with little collagen. Sections of other peritoneal (Figs. 42 and 43), as well as of epicardial, growths con tained large amounts of collagen. In addition, cells typi cal of both peritoneal and epicardial mesotheliomas (Figs. 40 and 41) showed more or less widely distended cisternae containing material like that in the intercellular spaces. Electron micrographs emphasized, in part, differences between the cells of epicardial growths (Fig. 41) and those of peritoneal tumors (Fig. 40) suggested in the histological examinations. In the former, the nucleoli were somewhat smaller and more compact than those in the latter. There was a distinctly greater proportion of con densed chromatin distributed in small masses throughout the nucleoplasm (Fig. 41), and in smaller quantities at the nuclear membrane. Other aspects of morphological differences from the peritoneal growths were the appar ently smaller proportions of cytoplasm and the possibly smaller concentration of cytoplasmic ribosomes. Collagen fibers clearly arose from the mesothelial tu mor cells (Figs. 38 and 43). At least one other type of cell occurred, also, in association with the larger collagen deposits. Cells of this sort (Figs. 42 and 43) were spindleshaped and presumably represented the fibroblasts de rived either from the supporting stroma or conceivably by metaplastic processes from mesothelioma cells. While some of the heaviest deposits of collagen were associated with the spindle cells, it was evident that the mesothelial tumor cells likewise actively elaborated fibers (Figs. 38 and 43). The light micrographs (Figs. 9 and 13) gave evi dence that the intercellular hyaline material was elabo rated principally by altered or metaplastic mesothelium. MAY

6 Chabot, Beard, Langlois, and Beard and Fig. 40 illustrates cisternae of such cells greatly dis tended with material like that outside the cell. The spin dle-shaped cells (Figs. 42 and 43) likewise showed dis tended cisternae. DISCUSSION Mesothelial cell tumors induced by strain MC29 virus represent the addition of a distinctly different neoplastic process to the increasingly broad recognized spectrum (2) of oncogenic responses to the avian leukosis viruses. Unusual aspects of strain MC29 oncogenic activity have already been evident by differences from other strains not only in the spectrum of tissues affected but in the characteristics of cell response (4, 8, 9, 13, 15, 16, 18). In this respect, responses to this agent are of special signi ficance in distinguishing elements of influence specific to the virus from manifestations of common intrinsic cell potential for alterations of morphology and function. As other tissues affected by leukosis agentsâ except hepatic parenchyma (9), which is derived from endodermâ mesothelial cells are of mesodermal origin. In contrast to the relatively primitive hematopoietic cells affected by all leukosis strains, the mesothelium is a "mature" well-differentiated tissue. Virus infection re sults in initial alteration of squamous to, likewise, welldifferentiated cuboidal, low columnar, or spheroidal epi thelial cells constituting the tumors. Progressive transi tion of some growths to cartilage results from a second distinct process of neoplasia progressing from the initial differentiated metaplastic progenitor to the terminal stage of differentiation to cartilage. Derivation of chondrocytesâ i.e., cells producing fibers and intercellular hyaline materialâ from neoplastic mesothelium was eas ily traced by the electron micrographie evidence of for mations of these components by typical tumor cells. There was some indication that associated nonneoplastic spindle cells also contributed to the fibers and, perhaps, hyaline material. In principle, the alterations implied systematic directional change representing the resultant of the individual vectors of virus effects, cell genetic po tential for morphological and functional expression, and the influence of tissue microenvironment on both. Without an established basis for comparison, it is dif ficult to distinguish between specific virus effects and manifestation of cell potential in the alterations to virusinduced neoplasms. Some aspects of cell influence on at tributes of metaplasia, nevertheless, are readily apparent. Most prominent are selective susceptibilities of various cells or tissues to infection with different leukosis agents. Especially impressive in the present studies are the var iations in the susceptibility of mesothelial cells from the high response of those of the mesentery to the absence of growths arising in the mesothelial integument of the viscera such as the liver, kidney, and spleen. Even in the mesentery where mesothelium was almost uniformly affected, growth occurred only in widely separated foci. A further aspect of cell potential was the distinctly lower susceptibility of the epicardium and pericardium as com pared with the peritoneum. In contrast, much evidence of specificity of virus in fluence on the characteristics of cell alteration or meta plasia is evident from consideration of certain MC29 ef fects. Infection of chick embryo cells results in rapid morphological alteration (4, 8, 16) of a type not apparent with other leukosis viruses. Specificity of MC29 virus action on myeloid hematopoietic tissue both in tissue cul ture and the host is well demonstrated (15) by the differ ence between the morphology and growth potentials of myeloblasts resulting from BAI strain A virus infection and the analogous attributes of the myelocytes respond ing to MC29. In both cases the cells initially affected by the respective viruses were the same. Another example is the marked difference between the complex BAI strain A virus-induced nephroblastoma (10, 11) consisting of both differentiated and primitive mesenchymoma, well-developed fibrosarcoma, cartilage, osteoid forma tion, and keratinization in comparison with the simple, relatively well-differentiated glomerular and tubular re nal carcinoma associated with MC29 infection (18). The tissues affected by both viruses are the nephrogenic cell rests in the kidney after hatching of the host. Particular characteristics of several types of cellsâ chick embryo fibroblasts (8) and myeloid (16) and mesothelial cellsâ infected with MC29 virus are the much enlarged nucleolus, the occurrence of chromatin in the diffuse state, and the high ribosome content of the cytoplasm. Influence of the cell per se, however, is still manifest by variation in these attributes as between the epicardial and peritoneal tumors. Another significant feature of the virus-induced mesotheliomas is their remarkable similarity to tumors occur ring in mammals, particularly in man. These neoplasms (1, 25-27) of unknown etiology characteristically exhibit multiple foci of growth both in the peritoneum and the pleura in association with accumulation of fluid. Growths as described in man and bovine (1) may consist of papillomatous primary epithelial formations or of principally fibrous processes with small amounts of epithelium. A possible explanation of the multiple origin of the mam malian growths is spread by tumor cell implantation, but consideration of a possible virus etiology of the conditions should not be neglected. Epithelial cell morphology in the mammalian tumors resembles closely that of the chicken neoplasms. Nuclei and nucleoli are described as large, but neither is as prominent as the corresponding organelles in the chicken tumors, and much of the chromatin in the mammalian growths is of the condensed type. Notable differences are the apparently slow growth, the frequent excess of fibrous tissue, and the absence of car tilage in the growths in man. Spread by invasion of contigous tissue but not by distant metastasis occurs alike in both avian and mammalian conditions. In the study of pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas in man, the tissue of origin of the growths was not ini tially clear, but diagnosis was aided by tissue culture (27). Origin of the neoplasms in the chicken was obvious, since 1292 CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

