CROSSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP AND THE EFFECTS OF CROSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP TO THE TELEVISION NEWS IN TURKEY

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1 Previous Paper Next Paper Contents CROSSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP AND THE EFFECTS OF CROSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP TO THE TELEVISION NEWS IN TURKEY FUNDA ERZURUM Anadolu University (Turkey) Abstract We are living in the information age. The necessity of fast and effective information transfer to the broad areas increases the importance and the power of the media. This power attracts the businessmen who are producing merchandises or service, and directs them to own one or more mass communication channels. If the person or an organization owns a television, radio or news paper and owns the other medium, this is called as cross media ownership. The market that cross media ownership is intense, out come is many television, radio channels and many news papers around but the number of the owner of this foundings decreases. This means quantitively high but qualitatively low information is on the way because of cross media ownership. Gathering power of the media in few hands, in other words cross media ownership can impede people to take reliable and impartial information from different channels and different point of views. And this stuation also can be concluded with economic, political and social pressure. Western countries noticed the power of media and the danger of cross media ownership early, so they take steps on legal base. But in Turkey the stuation is different. With the latest legal arrangements, obstacles are tolarated about media ownerships. The goal of this study is; how cross media ownership effect on television news in Turkey. The study is composed in four parts. In the first part media and the importance of the media handled out, in the second part cross media ownership had taken theorically, in the third part a research on three national television channels (which are part of big companies) in the period of September 2000 October 2002 has inspected about the effects of the ownership on news. And in the last part results of the research has evaluated.

2 CROSSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP AND THE EFFECTS OF CROSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP TO THE TELEVISION NEWS IN TURKEY Introduction We are living in the information age The necessity of fast and effective information transfer to the broad areas increases the importance of the media. We can also call the age we are living as the age of mass communication. Mass communication has made it possible the human being to gain access to far more information than any society ever had. Information is indispensible to a complex and advanced civilization. We are an information hungry society; we need an ever increasing amount of facts in order to maintain and increase our standard of living (Hiebert and Reuss, 1988:4). There are two main characteristics of mass communication: mass communication involves certain technical and institutional means of production and diffusion; mass communication typically involves the commercial exploitation of technical innovations. Mass communication is that it institutes a structured break between the production of symbolic forms and their reception and mass communication extends the avaliability of symbolic forms in space and time (Thompson, 1995: 27). Today, information is a commodity that the public is willing to pay for. And the mass media today are not only entertaining the masses; they are selling information as well. As a result of technological improvement, mass communication has always been changed. For example transistor radios are always among the first manufactured products to be imported in to any unindustrialized area of the world. Newspapers and government sponsored radio and television stations follow soon afterward (Sandman and others, 1982:6). People wants to own the last technology, they want to learn much more faster so they pay technology for the speed. There was book once upon a time then newspaper came, people began to read newspapers for getting news from their environment. After invention of electric they met with the radio an unbelivieable medium, a box that someone is talking in it and giving news from far away in short time. Following the radio, we welcome the television to our lives, the time between the thought and action has shortened in the golden age of communication. Television is the most effective factor for this speed. Visualtiy and the speed become a unabondable as a result of the improvements about the satellite technology. People are now watching the facts nearly at the same time they occur. Effects And Importance Of Media Communication is the process of transmitting a message from source to an audience via a channel. In our world the source can control what is said. In reality, the good communication system must work both ways. The mechanisms for transmitting messages backward from audience to channel, from audience to source or from channel to source are known as feedback loops ( Sandman and others, 1982:3). Mass communication is the process of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes to many people by using or through a device. People want to learn more about the facts that are occuring so they run behind to the radio and television for more detailed information about the story. Mass communication sytems are more complicated. Each message ( a news story in a television for example) may have as many as a dozen sources, with different point of views and different goals for the communication. There are four defined and agreed on functions; 64

