1 VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1, 2013 Predictors of student preference for online courses Louis Charles Glover, EdD The University of Tennessee at Martin Veronica Evans Lewis, PhD The University of Louisiana at Monroe Abstract Online education has increased significantly in recent years. However, a comprehensive examination of factors that predict who will take online courses has not been located. This study explored demographic and opinion influences on preferences regarding current and future online courses for 152 college student participants. Results indicate that students who expressed a desire for more online courses at their university tended to prefer online courses. Additionally, the greatest number of online courses were taken by females who: are older than 20 years of age; work 40 hours or more per week; express preference for online or blended courses; consider online courses to be equivalent in difficulty to other course formats; and, express desire for more online course offerings at their university. As such, when marketing online courses, university personnel would be wise to target these groups and focus on the question of whether members of these groups desired more online course offerings at their universities. Key Words: online courses, face-to-face courses
2 2 Introduction In recent years, online education in university settings has increased significantly for both undergraduate (Allen & Seaman, 2007; Palloff & Pratt, 2001; Waits & Lewis, 2003) and graduate (Karber, 2003; Lyons, 2004) levels. Although large public educational institutions are more likely to offer online education than small private institutions (Allen & Seaman, 2006), approximately 29% of all college students in the United States are enrolled in one or more online courses (Farkas, 2011). Online education is critical to the long-term strategy of an institution (Lytle, 2011) as a result of student demands, issues of access to campus-based courses, and enrollment concerns (Farkas, 2011). Jenkins (2011) indicated that colleges and universities are offering more online courses because they can provide online courses much more cheaply than traditional courses while charging roughly the same tuition for both types. Due to increasingly positive perceptions regarding the effectiveness and relevance of online courses (Ulmer, Watson, & Derby, 2007) methods for offering a diversity of online course content are being explored (Menon & Rubin, 2011). Students tend toward taking online courses due to the flexibility of scheduling (Angiello, 2010; Coyner & McCann, 2004; Reynold, 2012), employment and family obligations (Karber, 2003; Lyons, 2004), past experience with online courses (Glover & Lewis, in press), and geographic proximity to degree granting institutions (Deal III, 2002). Some students prefer the anonymity of online classes as well as the increased student interactions that are facilitated by use of discussion board and course forums (Coleman, 2005). According to Harrington and Loffredo (2010), a majority of introverts prefer online classes (perhaps as a result of student anonymity) in comparison to extraverts who tend to prefer face-to-face classes.
3 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 3 In discussing some of the disadvantages to taking online courses Jenkins (2011) identified lower success rates in online courses (50%) as compared to face-to-face classes (70-75%). Bejerano (2008) and Jain, Jain, and Jain (2011) questioned the appropriateness of using online courses for all course types and academic disciplines. Glover and Lewis (in press) conducted a student survey, which indicated that history, sociology, and computer science courses were best offered online, whereas theoretical mathematics, applied mathematics, and engineering courses were least appropriate for the online format. Online courses have been criticized on the basis of issues regarding cultural effectiveness (Lee, 2009), difficulty in addressing differences in student learning styles (Gallagher-Lepak, Reilly, & Killion, 2009), lack of a collaborative instructional environment (Kurth, 2012), and the need for a level of student maturity that often is not found in young college students (Brown, 2011). Many online courses are content heavy and require completion of more assignments than are required in face-to-face courses (Deal III, 2002; Dykman & Davis, 2008; Jock, 2010) perhaps because of concern for the level of rigor associated with online instruction (Buck, 2001, Federal Trade Commission, 2006) A minimal level of technical competence is necessary for completion of online courses (Jenkins, 2011). The assumption that the current generation of students is technologically sophisticated is not necessarily true (Muilenburg & Berge, 2005) and may especially be inaccurate for low income, disadvantaged, and older students (Brown, 2011) who either are not computer literate or do not have personal computers (Davis, 2011). Online courses require student self-discipline (Allen & Seaman, 2006). However, lack of motivation and self-discipline are problems identified in today s students (Taylor, 2003). As a
4 4 result, administrators in some educational settings advise students of the need for selfmotivation, problem solving abilities, and time management skills in order to successfully complete online courses (Are online classes for you, 2008). Despite the fact that some software companies now market products designed to assess whether students can handle the demands of the online environment, few schools pre-screen online courses to determine which students have the best chance of success (Fertig, 2012) in this course format. Much research relative to the general topic of online education concerns faculty preferences for teaching online courses (Farkas, 2011), student preferences for taking courses online rather than in traditional settings (Fillion, Limayem, Laferriere, & Mantha, 2009; Glover & Lewis, in press; Harrington & Loffredo, 2010; Why do students like online learning, 2005), and problems associated with the rapid growth of online course offerings (Bejerano, 2008; Brown, 2011; Jain et al., 2012; Kurth, 2012). However, a comprehensive examination of factors that predict student preference for online courses has not been located. The purpose of the study was to explore participant demographics and preferences associated with a completion of online courses and to identify which of those demographic variables best predict which students will take additional online courses. Colleges, universities, and other secondary institutions of higher learning can use the findings of this study to make informed decisions about proposed changes to their online course offerings and the audience to which these courses might best be marketed. Participants Method College students from three universities in the southeast participated in this research study. The majority of the 152 participants was female (n = 106, 69.7%), between 20 and 29 years of age (n = 64, 42.1%), and identified themselves as living in rural areas (n = 62, 40.3%).