7 the numerous tumors at different stages of development afforded ample opportunity for tracing the growth. There was no reason to doubt the virus etiology of the condition. The tumors were not observed in the absence of virus inoculation; incidence was related to virus dose deter mined by virus particle count; particles of the morphol ogy typical of that of the RNA leukosis agents (3) were frequently seen; and virus buds occurred occasionally in the peripheral membrane of the characteristic tumor cells. Opportunity for further studies is afforded by ready growth of the tumor cells in vitro. In work already begun, it was observed that at least 2 and probably 3 distinct types of cells emerge in culture. A prominent culture component consists of cells of epithelioid appear ance. Others, however, are of the same morphology as that of chick embryo cells altered in vitro by MC29 virus. Continuation of the experiments should provide further information of the metaplastic potentials of the mesothelial cells under the influence of strain MC29. REFERENCES 1. Ackerman. L. V. Tumors of the Retroperitoneum, Mesentery, and Peritoneum. In: H. I. Firminger (ed.). Atlas of Tumor Pa thology, pp Washington, D. C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Beard. J. W. Introduction to Avian Leukemia. In: M. A. Rich (ed.). Experimental Leukemia, pp New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Beard, J. W., Bonar, R. A., Heine, U., de ThÃ,G., and Beard, D. Studies on the Biological. Biochemical, and Biophysical Proper ties of Avian Tumor Viruses. In: Viruses, Nucleic Acids, and Cancer, The University of Texas-M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Research Institute at Houston, pp Baltimore: The Williams & WilkinsCo., Bolognesi, D. P., Langlois, A. J.. Sverak, L., Bonar, R. A., and Beard, J. W. In Vitro Chick Embryo Cell Response to Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus. J. Virol.. 2: , Eckert. E. A., Beard, D., and Beard, J. W. Dose-Response Rela tions in Experimental Transmission of Avian Erythromyeloblastic Leukosis. III. Titration of the Virus. J. Nati. Cancer Inst., 14: , Eckert, E. A., Beard, D., and Beard, J. W. Dose-Response Rela tions in Experimental Transmission of Avian Erythromyeloblastic Leukosis. V. Influence of Host Age and Route of Virus Inocula tion. J. Nati. Cancer Inst., /5: Freeman, J. A., and Spurlock. B. O. A New Epoxy Embedment for Electron Microscopy. J. Cell Biol.. 13: Heine, U., Langlois. A. J.. Riman, J., and Beard, J. W. Ultrastructure of Chick Embryo Cells Altered by Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus. Cancer Res., 29: , Heine. U., Mladenov, Z., Beard. D.. and Beard, J. W. Morphology of Hepatoma Induced by Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus. ///. Program of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Electron Microscopy Society of America. B-21. San Francisco. August 22 to 25, Heine. U., de ThÃ.G.. Ishiguro, H., Sommer. J. R., Beard, Dâ ž and Beard, J. W. Multiplicity of Cell Response to the BAI Strain A (Myeloblastosis) Avian Tumor Virus. II. Nephroblastoma Mesotheliomas and Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus (Wilms' Tumor): Ultrastructure. J. Nati. Cancer Inst.. 29: Ishiguro. H.. Beard, D., Sommer. J. R.. Heine, U., de ThÃ.G.. and Beard. J. W. Multiplicity of cell response to the BAI Strain A (Myeloblastosis) Avian Tumor Virus. I. Nephroblastoma (Wilms' Tumor): Gross and Microscopic Pathology. J. Nati. Can cer Inst.. 29:1 39, Ivanov. X., Mladenov, Z., Nedyalkov. S., Todorov, T. G., and Yakimov, M. Experimental Investigations into Avian Leucoses. V. Transmission, Haematology and Morphology of Avian Myelocytomatosis. Bull. Inst. Path. Comp. Anitn.. 10: 5 38, Langlois, A. J., and Beard, J. W. Converted-Cell Focus Formation in Culture by Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 126: , Langlois. A. J., Bolognesi. D. P.. Fritz, R. B.. and Beard. J. W. Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus Release by Chick Embryo Cells Infected with the Agent. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 131: , Langlois, A. J., Fritz, R. B., Heine, U.. Beard. D.. Bolognesi, D. P., and Beard, J. W. Response of Bone Marrow to MC29 Avian Leu kosis Virus in Vitro. Cancer Res., 29: , Langlois. A. J.. Sankaran. S.. Hsiung, P. L.. and Beard, J. W. Massive Direct Conversion of Chick Embryo Cells by Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus. J. Virol.. /: Lison. L. Alcian Blue 8 G with Chlorantine Fast Red 5 B. A Technic for Selective Staining of Mucopolysaccharides. Stain Technol.,29:13l-138, Mladenov, Z., Heine, U.. Beard. D.. and Beard. J. W. Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus. Myelocytoma, Endothelioma, and Renal Growths: Pathomorphological and Ultrastructural Aspects. J. Nati. Cancer Inst.. 38: , Palade. G. E. A Study of Fixation for Electron Microscopy. J. Exptl. Med., 95: Powell. T. E., Ill, Philpott, C. W.. and Maser. M. D. On the Hydrogen Ion Concentration and Osmolality of Fixative Compo nents. J. Cell Biol.. 23: 110A Reynolds, E. S. The Use of Lead Citrate at High ph as an Elec tron-opaque Stain in Electron Microscopy. J. Cell Biol.. 17: Rubin. H. A Virus in Chick Embryos Which Induces Resistance in Vitro to Infection with Rous Sarcoma Virus. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. U.S., Sabatini. D. D.. Bensch, K.. and Barrnett, R. J. Cytochemistry and Electron Microscopy. The Preservation of Cellular Ultrastructure and Enzymatic Activity by Aldehyde Fixation. J. Cell Biol.. 17: 19-58, Sharp, D. G., and Beard, J. W. Counts of Virus Particles by Sedi mentation on Agar and Electron Micrography. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med.. 81: 75 79, Stout, A. P. Solitary Fibrous Mesothelioma of the Peritoneum. Cancer, 3: , Stout. A. P. Mesotheliomas of the Pleura and Peritoneum. J. Tennessee Med. Assoc.,44: , Stout, A. P.. and Murray, M. R. Localized Pleural Mesothelioma; Investigation of Its Characteristics and Histogenesis by the Method of Tissue Culture. Arch. Pathol...J Waters, N. F. Breeding for Resistance and Susceptibility to Avian Lymphomatosis. Poultry Sci., 24: , Watson. M. L. Staining of Tissue Sections for Electron Micros copy with Heavy Metals. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol., 4: , MAY