3 1) To serve economic system, 2) To entertain, 3) To inform, 4) To influence. In all four functions to inform is the most important function. People use the media and the subbranches of media, particularly mediums as guides. Guides for solving their problems. When a decision needs to be made, people seek out not only relevant information but also relevant influence. Audience look someone to tell them what to decide. And they use mediums for building up relationship with each other. Reading the same newspaper or the magazine, watching the same television programs or watching television together, going to the cinema, etc.. The media are closely entwined with people s relatonship with each other. And also people put media and their fare is that providing something to talk about ritual, non vital encounters with other people. Shortly people use the media content to talk to the others on a common subject. The effects of communication are many and diverse. They may be short range or long run. They may be manifest or latent. They may be strong or weak. They may derive from any number of aspects of the communication content. They may be considered as psychological or political or ecenomic or sociological. They may operate upon opinions, values, information levels, skills, taste or overt behavior ( Berelson and Janowitz,1966: 379). In other words, it would be difficult to make any sweeping generalizations about the impact of the mass media, even though we know they have impact ( Hiebert and Reuss, 1988:2). We can point out that, media content effects the audience s attitudes and behaviour. Sandman, Rubin and Sachsman had arranged them in six main capitals. They are: 1) Can provide ammunition to support our attitudes, thus increasing our commitment. 2) On low-involvement issues where there are no competing influences, mere repetition in the media can change our behavior directly. 3) By catering to our existing needs and values and linking them to a new behavior, the media can get us to act without changing our attitudes. 4) Information in the media can be used to justify or rationalize behavior initially based on needs, building attitudes to support that behavior. 5) The media can relate an existing attitude to a new object by providing information that ties the two together. 6) With a series of messages starting near the initial views of the audience and gradually becoming more extreme, the media can produce major shifts in audience attitudes, one step at a time ( Sandman and the others, 1982:20). Media has become very powerful in influencing the society and the government. It is clearly observed that power of the media is centered on the news. The period that is coming may be called as the newsocracy instead of democracy.the technology and substance of today s news casting combine for an impact greater than that of any informational force in the history of demoratic societies. Disaster may be too strong, but television news does seem to be changing some meanings of democracy by offering a simplistic kind of interrelatedness ( Hiebert and Reuss, 1988: 20-23). The visual and live nature of the medium put a premium on color, movement, excitement, sensation and novelty. 65

4 In our daily lives, we trace a path from home to work and back. Without the news media, we would know almost nothing beyond our own sphere of activity. The public s knowledge of national government depends on not on direct experience and observation, but on the news media; and it is the media that set the agenda for public discussion and decision.( Hiebert and Reuss,1988: 216). It may be an effective guide on many important concerns. Marshall McLuhan s vision of a world more closely united through communication technologies has been confounded by the new technologies that have made listening and viewing insulated experiences. As media audiences become more fragmented, communicators spend more time talking to the like minded people. ( From an conversation with Richard A. Blake, Editor of America, 1982) The quality of the news has changed, evolved, even been revolutionized in the past decade. One of the main reasons for this change is an information explosion that is taken place over the last ten years, facilated by technological improvements such as microwave transmissions and satellite feeds. Today live pictures from all over the world are common place. Viewers have come to expect up-to- the minute reports by satellite from all over the world ( Hiebert and Reuss,1988: 30). The new mass media using new technologies pose a new kind of danger. There is sovereignty of the media especially the news media. News has undeniable power on the society and also on the state. Everyday there are more events occuring that are news worthy. More features but less headline news. Also they are elected by the manager and owners of the mediums. If we think about the incredible power of media on state and society, it becomes more important. It should handle carefully for the audience s information freedom. Cross-Media Ownership Businessmen discovered the power of media over all of the society and on the social councils. So they began to form or buy mass mediums. Owning a medium is a real advantage, because if a person or a group owns a communication channel it is possible to impact people. As a result of this the person or a group is powerfull on society and so on government. A market is better understood through an examination of its economic characteristics. Different economical concentration types has defined for helping to describe Cross-media ownership more clearly and to expose the market structure. Vertical Integration; vertical integration means that one firm controls different aspects of production, distribution and exhibition of its products. Time Warner Entertainment is an example of a company engaged in vertical integration. Horizontal Integration; horizontal integration is to become a united whole of the firms which are producing the same product. This kind of economic structure is the dangerous one because it makes the firm a strict monopolist. Monopoly; Monopoly is the type of structure where a single seller of the product exists and dominates the market. Economists refer to monopolists as price makers because they can set the price in order to maximize the profits. This monopolic structure may be one firm or more than one firm that are working under an agreement. If the market is under one firm 66