5 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 5 Most participants were full time undergraduate students working toward a degree (n = 97, 63.8%) and indicated that they worked between 1 and 39 hours per week (n = 58, 38.2%). Instrument Data obtained from a survey developed and used by Glover and Lewis (in press) for a previous study was used in the current study. The survey contained five demographic questions and nine questions that assessed participants preferences and opinions regarding online courses. Nine demographic and opinion variables were used in the current study. These variables included the participant s geographic location (i.e., rural, suburban, urban), gender, age, educational status (i.e., level of current enrollment in college), work status, course-type preference (i.e., online vs. face-to-face), desire for more online courses, need for faculty training to teach online courses, and comparative course difficulty for online versus face-to-face courses. Examples of responses to questions in the survey that were not used in the current study included open ended reasons for course preference and indications of which courses could best and least be offered online. Procedure After the authors gained Institutional Review Board approval, data from the previously used survey were accessed. In that survey process, course instructors from the three participating institutions using and course management systems solicited participation. Potential participants were directed to access the survey via surveymonkey.com. A consent statement was included in the initial correspondence and also was provided on the initial page of the survey. The consent statement described the purpose of the study and participants rights. Completion of
6 6 the survey was voluntary, and no incentives were offered for participation. Personally identifying information was neither collected nor reported for participants. The authors of this study had to assume that participants gave honest answers to all questions, only completed the survey once, and were either currently enrolled or had recently been enrolled in college. The consent statement also indicated that the survey should not be completed by anyone under the age of 18, and the authors had to assume that participants adhered to that requirement as well. Results Four opinion variables (i.e., course-type preference, desire for more online courses, need for faculty training, comparative course difficulty) were initially subjected to Goodness of Fit chi-square in an effort to determine whether observed response frequencies met expectations. Significant differences in response frequencies were identified for two of the four variables. For the desire for more online courses variable, a majority (n = 86, 57%) of participants indicated a desire for more online course offerings at their university, χ2 (2, N=152) = 39.49, p =.00. Likewise, for the need for faculty training variable, a majority of participants (n = 106, 70%) indicated a for faculty training relative to teaching online courses, χ2 (2, N=152) = 97.32, p =.00. In contrast, for the course-type preference variable, a relatively equal number of participants indicated preference for online (n = 53, 35%) and face-to-face courses (n = 51, 34%), χ 2 (2, N=152) =.250, p =.88. Also, for the comparative ease of course completion variable, a relatively equal number of participants indicated that online courses were either more difficult to complete (n = 59, 39%) or about the same level of difficulty (n = 54, 36%) as face-to-face courses, χ 2 (2, N=152) = 4.28, p =.12. Table 1 provides a summary of participant responses for all four opinion variables.