8 Chabot, Beard. Langlois, and Beard Fig. 1. Loop of intestine (Y357, 39 dpi) illustrates numerous small, early mesotheliomas in the mesentery. The minute tumors (Figs. 6 and 11) were distributed in widely separated foci and were not evident on the surface of the intestine. Very few were in the mesentery along the vascular channels. Reference lines in Figs. 1 to 5 represent 1 cm. Fig. 2. Large and small individual growths (Y636, 46 dpi) occupy almost all of the mesentery and incorporate the pancreas (P) in the confluent tumor masses. Even with such massive growth, the surface of the intestine showed only occasional tiny tumors. Nevertheless, growths were nu merous at the junction (J) of the mesenteric with the intestinal mesothelium. Fig.3. Growths of varying sizes (Y160, 42 dpi) in the mesentery and involving the pancreas (P). Thin, loose tags of omentum (O) or mesentery were sheets of cartilage papillomas as illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9. Fig. 4. Growths similar to those of Fig. 2 (YI74, 30 dpi). Fig. 5. Tumors (Y104, 43 dpi) arising in confluent masses in the epicardium ensheathing both the auricles (upper arrow) and the ventricles (lower arrow) (see Fig. 7). Fig. 6. Low-power survey section of growths in mesentery (Y357, 34 dpi) shown in Fig. 1. A specimen of the mesentery was fixed and em bedded flat and sectioned in planes parallel to the surface. Both sides of the mesentery (A/) are covered with uniformly rounded or pear-shaped altered mesothelial cells (see Fig. 10). Numerous papillomas (PA) arise in complex structural arrangement from narrow pedicles (Z.) (see Fig. 11). X 50. Fig. 7. Sectionâ made in the same way as that of Fig. 6â ofpapillomatous processes arising from epicardium (Y330, 87 dpi) covering the auri cles as in Fig. 5. The growths arose from narrow pedicles (L). Relatively few of the mesothelial cells responded: the others remained as thin, squamous epithelium (SE). The micrograph shows the relationship of the papillomas to muscle of the auricle (AM) (see Fig. 41). X 50. Fig. 8. Papillomatous growths (Y160, 42 dpi) consisting almost wholly of cartilage (C) arising from narrow (L) and broad (LL) mesenteric pedicles (see Fig. 9). X 50. Fig. 9. Higher magnification of a part of a growth like that in Fig. 8. The tissue is predominantly cartilage (C) with few unaltered mesothelioma cells (ME). X 340. Fig. 10. Perpendicular section of mesentery (M) of Y357 shown in Figs. 1 and 6 illustrating response to MC29 virus activity of mesothelial cells altered to spheroidal or pear shapes on both sides of the membrane. There is the suggestion of a beginning papilloma (arrow), x 340. Fig. II. Papilloma arising by a narrow pedicle from the mesentery of Y357 (Figs. I and 6) illustrating the complex branching of the growth consisting of spheroidal, altered mesothelial cells with large clear nucleoplasm, and large, prominent nucleoli which have a "bird's eye" appear ance. X 340. Fig. 12. Well-developed mesothelioma (Y dpi) arising in the peritoneal mesentery showing loose structure of characteristic cells. The cells of variable external conformation from spheroidal to elongated shapes contain nearly round nuclei with clear nucleoplasm and large nucleoli (see electron micrograph of Fig. 38). A growth with compact structure and closely packed cells is illustrated in Fig. 22. X 340. Fig. 13. Micrograph (Y363, 28 dpi) illustrates a focus (O of beginning progressive metaplasia of mesothelioma cells of typical morphology to cartilage (see Fig. 14). The cells vary from spheroidal to spindle shape, and many contain the prominant nucleolus in clear nucleoplasm. X 340. Fig. 14. Portion of tumor (Y104, 43 dpi) stained with Alcian blue showing hyaline cartilage (C) with chondrocytes (CH) in the process of dif ferentiation from unaltered typical mesothelioma cells (ME). X 340. Fig. 15. Portion of compact mesothelioma (Y379, 48 dpi) like that of Fig. 22 stained by Masson's technique illustrating the content of connec tive tissue (ST). X 340. Fig. 16. Smear from buflfy coat obtained by centrifuging peritoneal fluid from bird (Y361, 28 dpi) with mesothelioma and stained with May- Grunwald-Giemsa. Almost all of the cells are typical, unaltered squamous mesothelium. They contain fairly regular, ovoid nuclei with pink-stain ing granular chromatin. The cell limits are indefinite, and the broad, thinly spread cytoplasm contains many small vacuoles. X 725. Fig. 17. Smear prepared as that for Fig. 16 (Y363, 28 dpi) but stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Cells with distinctly stained vacuolated cyto plasm contain relatively large nuclei (N) eccentrically placed. Origin of these elements is obscure but may represent morphologically altered me senteric mesothelial cells like those of Fig. 6. Other cells only faintly stained are of a morphology resembling that of the mesothelial cells of Fig. 16. X 725. Fig. 18. Survey micrograph of mesothelioma of Bird Y879, 41 dpi (8.5 X 10' virus particles i.p.) illustrating a pseudoglandular type of growth with numerous large and small tubules and cyst-like structures. X 150. Fig. 19. Higher magnification of a portion of the same growth as that of Fig. 18. Cells forming tubules are the deeply stained, "bird's eye" type epithelium like the altered mesothelium illustrated in Fig. 11. The interstitial cells have the morphology of the commonly occurring meso thelioma (Figs. 12 and 22). Organized connective tissue stroma is not evident. X 340. Fig. 20. Tubular or papillomatous architecture of epithelium in the same growth as that of Fig. 18. X 340. Fig. 21. Another form of pseudotubular or pseudoacinar arrangement of epithelial cells in same growth as that of Fig. 18. The tubules or strands of cells are supported by a delicate spindle cell stroma. X 340. Fig. 22. Mesothelioma (Y dpi) of typical compact tumor architecture occurring as separate tumor for comparison with Figs. 23 to 25. X 340. Fig. 23. Neoplastic cells (IT) invading liver from the surface in the same bird (Y641) yielding the growth of Fig. 22. Only vestiges of com pressed parenchyma cells (LP) remain. X 340. Fig. 24. Neoplastic cells invading spleen from the surface of the organ in the same bird (Y641) yielding the growth of Fig. 22. The cells appear in a syncytial-like arrangement with indeterminate peripheral outlines. Almost all of the splenic tissue (SP) has been replaced. X 340. Fig. 25. Minute myeloma in the liver (YIOO, 41 dpi) consisting of myelocytes without granules exhibiting morphology resembling mesotheli oma cells (Fig. 22), the cells of the invading tumors of the liver (Fig. 23) and spleen (Fig. 24), and the elements of myelocvtomatosis of the liver (Figs. 36 and 37). X 340. Fig. 26. Micrograph of pancreas (Y363, 28 dpi) illustrating tumor cell (IT) invasion with permeation of normal acinar structure (A) by neoplastic cells. X 340. Fig. 27. Disorganization of pancreatic structures (A) and invasion by highly irregularly distributed anaplastic mesothelioma cells (IT) (Y169, 30 dpi). X CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