5 dominance this is called as monopoly unitario. If one firm is the leader of the monopolic market the economic equivalent is monopoly like firms. Oligopoly; An oligopoly differs from monopoly in that an oligopolistic structure features than one seller product. Products offered by the sellers may be either homogeneous or differentiated. Typically, a market dominated by a few firms is considered an oligopoly, and each firm commands a similiar share. Firms in an oligopoly are mutually interdependent, with the actions of the leading firms affecting the other firms in the market. There is no monopolic structure and either no competing market. In an oligopoly, price is normally set by the leader of the market and the others follow. Cartel; It is the group that is formed by the firms that are producing the similiar products. In this structure firms do not loose their independence. They choose this allience for protecting their dominance over the market and reducing the effects of competition. Network-chain; Grouping, if the owner of a mass medium owns the similiar kinds of medium this means that there is a chain. Cross-Media Ownership; Television, radio and the print media play an important role in the communication. The term cross-media ownership refers to any company that has a significant stake in several different media organisations. Concentration of ownership of the media raises two main concerns for governments. These are the need for economic regulation and the avoidance of political influence. The economic structure of any society is impacted by the political, legal and social characteristics that influence and shape business practices among firms. The nature of society s political system determines the environment in which media firms operate. Media industries are unique in that they function in a dual product market. That is although media companies produce one product, they participate in two seperate good and service markets. In the first market, the good may be in the form of newspaper, radio or television program, magazine, book or film production. The good is marketed to consumers and performance is evaluated in different ways. The second market, in which many media companies are engaged, involves the selling of advertising. Advertisers seek access to the audiences by using media content(picard,1989:27). In my opinion there is third market in recent years: this is, big amounts of advertising expenses for the holdings. Every firm of the holding needs to be advertised. This presentation costs a lot. Owners of the holdings found a new way for reducing the advertising costs; founding a media firm such as news paper, television channel or a radio. By owning a medium they also have the power of that medium. The undeniable truth is that the media is the most powerfull authority on public so on political groups. The owner of the holdings use this power for their commercial and personal benefits. The most common reason given for the presence of restrictions such as cross-media rules is that they are necessary to ensure that in a free and democratic society the majority of citiziens have access to a choice of voices and opinions. It is considered important that there is diversity in what is available for public to read, hear or see in the media. Both public broadcasting and the commercial mass media have important influences in community. 67

6 Some of the disadvantages of cross-media ownership are listed below by main captions; 1) There is no change to hear about different point of views than the owner of the medium. 2) All the employees are have to agree on the same principles with the medium that they are working for. 3) As a result of economically powerfull capital all the process become mechanical and becoming mechanized causes the unemployment. 4) Working area for qualified staff narrows. 5) Free and independent opinions has refracted. 6) Mass Communication can be in the hands of some commercial groups which has no experience in the media. These kind of groups are mostly conservative and take sides with the regime for their own commecial benefits. Because the main profits of these groups are not from the media that they own. They earn money from their other working areas and this working areas are mostly related with the government. To get money regularly, the group must form a systematic and good relations with the regime. Government makes working easy for this groups and the group draw a neutral and unpolitic image. Under this image they support the regime and it s applications by the broadcasting policy of the media branch of the holding s. 7) Media has an undeniable effect on culture, society and behaviours. By using the media, the source of news for the society, in good way or in bad way will have an influence which s out come will be seen as soon as possible. When a person watches a news story s/he will react at the same time. The power of media for agenda setting and forming public opinion is too much, this is the biggest risk. 8) People choose the mediums that they follow up coherently. If a person watches a television channel, mostly s/he reads the same group s news paper. This can make ready the political polarization ground. These are only few disadvanteges of cross-media ownership. Turkish Television News Case on Cross-Medıa Ownership In this article three television channels named; Show Tv, Star Tv and Kanal D has choosen, which are the part of a holding. Identifying The Holdings Under Study These holdings are; Cukurova Group, Uzan Group and Dogan Group. Detailed working area information of the holdings are listed below. 68