7 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 7 Each of the five demographic geographic (i.e., location, gender, age, educational status, work status) and four opinion (i.e., course-type preference, desire for more online courses, need for faculty training to teach online courses, comparative course difficulty for online versus faceto-face courses) variables were further analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate whether significant differences existed in the number of online courses taken based on responses provided for categorical options within each variable. Participants had taken an average of 4.28 online courses with 10 or more courses being the most frequently endorsed choice. See Table 2 for a summary of endorsements for number of online courses taken. Oneway ANOVA results were mixed with significant differences being identified for three demographic and three opinion variables. Significant differences in the number of online courses taken were identified by age, F (4, 151) = 6.55, p =.000, η 2 =.151; gender, F (1, 151) = 15.93, p =.000, η 2 =.096; employment status, F (3, 151) = 10.52, p =.000, η 2 =.176; desire for more online courses, F (2, 151) = 16.71, p =.000, η 2 =.184; course-type preference, F (2, 151) = 36.89, p =.000, η 2 =.33; and, comparative course difficulty, F (2, 151) = 5.14, p =.007, η 2 =.065. No other significant differences were identified. Examination of means and post hoc analyses using Tukey identified the following group differences. Participants in the age range (m = 2.38) took significantly fewer online classes than did members of each of the other age groups. Females (m = 4.99) took significantly more online classes than males (m = 2.65). Participants who desired to take more online courses (m = 5.58) had already taken significantly more online courses than those who either did not desire more online courses (m = 2.4) or those who had no opinion on this issue (m = 2.71). Participants who preferred taking online courses (m = 6.85) had taken significantly more online
8 8 courses than participants who preferred face-to-face (m = 2.10) or blended courses (m = 3.77), and participants who preferred blended courses had taken significantly more online courses than participants who preferred face-to-face courses. Participants working 40 or more hours per week (m = 6.86) had taken significantly more online courses than participants from each of the other employment groups (m = 3.72 or less). Participants who indicated that online courses were equivalent in difficulty to face-to-face courses (m = 4.57) had taken significantly more online courses than participants who indicated that online courses were either more (m = 2.60) or less (m = 2.72) difficult than face-to-face courses. In an effort to determine which individual variable or combination of demographic (i.e., location, gender, age, employment status, educational status, number of online courses previously taken) and opinion (i.e., desire for more online courses, need for faculty training, comparative course difficulty) variables would best predict the grouping variable (i.e., preference for online courses), stepwise discriminant analysis was performed. Two discriminant functions were identified with a combined χ 2 (4) = 96.92, p =.000, Wilkes Lambda =.521. After removal of the first function, the second function failed to provide significant predictive contribution, χ 2 (1) =.13, p =.72, Wilkes Lambda =.99. The canonical correlation for function 1 (desire for more online courses) was good, R c =.69, and the canonical correlation for function 2 (number of online courses previously taken) was unimpressive, R c =.03. Function 1 has the greatest predictive ability accounting for 99.9% of the between-group variability, whereas function 2 only accounted for 0.1%. Examination of classification results indicated that 59.2% of all cases were correctly classified with preference breakdowns as follows: Preference for online courses, 40 of 53 cases (75.5%); preference for face-to-face courses, 34 of 51 cases (66.7%); and, preference for blended courses, 16 of 48 cases (33.3%).
9 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 9 Discussion Many universities include online course offerings as part of their long-term strategic plans (Lytle, 2011). Institutions seeking to address enrollment concerns (Farkas, 2011) and the financial impact of advancing the online course format (Jenkins, 2011) are encouraged to consider marketing online courses as a solution to declining college enrollment. This study explored participant demographics and preferences associated with a completion of online courses and sought to identify which of those demographic variables best predict which students will take additional online courses. Participants in the current study suggested relatively equal preference for online versus face-to-face courses. However, those participants who preferred online courses had taken, on average, significantly more online courses than participants who preferred face-to-face or blended courses. Similarly, a relatively equal number of current participants suggested that online courses were either more difficult or equal in difficulty to face-to-face courses. This perception could result from the increased workload that often is required in online courses (Deal III, 2002; Dykman & Davis, 2008). A majority (70%) of all participants indicated that faculty who teach online courses should be trained to provide instruction using the online format. Based on differences in the number of online courses taken by members of each demographic and opinion group, a description of the audience most likely to take online courses was summarized. According to results of the current study, the targeted audience to whom online courses should be marketed consists of females who: are older than 20 years of age; work 40 hours or more per week; express preference for online or blended courses; consider online
10 10 courses to be equivalent in difficulty to other course formats; and, express desire for more online course offerings at their university. Results of discriminant analysis confirmed that the best predictor of preference for online courses was the desire for more online course offerings at the participant s university. Although a second discriminant function emerged (i.e., number of online courses taken), it proved to provide minimal contribution (0.1%) to the prediction of preference for online courses. Examination of classification results indicated that a majority (59.2%) of all preference cases were correctly classified with preference for online courses maintaining the highest percentage of correct (75.5%) classifications and preference for blended courses maintaining the lowest percentage correct (33.3%). As such, when marketing materials to the previously described groups that are most likely to take online courses, university personnel would be wise to focus on the question of whether members of those groups desired more online course offerings at their universities. There were several limitations associated with this study. Participation in the survey was limited to students with enrollment histories at three public institutions in the southeast portion of the United States. As such, results may not reflect the opinions and preferences of college students in other parts of the country. The format of the survey limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Therefore, different results might have been derived had the survey questions been formatted in a different manner. Survey data were collected for only 5 months during the academic spring semester of A survey period that included both summer and fall semesters as well as the spring semester might have resulted in different results.