9 Mesotheliomas and Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus Fig. 28. Invasion of intestinal wall (Y dpi) by tumor cells (IT) penetrating the muscularis mucosa (OS) and continuing into the lamina propria. X 340. Fig. 29. Invasion of the ovary (Y165, 41 dpi) by mesothelial tumor cells (IT) and distribution of the cells about the follicles (OÃ.).X 340. Fig. 30. Micrograph of epicardium (Y330, 87 dpi) enveloping the region of the auricles illustrating mesothelial response (ES) to virus. The cells are of spheroidal or low cuboidal shape with prominent although not greatly enlarged nucleoli in spheroidal nuclei. Despite evident similari ties, the response of the epicardial cells differs from that of the mesenteric serosa in nuclear and nucleolar morphology (compare with Fig. II). The edge of tumor cell invasion of the subepicardial tissue is shown above (IT). X 340. Fig. 31. Epicardial tumor (Y104, 43 dpi) invading deeper tissues (IT) adjacent to auricular muscle (AM). Tumor consists principally of sphe roidal cells of nuclear characteristics resembling those of the cells in Fig. 30. Epicardial cells (arrow) enclosing tumor and adjacent musculature are flat and show no evidence of response to virus (see Fig. 7). The tumor cells lie separated in a smooth matrix staining lightly blue with the appear ance of cartilage (C) which was better defined in other epicardial growths. X 340. Fig. 32. Portion of tumor (IT) (Y108, 43 dpi) which had penetrated and was completely surrounded by auricular heart muscle (AM). Mor phology of the tumor resembled closely that of growths in mesentery (see Figs. 12 and 22). Invasion of the heart muscle and incorporation of mus cle cells into the growth are evident at the periphery of the tumor (see Fig. 41). X 340. Fig. 33. Papilliform growth with capsule cells bounding the growth (arrow) (Y330, 87 dpi; see Fig. 7) consisting of altered epicardial cells with features of morphology resembling those described for Fig. 30. Blood-filled channels (BO were not infrequent in mesotheliomas and myelocytic growths induced by MC29 virus (see Fig. 36). X 340. Fig. 34. Tumor in subcutaneous tissue (Y148, 32 dpi) at the site of virus injection into the wing web. Micrograph shows the edge of large growth similar to that illustrated in Fig. 12. Cells </7")of somewhat atypical morphology (with respect to those of main tumor mass) and disorgan ized arrangement are infiltrating and eroding muscle (Mil). X 340. Fig. 35. Subcutaneous growth (Y623, 58 dpi) near the ribs and site of i.p. virus inoculation. Cells are large mononuclears of indeterminate nature but exhibit some of the characteristics of both myelocytes (Fig. 37) and mesothelioma (Fig. 12). The cells are arranged in pockets enclosed in relatively heavy strands of fibrous tissue stroma. X 340. Fig. 36. Myelocytomatosis of the liver (Y156, 56 dpi) with accumulated myelocytes (MY), large blood channels distended with ervthrocytes, and residual liver cells (LP). X 340. Fig. 37. Myelocytomatosis with permeation of liver sinuses (YI09, 32 dpi) by primitive myelocytes (MY) and crowding and destruction of the parenchymal cells (LP). X 340. Fig. 38. Electron micrograph of mesothelioma cells from a firm well-developed mesenteric tumor (Y379, 48 dpi; see also Figs. 42 and 43) re vealing the characteristics of morphology indicated by light microscopy (Figs. 12 and 22). The cells are closely packed with frequently indistinct limiting membranes. The cytoplasm contains a wealth but not excessive number of ribosomes and polysomes (see Fig. 39). The rough endoplasmic reticulum ( ") is not plentiful in these cells but is well developed and shows greatly distended cisternae in cells of other growths (Fig. 40). Chromatin is relatively homogeneously distributed in the diffuse state in the somewhat electron-lucent nucleoplasm (/V) (see Fig. 39). Most im pressive is the very large nucleolus (NU) which shows an intricately partitioned mass of not unusual components with embedded material (5) re sembling the substance of the nucleoplasm. Formation of collagen fibers (fi is evident at the cell membranes. X 13,400. Fig. 39. Higher magnification electron micrograph (Y403, 48 dpi) illustrating primarily diffuse aspects of chromatin much of which is distrib uted in the nucleoplasm (.V) in fine strands (//) similar to the component observed in nuclei of chick embryo cells of morphology altered (8) by strain MC29 virus. The nucleolar ( Vl/)componentsâ fibrous material (FB), dense granules (DG), and the material of low electron density (pars amorpha) (ß)--arenot unusual. X 53,000. Fig. 40. Mesothelioma cells in a tumor from mesentery (Y389, 48 dpi) in a matrix consisting principally of hyaline cartilage with a moderate number of collagen fibers. The endoplasmic reticulum is highly developed, and the cisternae are distended with substance (/) resembling that of the matrix outside the cell. X 11,000. Fig. 41. Tumor of epicardium (Y108, 43 dpi) with the appearance of early transition of cells to chondrocytes and deposition of cartilage matrix. Particularly notable in cells of this origin are the relatively small nucleoli and the occurrence of much chromatin in the condensed state. The cis ternae (/) of the endoplasmic reticulum are moderately distended, and virus particles (K) are numerous. This tumor is invading heart muscle with incorporation of muscle cells (AM) in the growth. X 11,200. Fig. 42. Cartilage (Y dpi) with active collagen fiber (F) formation at the surface of some unidentified cells. Present are spindle-shaped cells with the appearance of fibroblasts showing elongated nuclei with massed condensed chromatin (/?) distributed irregularly, principally against the nuclear membrane. These cells, distinctly different from the mesothelial tumor cells of Fig. 40, show prominent endoplasmic reticu lum with distended cisternae. Numerous virus particles ( K)are trapped in the matrix about some of the cells. X 17,500. Fig. 43. Mesothelioma derived from mesentery (Y379, 48 dpi) consists primarily of cells of typical nuclear morphology marked by diffuse chromatin and large nucleoli containing material (5) resembling nucleoplasm. There are also a smaller number of spindle cells (SD) with elon gated nuclei and small amounts of condensed chromatin. Endoplasmic reticulum is sparse, but some cisternae are moderately distended. The intercellular space is occupied by an electron-lucent matrix with masses of collagen fibers. The section shows, also, a capillary (A1)with the endothelial cell (D) and pericyte (W). A few virus particles (K) are in intercellular spaces. X 12,300. MAY

10 Chabot, Beard, Langlois, and Beard 1296 CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

11 ?à «voTtóS?4' i'jiwtvuf*!* ' V*-WA Nà *3^&S< #;:/f';if â i* 'â «? â â 'r* â ''^ â :.«Â,*. MAY

12 Z9SL CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

13 â MAY

14 Sfó'à Jà ffl 1300 Cà NCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

15 .- â : v ;> ''<^3& ' ; â : m* â " ^*JC?S â â â â / t,tirf*'"'- '-«^^*Â? A" -W- '.^SxE *;' >* 3$ 3WÃŽÃ E-';"â -'â '..- 3Sh?:-.- v-*â ' "'^fã ylip JSkadßS à 1^- ÃŽÃŽÃ P» ^ *' ' S; x â.;'â i. *^*,* * >%?.*> ; > f.. Sà >t^..' ^ ' 4 MAY

16 ^ " n- A-;'V B* «TrMà gr^ %»»**lfiBà rl &^'^lasfe VWà "* **f*&skp;**' 9'* M**- ^lâ L_^rna- >^,-.%^/; t y^ «^ m^.^ljfm à PSal I^ia3fcv " TT -^tã³ã / 9M&»S W m à '/OL V ^/aâ«.. ' 1302 CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

17 v-< * ^;::.. v* â ;* :/wj * * V- ^r, * mttjj- T 5 ^»â â vâ» â ^/â â ; â -..â :â ' â : > ;^"^y/it y?*.**..^ â * â :>â ' ; '.- â MAY

18 *>*y  **4 J9H ^ri^sasaftã 1304 CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

19 Mesotheliomas and Strain MC29 Avian Leukosis Virus N '- MAY

20 *-% ,. " SftÃi. DG Q FB H N 'r s. â â **;, (39), % 1306 CANCER RESEARCH VOL. 30

ATLAS OF HEAD AND NECK PATHOLOGY THYROID PAPILLARY CARCINOMA

ATLAS OF HEAD AND NECK PATHOLOGY THYROID PAPILLARY CARCINOMA Papillary carcinoma is the most common of thyroid malignancies and occurs in all age groups but particularly in women under 45 years of age. There is a high rate of cervical metastatic disease and yet

More information

Cytology : first alert of mesothelioma? Professor B. Weynand, UCL Yvoir, Belgium

Cytology : first alert of mesothelioma? Professor B. Weynand, UCL Yvoir, Belgium Cytology : first alert of mesothelioma? Professor B. Weynand, UCL Yvoir, Belgium Introduction 3 cavities with the same embryologic origin the mesoderme Pleura Exudates Pleura Peritoneum Pericardium 22%

More information

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta Compartmentalization of the Cell Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy University of Malta Objectives By the end of this session the student should be able to: 1. Identify the different organelles

More information

Introduction: Tumor Swelling / new growth / mass. Two types of growth disorders: Non-Neoplastic. Secondary / adaptation due to other cause.