7 Cukurova Group (Mehmet E. Karamehmet) Media Sector Television : Show TV, Cine 5, Playboy TV, Supersport, Maxi TV, Satel Sabah Television Production Radio : Alem FM, Show Radyo, Radyo 5, Radyo Viva Newspaper & Magazine: Akşam, Güneş, Alem, Takip, Medyatör, Arabesk, Zümrüt, Platin Publishing : Yapı Kredi Culture-Art Publish House, Aslı Journalism and Printing Inc., Press Investment Industry and Trade, Dost Publish and Press Distribution Digital Braodcasting : Digiturk Telecommunication and Internet : KVK, A-tel, Superonline, Bilpa-MIS Trade, Hobim MIS Services, Mobicom Information Services, Show TV Net, Mobicom, Turkcell Communication Services, Verinet Satellite Communication Industry, Topaz Telecommunication Publishing and Advertising Inc., Ericsson-Çukurova Telecommunication The Other Working Areas : Bank Kreiss A.G., Banque de Commerce et de Placements S.A., Pamukbank, Yapı ve KrediBank, Yapı-Toko Bank, General Life Insurance, Halk Reasurans, Halk Insurance, Halk Life Insurance, Türkiye General Insurance,Borak S.A., Çukurova Holding A.Ş., Demir Toprak A.Ş., Endüstri Holding A.Ş., Genborsa Securities Trade, Interlease-International Financial Rent, Pamuk Factoring, Industrial and Financial Investments Holding, International Investment Holding, Yapı Kredi Financial Rent, Yapı Kredi Factoring, Yapı Kredi Card Services, Yapı Kredi Investments, Agro-San Chemical Industry and Trade, Auer Manufacturing, Atkasan Refuse Paper Evaluation Inc. BMC Industry and Trade Inc.,Comag Continental Mining Inc., Çukurova Steel Industry, Çukurova Construction Machines Inc, Çukurova Chemical Industry Inc., Çukurova Industry Management Inc., Çumitaş- Çukurova Machine Inc., Kaplamin Packaging Inc., Maysan Machine and Spare Part, Maysan-Halla Automoti ve Parts, Noksel Steel Pipe Industry, OVA-SCA Packaging, SCA Packaging, Selkasan Paper and Packaging Materials, Auer Durable Consumer Goods Marketing,Public Works Inc., Baytur Construction Commitment Inc., Baytur S.A., Baytur Trading S.A., Çukurova Foreign Trade, Çukurova Export and Import, Çukurova Consumer Goods Marketing, Çukurova Agriculture Industry and Trade Equipment and Parts Export Inc., Etken Textile Industry and Trade, Embo Glazed and Dyed Goods Inc., KVK Mobile Telephone Systems, Ompaş-Automotive Products Marketing, Sinova (HK) Limited, Sovtur Import and Export Trade, Anadolu Tourism Investments, Dersaadet Touristic Services, Enternasyonal Tourism Investments, Kartal Otel Marmaris, Köroğlu Tourism, Kumköy Tourism, Pegasus Air Transportation, Sultanahmet Tourism, Akşam Maritime Business and Trade, Akşamüstü Maritime Business and Trade, Barbaros Maritime Business, Batı Maritime Business, Çukurova Aviation, Doğu Maritime Business and Trade, Gemhur Navigation Transportation and Scrap Industry, Genel Navigation Transportation, Intercon Constultancy and Education Services, Interdepo-International Private Bonded Warehouse, İntercorp Electronic Industry and Trade, Harbor Management and Transportation, Ören Maritime Transportation and Trade, Pamukspor Sports and Touristic Services, Preveze International Trading, Seydi Reis Maritime Business, TAPP-Trade Area Marketing and Promotion, Yapı Kredi Skyscraper Care and Repair Inc.,Daussan- Çukurova Chemistry Industry and Trade, Eterplast Plastic Industry. 69