11 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 11 Recommendations for further study Because of the increase in online course offerings at universities, continued research into the need for and effectiveness of online education is required. Future studies should continue to examine student and faculty perspectives relative to desires for and satisfaction with online course offerings in order to better clarify the audience to whom these courses should target. A larger and more geographically diverse population that encompasses participants taking courses throughout the academic year should be examined in future studies to increase generalizability of results. Future studies should also focus more readily on collection of data (e.g., Likert scales) that may afford different types of analyses in evaluation of the research questions.
12 12 References Allen, I., & Seaman, J. (2006). Making the grade: Online education in the United States. Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium. Allen, I., & Seaman, J. (2007, October). Online nation: Five years of growth in online learning. Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium. Angiello, R. (2010). Study looks at online learning vs. traditional instruction. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 20(14), Are online classes for you? (2008). Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Los Angeles Southwest College Web site Bejerano, A. (2008). Raising the question #1: The genesis and evolution of online degree programs: Who are they for and what have we lost along the way? Communication Education, 57, Brown, R. (2011). Community college students perform worse online than face-to-face. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from Students/128281/ Buck, J. (2001). Assuring quality in distance education. Higher Education in Europe, 26, Coleman, S. (2005). Why do students like online learning? Retrieved May 10, 2012 from, Coyner, S., & McCann, P. (2004). Advantages and challenges of teaching in an electronic environment: The accommodate model. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31,
13 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 13 Davis, C. (2011). Many students still prefer traditional classes. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Deal III, W. (2002). Distance Learning: Teaching technology online. The Technology Teacher, 61, Dykman, C., & Davis, C. (2008). Online education forum: Part two teaching online versus teaching conventionally. Journal of Information Systems Education, 19, Farkas, K. (2011). Online education growing as colleges offer more classes to meet student demand. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Federal Trade Commission. (2006, October). Diploma mills: Degrees of deception. Retrieved June 1, 2012, from Fertig, J. (2012). Critiquing online learning, part two. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Fillion, G., Limayem, M., Laferriere, T., & Mantha, R. (2009). Integrating information and communication technologies into higher education: Investigating onsite and online students points of view. Open Learning, 24, Gallagher-Lepak, S., Reilly, J., & Killion, C. (2009). Nursing student perceptions of community in online learning. Contemporary Nurse, 32, Glover, L., & Lewis, V. (in press). Student preference online versus traditional courses. The Global elearning Journal.
14 14 Harrington, R., & Loffredo, D. (2010). MBTI personality type and other factors that relate to preference for online versus face-to-face instruction. Internet & Higher Education, 13(1), Jain, P., Jain, S. J., & Jain, S. (2011). Interactions among online learners: A quantitative interdisciplinary study. Education, 131, Jenkins, R. (2011). Why are so many students still failing online? Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Jock, M. (2012). Student problems with online courses. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from, Karber, D. (2003). Comparisons and contrasts in traditional versus online teaching in management. Higher Education in Europe, 26, Kurth, H. (2012). Study finds first-generation college students prefer collaborative learning. 94cc-11e1-a3df-001a4bcf6878.html Lee, M. (2011). Culture and distance learning. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Lyons, J. (2004). Teaching U.S. history online: Problems and prospects. The History Teacher, 37, Lytle, R. (2011). Study: online education continues growth. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Menon, G., & Rubin, M. (2011). A survey of online practitioners: Implications for education and practice. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 29,
15 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 15 Muilenberg, L., & Berge, Z. (2005). Student barriers to online learning: A factor analytic study. Distance Education, 26, Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2001). Lessons from the cyberspace classroom: The realities of online teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Reynold, J. (2012). Why do students like online learning? Retrieved May 10, 2012, from Taylor, S. (2003). The endless class. Community College Week, 15, 6-9. Ulmer, L., Watson, L., & Derby, D. (2007). Perceptions of higher education faculty members on the value of distance education. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8, Waits, T., & Lewis, L. (2003). Distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions: Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
16 16 Appendix A Table1 Participant Responses to Survey Questions Question Response Options N % Which best describes your preference? taking courses online when available taking courses in a face-to-face setting taking a blended course that combines elements of both Would you like to have more online courses offered at your institution? Yes No It does not matter to me Do you feel that faculty should be certified to teach online courses? Yes No It does not matter to me What is your opinion of online courses? They are easier than face to face courses They are more difficult than face to face courses They are about the same as face-to-face courses
17 LOUIS GLOVER and VERONICA LEWIS 17 Appendix B Table 2 Number of Online Courses Previously Taken by Participants Question Response Options N % How many online courses have you taken? or more None
18 18 About the authors Dr. Louis C. Glover is an assistant professor of education at the University of Tennessee at Martin. His areas of interest include STEM education, mathematics education, science education, online education, at risk students, and factors affecting minority students. Prior to teaching higher education in 2011, he taught secondary chemistry, mathematics, and physics in Louisiana and Texas. Dr. Veronica Evans Lewis is a professor of psychology at the University of Louisiana at Monroe. Prior to coming to ULM, Dr. Lewis supervised an educational program for school-aged children with disabilities for 2 years, taught high school for 1 year, and served as a practicing school psychologist for 4 years. Her primary research interests are related to minority issues and activities that enhance and detract from the learning of students.