Introduction: Tumor Swelling / new growth / mass. Two types of growth disorders: Non-Neoplastic. Secondary / adaptation due to other cause. Disorders of Growth Introduction: Tumor Swelling / new growth / mass Two types of growth disorders: Non-Neoplastic Secondary / adaptation due to other cause. Neoplastic. Primary growth abnormality. Non-Neoplastic

More information

Tissues (Histology) Ch. 3 Human Anatomy lecture

Tissues (Histology) Ch. 3 Human Anatomy lecture I. Histology the study of tissues A. 4 basic tissue types epithelial connective muscle nervous Tissues (Histology) Ch. 3 Human Anatomy lecture B. Usually found in combinations to form organs. C. As you

More information

Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date:

Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date: Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date: Introduction: Histology is often a very difficult topic for students. You are expected to understand the morphology and function of

More information

Basic Professional Training Program for Associate Medical Technologist

Basic Professional Training Program for Associate Medical Technologist Basic Professional Training Program for Associate Medical Technologist Basic Cytology Part 2 (Preparartion and normal morphology) Normal Morphology in Liquid based Gynecologic Cytology Speaker: Mr. Fung

More information

Diagnostic Challenge. Department of Pathology,

Diagnostic Challenge. Department of Pathology, Cytology of Pleural Fluid as a Diagnostic Challenge Paavo Pääkkö,, MD, PhD Chief Physician and Head of the Department Department of Pathology, Oulu University Hospital,, Finland Oulu University Hospital

More information

PATHOLOGY OF THE PLEURA: Mesothelioma and mimickers Necessity of Immunohistochemistry. M. Praet

PATHOLOGY OF THE PLEURA: Mesothelioma and mimickers Necessity of Immunohistochemistry. M. Praet PATHOLOGY OF THE PLEURA: Mesothelioma and mimickers Necessity of Immunohistochemistry M. Praet Pathology of the Pleura Normal serosa: visceral and parietal layers Inflammation Neoplasia: Primary: mesothelioma

More information

EPITHELIUM: TYPES, LOCATION, FUNCTIONS (I).

EPITHELIUM: TYPES, LOCATION, FUNCTIONS (I). EPITHELIUM: TYPES, LOCATION, FUNCTIONS (I). CELL AND FOUNDATION MODULE. (LECTURE OUTLINE) LEARNING OBJECTIVES. At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: Define epithelium. Discuss general

More information

CARCINOGENICITY TESTING OF ASBESTOS FIBRES - A PRELIMINARY STUDY

CARCINOGENICITY TESTING OF ASBESTOS FIBRES - A PRELIMINARY STUDY CARCINOGENICITY TESTING OF ASBESTOS FIBRES - A PRELIMINARY STUDY Extensive data is available on lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma caused by asbestos in man and animals. The object of the present work

More information

Male. Female. Death rates from lung cancer in USA

Male. Female. Death rates from lung cancer in USA Male Female Death rates from lung cancer in USA Smoking represents an interesting combination of an entrenched industry and a clearly drug-induced cancer Tobacco Use in the US, 1900-2000 5000 100 Per Capita

More information

SEMESTER VI 3 RD YEAR PATHOLOGY KIDNEY TUMORS

SEMESTER VI 3 RD YEAR PATHOLOGY KIDNEY TUMORS SEMESTER VI 3 RD YEAR PATHOLOGY KIDNEY TUMORS LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the lecture, students should be able to: Know the pathology of renal tumors. RENAL TUMORS RENAL PAPILLARY ADENOMA Common

More information

Animal Tissues. I. Epithelial Tissue

Animal Tissues. I. Epithelial Tissue Animal Tissues There are four types of tissues found in animals: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. In this lab you will learn the major characteristics of each tissue

More information

Lab Exercise 4. Epithelial Tissues. Connective Tissue Proper. What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise:

Lab Exercise 4. Epithelial Tissues. Connective Tissue Proper. What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise: Lab Exercise 4 Epithelial Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Textbook Reference: See Chapter 4 What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise: Be able to identify each type

More information

ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF SECRETORY GRANULES FROM RAT ISLETS OF LANGERHANS. II. Ultrastructure of the Beta Granule

ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF SECRETORY GRANULES FROM RAT ISLETS OF LANGERHANS. II. Ultrastructure of the Beta Granule ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF SECRETORY GRANULES FROM RAT ISLETS OF LANGERHANS II Ultrastructure of the Beta Granule MARIE H GREIDER, S L HOWELL, and P E LACY From the Department of Pathology, Washington

More information

ALTHOUGH excellent accounts have been published in recent years of

ALTHOUGH excellent accounts have been published in recent years of THE EXFOLIATIVE CYTOLOGY OF DIFFUSE MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA BERNARD NAYLOR Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. PLATE~ LXXXVI-XCI ALTHOUGH excellent accounts have

More information

RAD 223. Radiography physiology. Lecture Notes. First lecture: Cell and Tissue

RAD 223. Radiography physiology. Lecture Notes. First lecture: Cell and Tissue RAD 223 Radiography physiology Lecture Notes First lecture: Cell and Tissue Physiology: the word physiology derived from a Greek word for study of nature. It is the study of how the body and its part work

More information

Two main classes: Epithelial Connective (synovial) Epithelial. Cutaneous Mucous Serous

Two main classes: Epithelial Connective (synovial) Epithelial. Cutaneous Mucous Serous Two main classes: Epithelial Connective (synovial) Epithelial Cutaneous Mucous Serous Epithelial Membranes = sheet of epithelia + connective tissue base 1. Cutaneous membrane: outer skin layer (stratified

More information

Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers

Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Mesothelioma: Questions

More information

Something Old, Something New.

Something Old, Something New. Something Old, Something New. Michelle A. Fajardo, D.O. Loma Linda University Medical Center Clinical Presentation 6 year old boy, presented with hematuria Renal mass demonstrated by ultrasound & CT scan

More information

The develpemental origin of mesothelium

The develpemental origin of mesothelium Mesothelioma Tallinn 14.12.06 Henrik Wolff Finnish Institute of Occupational Health The develpemental origin of mesothelium Mesodermal cavities (pleura, peritoneum and pericardium ) are lined with mesenchymal

More information

Diseases. Inflammations Non-inflammatory pleural effusions Pneumothorax Tumours

Diseases. Inflammations Non-inflammatory pleural effusions Pneumothorax Tumours Pleura Visceral pleura covers lungs and extends into fissures Parietal pleura limits mediastinum and covers dome of diaphragm and inner aspect of chest wall. Two layers between them (pleural cavity) contains

More information

SEER Training Modules

SEER Training Modules http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/lymphatic/ WiRED International wishes to thank the National Cancer Institute for use of this information. SEER Training Modules Introduction to the Lymphatic System

More information

Malignant Mesothelioma in Urban Dogs

Malignant Mesothelioma in Urban Dogs Vet. Pathol. 20: 53 1-540 (I 983) Malignant Mesothelioma in Urban Dogs M. L. HARBISON and J. J. GODLESKI Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Angel1 Memorial Animal Hospital, Brigham and Women

More information

Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: relation

Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: relation Thorax 1982;37:810-815 Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: relation between histological type and clinical behaviour MR LAW, MARGARET E HODSON, BE HEARD From the Cardiothoracic Institute and Brompton