8 Uzan Group (Cem Uzan) Media Sector Television : Star, Kral TV, Teleon, Star Max Radio : Super FM, Metro FM, Kral FM, Radio Blue, Joy FM, Lokum FM Digital Broadcasting : Star Digital Newspaper: Star, Birikim Journalism and Publishing News Agency : National Media News Agency, National Press, Park Media, Media Park Broadcasting Telecommunication and Internet :Rumeli Telecom, RT- Net, Webbee, Telsim, Rumeli Technics, Ünitel, Aktif Cable, Kartel, Rubuplıc of Kazakhstan, Artel Azerbeycan, Rumeli Advertisement, KKTC Telsim, Rumeli Software The Other Working Areas : Çukurova Electric, Kepez Electric, Şanlıurfa Cement, Gaziantep Cement, Trabzon Cement, Bartın Cement, Van Cement, Gümüşhane Cement, Edirne- Lalapaşa Cement,Rumeli Cement, Ergani Diyarbakır Cement,Ladik Cement, Eskişehir Cement, Merkez Paper Bags Industry, Ulus Factoring, Rumeli Life Insurance, Rumeli Insurance, Rumeli Bank, Adabank, Merkez Investment, Yapı Trade, İzmir Metallurgy(METAS), Anadolu Bow Industry (AYSAN), DEMAS Iron Goods Inc., LIMAS Harbor Services, Adanaspor, İstanbulspor, Mavi Trade, Rumeli Aviation. Doğan Group ( Aydın Doğan) Media Group Television : Kanal- D, CNN Turk Cable TV : Bravo!, Galaxy TV, Ultra Cable TV International Radio : Euro D Radio : Hur FM, Radio Foreks, Radio D Newspapers & Magazines: DBR Magazine Group ( Consists 25 monthly magazines), Dogan Egmont, Hurriyet, Milliyet, Turkish Daily News, Radikal, Posta, Financial Forum, Gözcü, Asabi, Fanatik, Haftasonu Publishing : Hürriyet Journalism and Publishing, Milliyet Journalism, Yaysat Publication Marketing and Distribution, Doğan Publication Marketing and Distribution, Simge Publication and Distribution, Doğan Ofset Press and Publication, News Agency : Dogan News Agency, Milliyet News Agency Television Production: Hürriyet TV Film Production A.Ş., Doğan Production and Trade, ANS International Production Broadcasting and Advertising Telecommunication & Internet : E- Kolay. Net, Dogan Online, Milliyet Internet Services, Doğan Information Technologies The Other Working Areas :Dışbank, Dış Factoring, Dış Leasing, Dış Investment, Dış Holding Malta, Dışbank Malta, Dış Globus Malta, Dışbank Nederlands N.V., Kıbrıs Dış Ticaret Bankası Offshore Ltd., Ray Sigorta, Doğan Hayat Sigorta,Dis Holding B.V., Dogan Leasing, Doğan Factoring, DYG Declaration and Advertising, Doğan Raks Marketing and Distribution, Doğan Bookselling, Doğan Media International, D Finance, Doğan Music Center, D Marketing, Zweigniderlassung Deutchland (Hürriyet ), Doğan Daily News, Doğan Distribution, Doğan Media Marketing, Press Management Inc, Doğan Customer Services, Milliyet Verlags und Handels GmbH, 70