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 3, 2012 Student Preference Online Versus Traditional Courses Louis C. Glover, EdD Assistant Professor of Education University of Tennessee at Martin Martin, TN Veronica Evans Lewis, PhD
Adjunct Faculty Members Perceptions of Online Education Compared to Traditional Education DIANE HAMILTON, Ph.D. 1 1 Ashford University, 8620 Spectrum Center Blvd., San Diego, CA 92123 Corresponding author:
Internet and Higher Education 9 (2006) 107 115 Assessing the quality of online courses from the students' perspective Andria Young, Chari Norgard 1 University of Houston-Victoria, 3007 N. Ben Wilson, Victoria,
SBAJ: Volume 11 Number 1 (Spring 2011) Pages 1-11 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENT ADVICE FROM ONLINE QUANTITATIVE MBA COURSES Blake A. Frank, University of Dallas, Irving, TX Robert J. Walsh, University
UW Colleges Student Motivations and Perceptions About Accelerated Blended Learning Leanne Doyle Abstract: Nationwide, both online and blended learning enrollments are causing a paradigm shift in higher
Paper ID #7674 Student Engagement Strategies in One Online Engineering and Technology Course Dr. Julie M Little-Wiles, Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI Dr. Julie Little-Wiles is a Visiting
Student Perceptions of Learning: A Comparison of Two Different Populations Catharina Daniels 1 Pace University School of Computer Science and Information Systems Technology Systems Department New York,
Comparison of Course Completion and Student Performance through Online and Traditional Courses S A) in OnlineCourses Wayne Atchley 1, Gary Wingenbach 2, and Cindy Akers 3 1 Tarleton State University, USA,
GRADUATE FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF ONLINE TEACHING Sharon Santilli and Vesna Beck Nova Southeastern University The participants for this study were 47 doctoral faculty from Nova Southeastern University Fischler
THE UTILIZATION OF PART-TIME FACULTY IN BUSINESS SCHOOLS: ARE THEY DIFFERENT? Timothy J. Schibik, University of Southern Indiana Abstract The increasing utilization of part-time faculty in higher education
Comparing AACSB Faculty and Student Online Learning Experiences: Changes between 2000 and 2006 Melody W. Alexander, Ball State University Heidi Perreault, Missouri State University Jensen J. Zhao, Ball
FINAL REPORT Towards Understanding Online Nursing Education: A Comparative Analysis of Demographic and Academic Success Characteristics Of Online and On Campus RN- to- BSN Students Authors: Mary E. Mancini,
International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. No. ; March 0 Health Care Management Student Perceptions of Online Courses Compared to Traditional Classroom Courses Ronald M. Fuqua* Deborah Gritzmacher
ARE ONLINE COURSES CANNIBALIZING STUDENTS FROM EXISTING COURSES? Joseph K. Cavanaugh Department of Business Wright State University, Lake Campus ABSTRACT One of the reasons most often cited for the increasing
Assessing Blackboard: Improving Online Instructional Delivery Adnan A. Chawdhry firstname.lastname@example.org California University of PA Karen Paullet email@example.com American Public University System Daniel
Spring 2010 Students Perceptions and Opinions of Online Courses: A Qualitative Inquiry A Report by South Texas College s Office of Research & Analytical Services South Texas College Spring 2010 Inquiries
Bozkurt Identifying Stakeholder Needs 1 Identifying Stakeholder Needs within Online Education Dr. Ipek Bozkurt Assistant Professor Engineering Management Programs School of Science and Computer Engineering
EXPECTED ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ONLINE LEARNING: PERCEPTIONS FROM COLLEGE STUDENTS WHO HAVE NOT TAKEN ONLINE COURSES Melody W. Alexander, Ball State University, firstname.lastname@example.org Allen D. Truell,
Documenting Quality of Online Programs in Teacher Preparation Christopher Locklear, Ed.D, Lead Coordinator, Wachovia Partnership East, East Carolina University Mary Lynne Davis, Ph.D., Assessment Coordinator,
Quality Indicators for Online Programs at Community Colleges Leo Hirner Director Distance Education Services Metropolitan Community College Kansas City Introduction The phenomenal growth in online education
The Role of Community in Online Learning Success William A. Sadera Towson University Towson, MD 21252 USA email@example.com James Robertson University of Maryland University College Adelphia, MD USA Liyan
Comparison of and Perceptions of Best Practices in Online Technology s David Batts Assistant Professor East Carolina University Greenville, NC USA firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This study investigated the perception
ACCEPTABILITY OF ONLINE BACHELOR'S DEGREES Journal of Computing in Higher Education Fall 2004 Vol. 16(1), 150-163. Acceptability of Online Degrees As Criteria for Admission to Graduate Programs Margaret
Gatekeeper Perceptions of Interpersonal Skills Learned in Postsecondary Online Degree Programs: Recommendations for Teaching Interpersonal Skills Online Dr. Vesta R. Whisler Cassie L. Jacobs Jillian M.