More information

Histologic Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Mesothelioma

Histologic Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Mesothelioma THE YALE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 54 (1981), 173-180 Histologic Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Mesothelioma DARRYL CARTER, M.D. Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine,

More information

EDUCATIONAL COMMENTARY PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELL MORPHOLOGY IN SEPTICEMIA

EDUCATIONAL COMMENTARY PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELL MORPHOLOGY IN SEPTICEMIA Learning Objectives Upon completion of this exercise participants will be able to: identify morphologic features of mature and immature leukocytes. distinguish extracellular and intracellular bacteria

More information

(From the Department of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School, Boston)

(From the Department of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School, Boston) THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTRIC ORGAN OF THE ELECTRIC EEL AND TORPEDO RAY* PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION BY JOHN H. LUFT, M.D. (From the Department of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School, Boston) PLATE 76 Electric

More information

Diseases of peritoneum Lect. Al Qassim University, Faculty of Medicine Phase II Year III, CMD 332 Pathology Department 31-32

Diseases of peritoneum Lect. Al Qassim University, Faculty of Medicine Phase II Year III, CMD 332 Pathology Department 31-32 Diseases of peritoneum Lect Al Qassim University, Faculty of Medicine Phase II Year III, CMD 332 Pathology Department 31-32 Describe the etiology, pathogenesis and types of peritonitis Define ascites and

More information

EDUCATIONAL COMMENTARY - GRANULOCYTE FORMATION AND CHRONIC MYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

EDUCATIONAL COMMENTARY - GRANULOCYTE FORMATION AND CHRONIC MYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA Educational commentary is provided through our affiliation with the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). To obtain FREE CME/CMLE credits click on Earn CE Credits under Continuing Education

More information

Tissue Slides for Studying

Tissue Slides for Studying Tissue Slides for Studying Simple squamous single layer of flat cells substances pass easily through line air sacs line blood vessels line lymphatic vessels Surface of simple squamous Simple cuboidal single

More information

Post-Mortem Diagnosis of a Rare Biphasic Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma in an Indian Domestic Fowl (Gallus Domesticus)

Post-Mortem Diagnosis of a Rare Biphasic Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma in an Indian Domestic Fowl (Gallus Domesticus) ISSN 2320-5407 International Journal of Advanced Research (2014), Volume 2, Issue 7, 380-384 Journal homepage: http://www.journalijar.com INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH RESEARCH ARTICLE Post-Mortem

More information

Development of Teeth

Development of Teeth Development of Teeth Dr. Khaldoun Darwich Specialist in Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Hamburg University PhD Hamburg University Academic Teacher - Department of OMF Surgery in Damascus University Instructor

More information

Cells. Introduction WSBCTC 1

Cells. Introduction WSBCTC 1 Cells Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are composed of cells. While there are several characteristics that are common to all cells, such as the presence of a cell membrane, cytoplasm,

More information

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams

The Cell: Organelle Diagrams The Cell: Organelle Diagrams Fig 7-4. A prokaryotic cell. Lacking a true nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell, the prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure. Only

More information

More than 2,500 people are diagnosed with mesothelioma in the UK each year.

More than 2,500 people are diagnosed with mesothelioma in the UK each year. This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding mesothelioma. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 5. Contents Introduction Pleural mesothelioma Peritoneal

More information

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes

Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes a. Cells tissues organs body systems Division of labour occurs in multicellular organisms (rather than each cell carrying out every function) Most cells become

More information

Section B: Epithelial Tissue 1. Where are epithelial tissues found within the body? 2. What are the functions of the epithelial tissues?

Section B: Epithelial Tissue 1. Where are epithelial tissues found within the body? 2. What are the functions of the epithelial tissues? Tissue worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Histology Cells are the smallest units of life. In complex organisms, cells group together with one another based on similar structure and function to form tissues.

More information

TUMORS OF THE TESTICULAR ADNEXA and SPERMATIC CORD

TUMORS OF THE TESTICULAR ADNEXA and SPERMATIC CORD TUMORS OF THE TESTICULAR ADNEXA and SPERMATIC CORD Victor E. Reuter, MD Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center reuterv@mskcc.org 66 th Annual Pathology Seminar California Society of Pathologists Short

More information

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013

CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: The Cell Theory Terminology Parts of Plant Cells: Organelles Difference between plant and animal cells

More information

Cardiac Masses and Tumors

Cardiac Masses and Tumors Cardiac Masses and Tumors Question: What is the diagnosis? A. Aortic valve myxoma B. Papillary fibroelastoma C. Vegetation from Infective endocarditis D. Thrombus in transit E. None of the above Answer:

More information

This module consists of four units which will provide the user a basic knowledge of cancer as a disease.

This module consists of four units which will provide the user a basic knowledge of cancer as a disease. Module 5: What is Cancer? This module consists of four units which will provide the user a basic knowledge of cancer as a disease. After completing this module, cancer abstractors will be able to: Define

More information

H istochem istry in the Diagnosis o f M alignant M esotheliom a *

H istochem istry in the Diagnosis o f M alignant M esotheliom a * A n n a l s o f C l i n i c a l L a b o r a t o r y S c i e n c e, Vol. 3, No. 3 Copyright 1973, Institute for Clinical Science H istochem istry in the Diagnosis o f M alignant M esotheliom a * MILTON

More information

Objectives. Mylene T. Truong, MD. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Background

Objectives. Mylene T. Truong, MD. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Background Imaging of Pleural Tumors Mylene T. Truong, MD Imaging of Pleural Tumours Mylene T. Truong, M. D. University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX Objectives To review tumors involving the

More information

Carcinosarcoma of the Ovary

Carcinosarcoma of the Ovary Carcinosarcoma of the Ovary A Rare Finding Presented By: Kathryn Kiely Anisa I. Kanbour School of Cytotechnology of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, PA Patient History 55 year old

More information

Update on Mesothelioma

Update on Mesothelioma November 8, 2012 Update on Mesothelioma Intro incidence and nomenclature Update on Classification Diagnostic specimens Morphologic features Epithelioid Histology Biphasic Histology Immunohistochemical

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF MOUSE-RAT PARABIOSIS ON THE GROWTH IN RATS OF A TRANSPLANT- ABLE MOUSE SARCOMA.*

THE INFLUENCE OF MOUSE-RAT PARABIOSIS ON THE GROWTH IN RATS OF A TRANSPLANT- ABLE MOUSE SARCOMA.* THE INFLUENCE OF MOUSE-RAT PARABIOSIS ON THE GROWTH IN RATS OF A TRANSPLANT- ABLE MOUSE SARCOMA.* BY R. A. LAMBERT. (From the Department of Pathology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University,

More information

Anatomy PHL 212. By Dr Tajdar Husain Khan

Anatomy PHL 212. By Dr Tajdar Husain Khan Anatomy PHL 212 By Dr Tajdar Husain Khan Overview of Anatomy Anatomy(from the Greek word anatome,"dissection") is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things The

More information

Chapter 5 Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Four major tissue types. 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4.