9 Doğan Kitap Müzik Pazarlama A.Ş., Doğan Telecommunication Card Systems, Milpa Marketing and Trade, Hürriyet Marketing and Trade,Milanur Construction, Doğan Automotive, Doğan Aviation, Doğan Press Holding, Steel Cable and Wire Industry Inc., Ditaş Doğan Spare Part Manufacture, Milta Tourism, İsedaş İstanbul Electric Distribution, Milta TravelAgency, Karada Tourism, Zigana Electric Distribution, CH Investment B.V., CH UK Limited, Entralle Handels GmbH, 3D Secrity Sytems, Kelkit Textile, Fintur Holdings B.V., Digita lservices, Is Dogan Petroleum. Study Methodology The commercial groups which are listed above own a radio, television channel and a newspaper. They also own distribution and marketing companies which are selling the products of these mediums. But the main capital source of the groups are neither the media brach nor the distribution and the marketing companies. The capital source is coming from the banks, energy, finance, construction and tourism. Three television channels from this three holdings has choosen for the application. Show TV from Cukurova Group, Star from Uzan Group and Kanal-D from Dogan Group. The aim was to state if there are any relation between the ownership and the news that are broadcasting in those television channels. For searching this the seven question survey applied on the first news of the 19:00 News. Between the dates September 1st and October 1st it means a 30 day working time extent and 90 individual news story. All the channells recordings has obtained. These news stories has examined with the variables listed below: 1) Agenda of the country and the relation of the news with the agenda. 2) Structure of the relation. 3) Relation between the news and the establishement which is the part of the holding. 4) If there is a relation with the holding the affinity proportion of the news. 5) Category of the news. Each variable has evaluated individually. Below tables are showing the statistical results that are taken from the survey. For evaluation of the results of the survey has done with the SPSS Program. The frequency and the percentage distributions has calculated with the SPSS. And the tables are based on the results that are obtained from the SPSS. On the choosen dates the agenda was about politics, because the time period that has choosen is about two months before the election. So the first subject was the election. At that time period the owner of the Uzan Group; Cem Uzan has found a political party. The chairman of the Ak Party R.Tayyip Erdogan s and Necmettin Erbakan s candidacy was not clear. The IMF regulations and confiscations of some banks and the anniversary of September 11 th were the certain subjects of the agenda. 71

10 Table 1. and Relation of the News with the Agenda Name Of The * Relation of the news with the agenda Crosstabulation Name Of The Total Show TV Star Kanal D % within Relation of the news with the agenda % within Relation of the news with the agenda % within Relation of the news with the agenda % within Relation of the news with the agenda Relation of the news with the agenda Completely Partially There is related related no relation Total ,0% 36,7% 23,3% 100,0% 33,3% 31,4% 36,8% 33,3% 13,3% 12,2% 7,8% 33,3% ,0% 43,3% 16,7% 100,0% 33,3% 37,1% 26,3% 33,3% 13,3% 14,4% 5,6% 33,3% ,0% 36,7% 23,3% 100,0% 33,3% 31,4% 36,8% 33,3% 13,3% 12,2% 7,8% 33,3% ,0% 38,9% 21,1% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 40,0% 38,9% 21,1% 100,0% Totally %40 of the news are related to the agenda. All channel s ratios are about the same as seen above. This means none of the channel miss the agenda. Table 2. and Structure of the Relation Name Of The * Structure of the relation Crosstabulation Name Of The Total Show TV Star Kanal D % within Structure of the relation % within Structure of the relation % within Structure of the relation % within Structure of the relation Structure of the relation Has relation Has relation with the with the company owner of the which is in the Has relation no answer holding constitution o with the rivals Total ,0% 20,0% 20,0% 100,0% 47,4% 66,7% 33,3% 33,3% 20,0% 6,7% 6,7% 33,3% ,3% 53,3% 33,3% 100,0% 10,5% 64,0% 55,6% 33,3% 4,4% 17,8% 11,1% 33,3% ,3% 30,0% 10,0% 6,7% 100,0% 42,1% 36,0% 33,3% 11,1% 33,3% 17,8% 10,0% 3,3% 2,2% 33,3% ,2% 27,8% 10,0% 20,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 42,2% 27,8% 10,0% 20,0% 100,0% 72