CONSUMERS OF ONLINE INSTRUCTION Dr. Lillie Anderton Robinson, North Carolina A&T State University, email@example.com ABSTRACT There is a great demand for the online delivery system of instruction. It accommodates
Where has the Time Gone? Faculty Activities and Time Commitments in the Online Classroom B. Jean Mandernach, Swinton Hudson, & Shanna Wise, Grand Canyon University USA Abstract While research has examined
Assessing Quantitative Reasoning in GE (Owens, Ladwig, and Mills) Introduction Many students at CSU, Chico, receive much of their college-level mathematics education from the one MATH course they complete
MARKETING EDUCATION: ONLINE VS TRADITIONAL Smith, David F. Bemidji State University firstname.lastname@example.org Stephens, Barry K. Bemidji State University email@example.com ABSTRACT Online higher
Kentucky Journal of Excellence in College Teaching and Learning Volume 7 Article 3 11-1-2011 Student Advice for Online MBA Accounting Courses Barbara Scofield University of Texas of the Permian Basin Robert
Thomas Jefferson University Jefferson Digital Commons School of Nursing Faculty Papers & Presentations Jefferson College of Nursing 3-2008 Online Teaching Preparedness: What about Faculty? Elizabeth Elkind,
ASSESSING THE FACULTY AND STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF DESIRE2LEARN AND BLACKBOARD Adnan Chawdhry, California University of PA, firstname.lastname@example.org Karen Paullet, merican Public University System, email@example.com
19th Annual Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA March 5, 2008 Creating Online Learning Communities: A Cross Disciplinary Examination of
THE NEA 1999 ALMANAC OF HIGHER EDUCATION 45 Part-Time Faculty At Community Colleges: A National Profile by James C. Palmer James C. Palmer is associate professor of higher education in the Department of
Factors Influencing Students Success in an Online Statistics Course at College-level R. Indika P. Wickramasinghe, PhD., Abstract Studies about students performance in a class are very important to an instructor,
1 Appendix D: Summary of studies on online lab courses 1) Sloan Consortium Class Differences: Online Education in the United States (2011) Searched for lab, laboratory, science found no significant hits
Designing Effective Online Course Development Programs: Key Characteristics for Far-Reaching Impact Emily Hixon, Ph.D. School of Education firstname.lastname@example.org Janet Buckenmeyer, Ph.D. School of Education
STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF ONLINE LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS USE OF ONLINE TOOLS Dr. David A. Armstrong Ed. D. D Armstrong@scu.edu ABSTRACT The purpose
AC 2007-829: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ONLINE MASTER'S DEGREE IN TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT Gregory Arbuckle, Western Kentucky University GREGORY ARBUCKLE is currently an Assistant Professor in Technology Management
Growing by Degrees Education in the United States, 2005 Neither this book nor any part maybe reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming,
ABSTRACT Success rates of online versus traditional college students Dawn Wilson Fayetteville State University David Allen Fayetteville State University Are students setting themselves up for failure by
Comparatively Assessing The Use Of Blackboard Versus Desire2learn: Faculty Perceptions Of The Online Tools Adnan A. Chawdhry email@example.com Business and Economics Department California University of
Attrition in Online and Campus Degree Programs Belinda Patterson East Carolina University firstname.lastname@example.org Cheryl McFadden East Carolina University email@example.com Abstract The purpose of this study
Virginia s College and Career Readiness Initiative In 1995, Virginia began a broad educational reform program that resulted in revised, rigorous content standards, the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL),
1 Identifying the State of Online Instruction in ATE funded Technical Education Programs at Community Colleges Brian Horvitz, Ph.D. Western Michigan University firstname.lastname@example.org Richard Zinser, Ed.D.
STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF INSTRUCTOR INTERACTION IN THE ONLINE ENVIRONMENT Michelle Kilburn, Ed.D. Southeast Missouri State University Assistant Professor, Criminal Justice & Sociology email@example.com Abstract
Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(3): 1875-1878, 2009 ISSN 1991-8178 2009, INSInet Publication Achievement and Satisfaction in a Computer-assisted Versus a Traditional Lecturing of an
A Comparison of Student Learning Outcomes in Traditional and Online Personal Finance Courses Eddie J. Ary Associate Professor Frank D. Hickingbotham School of Business Ouachita Baptist University Arkadelphia,
Attitudes Toward Science of Students Enrolled in Introductory Level Science Courses at UW-La Crosse Dana E. Craker Faculty Sponsor: Abdulaziz Elfessi, Department of Mathematics ABSTRACT Nearly fifty percent
Learning Management System Self-Efficacy of online and hybrid learners: Using LMSES Scale Florence Martin University of North Carolina, Willimgton Jeremy I. Tutty Boise State University firstname.lastname@example.org
CULTURE OF ONLINE EDUCATION 1 Culture of Online Education Joy Godin Georgia College & State University CULTURE OF ONLINE EDUCATION 2 Abstract As online learning rapidly becomes increasingly more popular,
European Journal of Educational Sciences December 2014 edition Vol.1, No.4 PERCEPTIONS OF ONLINE VERSUS FACE-TO- FACE LEARNING OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP GRADUATE STUDENTS Dr. Paulette Harris Dr. Samuel
Blog, blog, blog Online Journaling in Graduate Classes 1 Lyubov Laroche, 2 Barbara Newman Young, 1 Dorothy Valcarcel Craig 1 Western Washington University, 2 Middle Tennessee State University (USA) Abstract
REL 2015 045 The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE) conducts unbiased large-scale evaluations of education programs and practices supported by federal funds; provides
BEST COLLEGES 2015 ONLINE LEARNING SURVEY: ONLINE STUDENT NEEDS, PREFERENCES AND EXPECTATIONS EMAIL US: email@example.com Online Student Needs, Preferences and Expectations Online learning is still
U.S. Department of Education March 2014 Participation and pass rates for college preparatory transition courses in Kentucky Christine Mokher CNA Key findings This study of Kentucky students who take college
Knowledge Management & E-Learning, Vol.5, No.3. Sep 2013 Knowledge Management & E-Learning ISSN 2073-7904 A brief examination of predictors of e-learning success for novice and expert learners Emily Stark
Examining the Role of Online Courses in Native Hawaiian Culture and Language at the University of Hawaii Introduction Kelley Dudoit University of Hawaii, Manoa Educational Technology Graduate Student Hawaii,
Investigating the Effectiveness of Virtual Laboratories in an Undergraduate Biology Course Lawrence O. Flowers, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, Fayetteville State University, USA ABSTRACT In the last
Teaching college microeconomics: Online vs. traditional classroom instruction ABSTRACT Cynthia McCarty Jacksonville State University Doris Bennett Jacksonville State University Shawn Carter Jacksonville
Online, ITV, and Traditional Delivery: Student Characteristics and Success Factors in Business Statistics Douglas P. Dotterweich, East Tennessee State University Carolyn F. Rochelle, East Tennessee State
www.ncolr.org/jiol Volume 7, Number 3, Winter 2008 ISSN: 15414914 Assessment of Online Learning Environments: Using the OCLES(20) with Graduate Level Online Classes Thomas A. DeVaney Nan B. Adams Cynthia
Quality Online Developmental Math Courses: The Instructor's Role by Sharon Testone Introduction Two vastly different online experiences were presented in an earlier column. An excellent course on Human
Hybrid A New Way to Go? A Case Study of a Hybrid Safety Class Carol Boraiko Associate Professor Engineering Technology Department Thomas M. Brinthaupt Professor Department of Psychology Corresponding author:
Dual Enrollment and Dual Credit in Agricultural Education in Tennessee A Research Paper Submitted to the Faculty of The University of Tennessee at Martin, Fulfilling Requirements for the Master of Science
Entering the Mainstream The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the United States, 2003 and 2004 Neither this book nor any part maybe reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic
Paper presented at the Adult Higher Education Alliance Conference The Future of Adult Higher Education: Principles, Contexts and Practices The Two Worlds of Adult MBA Education: Online v. Traditional Courses
Transition to Teaching in Nebraska: Findings from the First Decade Wendy L. McCarty University of Nebraska at Kearney firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Nebraska s alternative teacher certification program, Transition
The Acceptability of Online University Degrees in the Arab Academia Dr. Gamal M. M. Mustafa Associate Professor of Foundations of Education Al-Azhar Univ. Egypt & Imam Mohd Inibn Saud Islamic Univ. KSA.