Chapter 5 Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Epithelial Tissues. Four major tissue types. 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Chapter 5 Tissues Four major tissue types 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nervous 1 General characteristics - cover organs and the body line body cavities line hollow organs have a free surface

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam 1 Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam 1 1. Which definition is the best definition of the term gross anatomy? a. The study of cells. b. The study of tissues. c. The study of structures

More information

The Nucleus: DNA, Chromatin And Chromosomes

The Nucleus: DNA, Chromatin And Chromosomes The Nucleus: DNA, Chromatin And Chromosomes Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy, University of Malta. Objectives By the end of this unit the student should be able to: 1. List the major structural

More information

NPTEL Biotechnology Tissue Engineering. Tissue Organization

NPTEL Biotechnology Tissue Engineering. Tissue Organization Tissue Organization S. Swaminathan Director Centre for Nanotechnology & Advanced Biomaterials School of Chemical & Biotechnology SASTRA University Thanjavur 613 401 Tamil Nadu Joint Initiative of IITs

More information

MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA UPDATE ON PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA UPDATE ON PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA CLASSIFICATION MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA UPDATE ON PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY Sisko Anttila, MD, PhD Jorvi Hospital Laboratory of Pathology Helsinki University Hospital Espoo,

More information

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads

Plasma Membrane hydrophilic polar heads The Parts of the Cell 3 main parts in ALL cells: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material this is about the parts of a generic eukaryotic cell Plasma Membrane -is a fluid mosaic model membrane is fluid

More information

First Quiz. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

First Quiz. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings First Quiz First Hour Exam is next Monday!!! Introduction to Tissues Histology is the study of tissues Individual body cells are specialized w/ each cell type performing specific functions that maintain

More information

R-16: Chronic nonspecific cervisit

R-16: Chronic nonspecific cervisit R-16: Chronic nonspecific cervisit Ectoservikal squamous epithelium Endoservical columnar epithelium Dilated cystic endoservical glands lymphoplasmocytes R18:Squamous cell carcinoma insitu Neoplastic epithelium

More information

SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM 1 -- HUMAN ANATOMY

SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM 1 -- HUMAN ANATOMY SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM 1 -- HUMAN ANATOMY 1. The subcutaneous layer consists mostly of. a. smooth muscle c. areolar and adipose connective tissues d. melanin e. keratin 2. Which of the following statements

More information

PRIMARY SEROUS CARCINOMA OF PERITONEUM: A CASE REPORT

PRIMARY SEROUS CARCINOMA OF PERITONEUM: A CASE REPORT PRIMARY SEROUS CARCINOMA OF PERITONEUM: A CASE REPORT Dott. Francesco Pontieri (*) U.O. di Anatomia Patologica P.O. di Rossano (CS) Dott. Gian Franco Zannoni Anatomia Patologica Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia

More information

Primary -Benign - Malignant Secondary

Primary -Benign - Malignant Secondary TUMOURS OF THE LUNG Primary -Benign - Malignant Secondary The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing almost logarithmically and is now reaching epidemic levels. The overall cure rate is very low

More information

Ground substance is the component of connective tissue between the cells and the fibers

Ground substance is the component of connective tissue between the cells and the fibers Connective Tissues Directions: Insert and install your Interactions: Foundations CD. a. Click the "Contents" button. b. Open the Tissue Level of Organization file. c. Click on Anatomy Overviews. d. Work

More information

MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA UPDATE ON PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA UPDATE ON PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA UPDATE ON PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY Sisko Anttila, MD, PhD Jorvi Hospital Laboratory of Pathology Helsinki University Hospital Espoo, Finland 2nd Nordic Conference on Applied

More information

INFLAMMATORY PLEURAL EFFUSION

INFLAMMATORY PLEURAL EFFUSION PLEURA- LESIONS LESIONS OF PLEURA Primary Intra pleural bacterial infections Neoplasm (mesothelioma) Secondary A complication of some underlying disease PLEURAL EFFUSION Common manifestation of both primary

More information

Cytopathology Case Presentation #8

Cytopathology Case Presentation #8 Cytopathology Case Presentation #8 Emily E. Volk, MD William Beaumont Hospital, Troy, MI Jonathan H. Hughes, MD Laboratory Medicine Consultants, Las Vegas, Nevada Clinical History 44 year old woman presents

More information

General Rules SEER Summary Stage 2000. Objectives. What is Staging? 5/8/2014

General Rules SEER Summary Stage 2000. Objectives. What is Staging? 5/8/2014 General Rules SEER Summary Stage 2000 Linda Mulvihill Public Health Advisor NCRA Annual Meeting May 2014 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division of Cancer Prevention

More information

THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM.

THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM. THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM. OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Two groups of organs compose

More information

Practical Effusion Cytology

Practical Effusion Cytology Practical Effusion Cytology A Community Pathologist s Approach to Immunocytochemistry in Body Fluid Cytology Emily E. Volk, MD William Beaumont Hospital Troy, MI College of American Pathologists 2004.

More information

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells

Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms

More information

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function 7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function For the next two chapters (7 and 9) we will study the skeletal system. Although the major feature of this system is the bones, the skeletal system also consists

More information

Pleural Mesotheliomas in Sprague-D~wley Rats by Erionite: First Experimental Evidence

Pleural Mesotheliomas in Sprague-D~wley Rats by Erionite: First Experimental Evidence ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 29, 238-244 (1982) Pleural Mesotheliomas in Sprague-D~wley Rats by Erionite: First Experimental Evidence CESARE MALTONI, FRANCO MINARDI, AND LEONILDO MORISI Institute oj Oncology,

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System The Respiratory System Respiratory system functions mainly as gas exchange system for O 2 andco 2 cellular respiration (energy production) closely tied to circulatory system General Functions of Respiratory

More information

INFLAMMATION AND REACTIVE CHANGES IN CERVICAL EPITHELIUM

INFLAMMATION AND REACTIVE CHANGES IN CERVICAL EPITHELIUM INFLAMMATION AND REACTIVE CHANGES IN CERVICAL EPITHELIUM Inflammation is a response of a tissue to injury, often caused by invading microorganisms. The suffix which indicates inflammation is "-itis" (the

More information

White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes

White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes Lec.5 Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Medical Physiology White Blood Cells (WBCs) or Leukocytes Although leukocytes are far less numerous than red blood cells, they are important to body defense against disease. On average,

More information

1. outer fibrous layer contains fibroblasts that secrete collagen

1. outer fibrous layer contains fibroblasts that secrete collagen I. cartilage A. perichondrium 1. outer fibrous layer contains fibroblasts that secrete collagen 2. inner chondrogenic layer contains cells that can proliferate and turn into chondroblasts B. cartilage

More information

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues

Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Biology 13A Lab #3: Cells and Tissues Lab #3 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes.... 28 Introduction...... 28 Activity 1: Eukaryotic Cell Structure... 29 Activity 2: Perspectives on Tissue Preparations.