11 Totally % 42 percent of the news has no relation with the holding or the owner of the holding. If we seperalety take the television channels the stutation changes; Show TV seems the most neutral television channel when we look for the no relation and the relation with the owner answers. But it loses its neutrality when the results come to the relations with the other companies which are in the constitution of the holding by %6,7 and by the %6,7 with the relation with the rivals. This is because of the Pamukbank which is in Cukurova Group. The government has confiscated the bank by basing on the IMF s provisions. Star TV is the most take siding channel, because of it s owner is the side in the elections. We see that there are no news about any company which is in the constution of the holding. The majority of the news were about the owner and the political rivals. Kanal D mostly gaves news about the owner of the holding s commercial benefits. The owner of the holding naturally has a political aspect according to his commercial anxiety. Table 3. Affinity Proportion Of The News With The Holding Most of the news are indirectly connected to the holding and the owner of the holding s manner. Only Kanal D s results show that there were no directly connected news in the choosen time period. 73

12 Table 4. And The Relation Between The News And The Establishement Which Is Part Of The Holding Name Of The * Is there any relation between the news and the establishment which is the part of the holding Crosstabulation Name Of The Total Show TV Star Kanal D % within Is there any relation between the news and the establishment which is the part of the holding % within Is there any relation between the news and the establishment which is the part of the holding % within Is there any relation between the news and the establishment which is the part of the holding % within Is there any relation between the news and the establishment which is the part of the holding Is there any relation between the news and the establishment which is the part of the holding There is There is not Total ,0% 60,0% 100,0% 25,5% 41,9% 33,3% 13,3% 20,0% 33,3% ,7% 23,3% 100,0% 48,9% 16,3% 33,3% 25,6% 7,8% 33,3% ,0% 60,0% 100,0% 25,5% 41,9% 33,3% 13,3% 20,0% 33,3% ,2% 47,8% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 52,2% 47,8% 100,0% By the results of the survey we can state that Star TV news are the most effected news. Table 5. And Category Of The News Story Name Of The * Category Of The News Story Crosstabulation Name Of The Total Show TV Star Kanal D % within Category Of The News Story % within Category Of The News Story % within Category Of The News Story % within Category Of The News Story Category Of The News Story Politics Economy Life Magazine Total ,0% 23,3% 13,3% 3,3% 100,0% 27,7% 50,0% 57,1% 25,0% 33,3% 20,0% 7,8% 4,4% 1,1% 33,3% ,0% 10,0% 100,0% 41,5% 21,4% 33,3% 30,0% 3,3% 33,3% ,7% 13,3% 10,0% 10,0% 100,0% 30,8% 28,6% 42,9% 75,0% 33,3% 22,2% 4,4% 3,3% 3,3% 33,3% ,2% 15,6% 7,8% 4,4% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 72,2% 15,6% 7,8% 4,4% 100,0% 74