A Systems Engineering Framework for Online Course Design and Delivery Ipek Bozkurt, Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of Houston Clear Lake School of Science and Computer Engineering Engineering Management
APPENDIX 3 Organizational Profile Organizational Description Northwestern Oklahoma State University is the smallest university in the Regional State Universities of Oklahoma System (RUSO). The other institutions
STUDENTS ASSESSMENT OF ONLINE LEARNING AS RELATED TO COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS CURRICULA Paul J. Kovacs, Robert Morris University, email@example.com Gary A. Davis, Robert Morris University, firstname.lastname@example.org
Students Perception Toward the Use of Blackboard as a Course Delivery Method. By Dr. Ibtesam Al mashaqbeh Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate students perception toward the use of blackboard
Classrooms Without Walls: A Comparison of Instructor Performance in online Courses Differing in Class Size Chris Sorensen, Ph.D. Assistant Professor College of Education Ashford University San Diego, CA,
. P S Y C H O L O G Y. MASTER OF ARTS DEGREE PROGRAMS IN PSYCHOLOGY As a special-purpose institution of higher education for urban programming, Texas Southern University embraces the concept of liberal
Knowledge construction through active learning in e-learning: An empirical study Alex Koohang, Middle Georgia State College, email@example.com Frederick G. Kohun, Robert Morris University, firstname.lastname@example.org
The MetLife Survey of Challenges for School Leadership Challenges for School Leadership A Survey of Teachers and Principals Conducted for: MetLife, Inc. Survey Field Dates: Teachers: October 5 November
Getting Back on Track The Role of In-Person Instructional Support for Students Taking Online Credit Recovery RESEARCH BRIEF 2 April 2016 AUTHORS OF THIS RESEARCH BRIEF are Suzanne Taylor (American Institutes
Evaluation in Online STEM Courses Lawrence O. Flowers, PhD Assistant Professor of Microbiology James E. Raynor, Jr., PhD Associate Professor of Cellular and Molecular Biology Erin N. White, PhD Assistant
Instructor and Learner Discourse in MBA and MA Online Programs: Whom Posts more Frequently? Peter Kiriakidis Founder and CEO 1387909 ONTARIO INC Ontario, Canada email@example.com Introduction Abstract: This
For more resources click here -> Building Online Learning Communities: Factors Supporting Collaborative Knowledge-Building Joe Wheaton, Associate Professor David Stein, Associate Professor Jennifer Calvin,
Evaluation Plan for the State of Texas Education Research Center at Texas A&M University RESEARCH STUDY OF DUAL-CREDIT COLLEGE COURSES IN TEXAS RESEARCH STUDY ON DUAL-CREDIT COLLEGE COURSES IN TEXAS Purpose
REPORT ON EXPANDING ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION THROUGH STATE-FUNDED DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS Submitted in response to North Carolina Session Laws 1998, chapter 212, section 11.7 of the North Carolina
Journal of Information Technology Education Volume 2, 2003 Learners Perceptions toward the Web-based Distance Learning Activities/Assignments Portion of an Undergraduate Hybrid Instructional Model Alex
EFL LEARNERS PERCEPTIONS OF USING LMS Assist. Prof. Napaporn Srichanyachon Language Institute, Bangkok University firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to present the views, attitudes,
IHE Master's Performance Report Appalachian State University 2004-2005 Overview of Master's Program Appalachian State University is a comprehensive university offering a broad range of graduate programs.
Running head: CREDIT RECOVERY 1 Credit Recovery: Improving Student Graduation and Learning Experiences in an Online Master s Degree Program Yi (Leaf) Zhang Ernest Johnson University of Texas at Arlington
Kennedy, A., Young, S., & Bruce, M. A. (2012). Instructors perceptions of community and engagement in online courses. The Researcher, 24(2), 74-81. NRMERA 2011 Distinguished Paper Instructors Perceptions
Jl. of Technology and Teacher Education (2006) 14(3), 531-541 The Impact of Online Teaching on Faculty Load: Computing the Ideal Class Size for Online Courses LAWRENCE A. TOMEI Robert Morris University
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.