More information

Effusions: Mesothelioma and Metastatic Cancers

Effusions: Mesothelioma and Metastatic Cancers Effusions: Mesothelioma and Metastatic Cancers Malignant Mesothelioma Incidence: 2,500 cases/year ~60-80% pts with pleural MM relationship with asbestos exposure Other risk factors: radiation, other carcinogens,

More information

Cell Structure and Function. Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron

Cell Structure and Function. Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron Cell Structure and Function Eukaryotic Cell: Neuron Cell Structure and Function Eukaryotic Cells: Blood Cells Cell Structure and Function Prokaryotic Cells: Bacteria Cell Structure and Function All living

More information

What is Cancer? Cancer is a genetic disease: Cancer typically involves a change in gene expression/function:

What is Cancer? Cancer is a genetic disease: Cancer typically involves a change in gene expression/function: Cancer is a genetic disease: Inherited cancer Sporadic cancer What is Cancer? Cancer typically involves a change in gene expression/function: Qualitative change Quantitative change Any cancer causing genetic

More information

Lymphatic System. Chapter 20. Lymphatic System: Overview. Consists of two semi-independent parts:

Lymphatic System. Chapter 20. Lymphatic System: Overview. Consists of two semi-independent parts: Lymphatic System Chapter 20 Lymphatic System: Overview Consists of two semi-independent parts: A network of lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs scattered throughout the body Returns interstitial

More information

The evolving pathology of solitary fibrous tumours. Luciane Dreher Irion MREH / CMFT / NSOPS

The evolving pathology of solitary fibrous tumours. Luciane Dreher Irion MREH / CMFT / NSOPS The evolving pathology of solitary fibrous tumours Luciane Dreher Irion MREH / CMFT / NSOPS Historical review Haemangiopericytoma (HPC) first described primarily as a soft tissue vascular tumour of pericytic

More information

A. Pericardial smear. Examination of the pericardial aspirate can provide useful diagnostic information.

A. Pericardial smear. Examination of the pericardial aspirate can provide useful diagnostic information. 5. PERICARDIUM Heart is encased by the pericardium which has a visceral layer (a) covering the heart and the parietal layer (b). In normal states it is thin, transparent and the myocardium can be seen

More information

Histology. Epithelial Tissue

Histology. Epithelial Tissue Histology Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue Lines internal and external body surfaces Forms glands Epithelial Tissue Little extracellular matrix Attached on one side Avascular Basement membrane Apical

More information

DESMOPLASTIC SMALL ROUND CELL TUMOR: A RARE PATHOLOGY PUZZLE

DESMOPLASTIC SMALL ROUND CELL TUMOR: A RARE PATHOLOGY PUZZLE DESMOPLASTIC SMALL ROUND CELL TUMOR: A RARE PATHOLOGY PUZZLE Ryan Granger University of Rhode Island Cytotechnology program May 2, 2015 ASCT Annual Meeting Nashville, Tennessee DESMOPLASTIC SMALL ROUND

More information

Immunohistochemistry on cytology specimens from pleural and peritoneal fluid

Immunohistochemistry on cytology specimens from pleural and peritoneal fluid Immunohistochemistry on cytology specimens from pleural and peritoneal fluid Dr Naveena Singh Consultant Pathologist Bart health NHS Trust London United Kingdom Disclosures and Acknowledgements I have

More information

PROTOCOL OF THE RITA DATA QUALITY STUDY

PROTOCOL OF THE RITA DATA QUALITY STUDY PROTOCOL OF THE RITA DATA QUALITY STUDY INTRODUCTION The RITA project is aimed at estimating the burden of rare malignant tumours in Italy using the population based cancer registries (CRs) data. One of

More information

An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Objectives Define anatomy and physiology Identify the levels of organization in organisms from simplest to most complex Identify the organ systems of the human

More information

CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER

CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING CANCER INTRODUCTION We are witnessing an era of great discovery in the field of cancer research. New insights into the causes and development of cancer are emerging. These discoveries

More information

Vertebrate Body Organization

Vertebrate Body Organization Vertebrate Body Organization Digestive tube suspended in coelom from mouth to anus Body supported by internal skeleton of jointed bones Vertebrae and Cranium protects nervous system Diaphragm divides coelom

More information

Biol 111 Comparative & Human Anatomy Lab 9: Circulatory System of the Cat Spring 2014

Biol 111 Comparative & Human Anatomy Lab 9: Circulatory System of the Cat Spring 2014 Biol 111 Comparative & Human Anatomy Lab 9: Circulatory System of the Cat Spring 2014 Philip J. Bergmann Lab Objectives 1. To learn how blood flows through a dual circuit circulation with lungs. 2. To

More information

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1

Mesothelioma. 1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.x-plain.com ocft0101 Last reviewed: 03/21/2013 1 Mesothelioma Introduction Mesothelioma is a type of cancer. It starts in the tissue that lines your lungs, stomach, heart, and other organs. This tissue is called mesothelium. Most people who get this

More information

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes.

Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. LESSON 1. CELLS & TISSUES Lesson Aim To explain the human body at a microscopic level, including the structure and function of cells, tissues and membranes. THE CELL All living matter is composed of functional

More information

J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pissn- 2349-2562, eissn- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 33/Aug. 17, 2015 Page 5063

J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pissn- 2349-2562, eissn- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 33/Aug. 17, 2015 Page 5063 PERITONEAL MALIGNANT MESOTHELIOMA: A RARE S. R. Dhamotharan 1, S. Shanthi Nirmala 2, F. Celine Foustina Mary 3, M. Arul Raj Kumar 4, R. Vinothprabhu 5 HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: S. R. Dhamotharan, S. Shanthi

More information

What is Mesothelioma?

What is Mesothelioma? What is Mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that develops in the mesothelial cells found in one s body. These cells form membranous linings that surround and protect the body s organs and

More information

CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Lung cancer affects a life-sustaining system of the body, the respiratory system. The respiratory system is responsible for one of the essential

More information

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues and Integumentary System. Biology 105 Lecture 7 Chapter 4

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues and Integumentary System. Biology 105 Lecture 7 Chapter 4 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology: Tissues and Integumentary System Biology 105 Lecture 7 Chapter 4 Outline I. Tissues A. Epithelial B. Connective C. Muscle D. Nervous tissues II. Cell-to-cell contact

More information

Tissue Types. 1. Epithelial Tissue (or epithelium) is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body

Tissue Types. 1. Epithelial Tissue (or epithelium) is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body Tissue Types A. Tissues 1. Tissues: groups of cells similar in structure and function 2. Four Types of Tissues: a. Epithelium: for covering b. Connective Tissue: for support c. Muscle: for movement d.

More information

95% of childhood kidney cancer cases are Wilms tumours. Childhood kidney cancer is extremely rare, with only 90 cases a year in

95% of childhood kidney cancer cases are Wilms tumours. Childhood kidney cancer is extremely rare, with only 90 cases a year in James Whale Fund for Kidney Cancer Childhood kidney cancer factsheet Kidney cancer rarely afflicts children and about 90 paediatric cases are diagnosed in the UK each year. About 75% of childhood kidney

More information

Renal Cell Carcinoma: Advances in Diagnosis B. Iványi, MD

Renal Cell Carcinoma: Advances in Diagnosis B. Iványi, MD Renal Cell Carcinoma: Advances in Diagnosis B. Iványi, MD Department of Pathology University of Szeged, Hungary ISUP Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia Am J Surg Pathol 37:14691489, 2013 13 histologic

More information

Neoplasms. Review of Normal Cells. Bio 375 Pathophysiology

Neoplasms. Review of Normal Cells. Bio 375 Pathophysiology Neoplasms Bio 375 Pathophysiology Review of Normal Cells During its life span, each cell follows the basic cell cycle of growth and reproduction called mitosis The timing of each event varies with the

More information

PRODYNOV. Targeted Photodynamic Therapy of Ovarian Peritoneal Carcinomatosis ONCO-THAI. Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology

PRODYNOV. Targeted Photodynamic Therapy of Ovarian Peritoneal Carcinomatosis ONCO-THAI. Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology PRODYNOV Targeted Photodynamic Therapy of Ovarian Peritoneal Carcinomatosis ONCO-THAI Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology Inserm ONCO-THAI «Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology» Inserm ONCO-THAI

More information