13 According to the agenda it is normal to get the result that is shown above. In all three cahnnels percentage of the politics news are high. Following this economy news comes second. There is a point attracting attention; there is no life or magazine news on Star TV during the time period. Conclusion Radio, television and print media are the most influental media, they are the ones which set agenda, they are the ones that politicians and other news breakers go to to make the stories to give them the sort of front page or the head story on the news. The public should not take the risk the diversity of the sources of information that people need help to form their decision. It is impossible to measure the actual influence of any media organisation. To ensure power is not concentrated in too few hands in an anti- competitive way and to protect free speech. As early as 1962, the Royal Comission on the press had concluded that, in the words of the DTI, action should be taken to regulate the increasing concentration of newspaper ownership which could threaten the freedom and variety of expression of opinion and perhaps even unbiased presentation of news ( guardianunlimited.co.uk, 25 May 2000). Relaxing the cross- media ownership rule would create new entry barriers for small businesses and minorities seeking to enter local media markets. The number of producers or sellers in a given market explains a great deal about the concentration in a given market. A market is concentrated if it is dominated by a limited number of large companies. The lower number of producers, the larger degree of power each individual firm will wield. Intensation of media in Turkey has accelerated after 1990 s and the structure of ownership began to change. Before 1990 s the owner of the news papers were families who are in press sector for decades. Television first came as an annnouncing branch of government. But after 1990 s all this structure has give place to new media ownership, which are commercial groups with big capital. Today the subject that is discussed is not just the editorial decissions of the owner or unemployment problem. The main problem is what we see and learn; we see many subjects and images around but they are all about the same few subjects. It has stated that there is three answers for the question why the commercial groups make investments about media. The answer are: 1. a) Media is the fourth power, b) Consideration/ Constraint on political sorroundings, c) Social control. 2. a) To reduce the risk of their capital at the other sectors, b) To be powerfull for loanings and auctionings of the government. 3. a) Owning or forming a mass medium instead of advertising expenses, b) Marketing, c) Money transfer ( Tuncel, 1994:33-38) Until the regime has postpone the legal regulations about the media and the ownership of the media. The commercial groups which have the economical power will control the social 75

14 balance and will keep the government under pressure. The bosses see owning a medium as a key for making business and forming good relations with the government. The history of private media in Turkey is a short time. Result of the economic stabilization rules that are taken in hand by the government in January , this new economy model the press sector has effected like every field of life. ( Dalbudak, 1997:48-50) The first private television channel had began broadcasting in After formation of private television channels the holdings were interested in this new and powerfull medium. They began to form their own channels, production and distribution nets. The net of every holding is not independent from the others. As a result whether communication or some monopoly like media has take place of the government hegemony as private monopolies.( Söylemez,1998:55) The hope about the private media was to break the bureaucratic structure of the public channel and be the democratic and pluralist alternative. But time shows that the programs produced by the media were the adaptions of some formats like; soap operas, reality shows and etc. are from american television channels. They were not the mediums of cultural variations but the mediums of the reproduction of the dominant culture. It was hard to reach the data about the holdings and the ownership of the holdings. The researcher is concious about the data are already become old while this article is written. Thank you for giving time to the presentation. References Adaklı, G., Yayincilik Alaninda Mulkiyet ve Kontrol, Medya Politikalari, Der. D.B.Kajanlioglu,S.Celenk,G.Adakli, İmge, Ankara: Berelson, B & Janowitz, M., Reader in Public Opinion And Communication, Free Press, Day, R.A., Bilimsel Bir Makale Nasil Yazilir ve Yayimlanir, Tubitak Yayinlari, Ankara: Duran, R., Burası Dünya Polis Radyosu, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, İstanbul:2001. Girgin, A., Yazili Basinda Haber ve Habercilik Etik i, Inkilap Kitabevi, Ankara: Golding, P. & Murdock, G., Kultur, Iletisim ve Ekonomi Politik, Çev., D.B. Kejanlioglu, Medya Kultur Siyaset, Der., S. Irvan, Ark., Ankara: Hiebert, R.E.& Reuss, C., Impact Of Mass Media, Longman, London:

15 Rigel, N. Meya Ninnileri, Sistem Yayıncılık ve Matbaacılık, İstanbul:1993. Sandman, P.M.& Rubin, D.M.& Sachsman,D.B., An Introductory Analysis of American Mass Communicaitons Prentice Hall, London:1982. Soylemez, A., Medya Ekonomisi ve Turkiye Ornegi, Haberal Egitim Vakfi, Ankara:1998. Thompson, J.B., The Media And Modernity, A Social Theory Of The Media, Polity Press, Oxford:1995. Tokgoz, O., Temel Gazetecilik, İmge, Ankara: Tuncel, H., Bab-ı Ali den Ikitelli ye, Birikim: 64, s.33-38, Previous Paper Next Paper Contents 77

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