Flash Memory. Jian-Jia Chen (Slides are based on Yuan-Hao Chang) TU Dortmund Informatik 12 Germany 2015 年 01 月 27 日. technische universität dortmund

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Flash Memory. Jian-Jia Chen (Slides are based on Yuan-Hao Chang) TU Dortmund Informatik 12 Germany 2015 年 01 月 27 日. technische universität dortmund"

Transcription

1 12 Flash Memory Jian-Jia Chen (Slides are based on Yuan-Hao Chang) TU Dortmund Informatik 12 Germany 2015 年 01 月 27 日 These slides use Microsoft clip arts Microsoft copyright restrictions apply Springer, 2010

2 Why Flash Memory Diversified Application Domains Portable Storage Devices Consumer Electronics Industrial Applications Critical System Components - 2 -

3 Layout of Flash Memory 0 63 Block: basic eraseoperation unit 0 (2KB + 64 Byte) (2KB + 64 Byte) (2KB + 64 Byte) (2KB + 64 Byte) Page: basic writeoperation unit 1023 (2KB + 64 Byte) (2KB + 64 Byte) 128MB Flash Memory - 3 -

4 Characteristics of Flash Memory Write-Once No writing on the same page unless its residing block is erased! Pages are classified into valid, invalid, and free pages Bulk-Erasing Pages are erased in a block unit to recycle used but invalid pages Wear-Leveling Each block has a limited lifetime in erasing cycles Eg, 10,000 ~ 100,000 erase cycles for each block - 4 -

5 Terminology Valid data: the latest version of data stored in flash Invalid data: not the latest version of data stored in flash Live page: a page that stores valid data Dead page: a pages that stores invalid data Free page: a page that is erased and is ready to store data Free block: a block that is erased and is not allocated to store any data Hot data: frequently updated data Valid hot data might become invalid in the near future Cold data: non-frequently updated data Valid cold data might stay in the same place for a long time - 5 -

6 Management Issues Flash-Memory Example 1: Out-place Update Characteristics A B C D A B Dead pages - 6 -

7 Management Issues Flash-Memory Example 2: Garbage Collection Characteristics L D D L D D L D L L D L L L F D L F L L L L D F F L L F L L F D This block is to be recycled (3 live pages and 5 dead pages) A live page A dead page A free page - 7 -

8 Management Issues Flash-Memory Example 2: Garbage Collection Characteristics D D D D D D D D L L D L L L L D Live data are copied to somewhere else L F L L L L D L L L L F L L F D A live page A dead page A free page - 8 -

9 Management Issues Flash-Memory Example 2: Garbage Collection Characteristics F F F F F F F F The block is then erased L L D L L L L L F L L L L D D L Overheads: live data copying block erasing L L L F L L F D A live page A dead page - 9 -

10 Management Issues Flash-Memory Example 3: Wear-Leveling Characteristics L D D L D D L D L L D L L L F D A B Wear-leveling might interfere with the decisions of the blockrecycling policy L F L L L L D F F L L F L L F D C D A live page A dead page A free page Erase cycle counts

11 Single-Level Cell (SLC) vs Multiple-Level Cell (MLC) A limited bound on erase cycles SLC : 100,000 SLC Flash MLC x2 : 10,000 Bit error probability 64 SLC: 10-9 MB MLC: 10-6 MLC Flash NUMBER OF CELLS 1 0 a) BILEVEL (1 BIT/CELL) LOGIC STATE V T 128 MB NUMBER OF CELLS b) MULTILEVEL (2 BIT/CELL) LOGIC STATE V T

12 MLC vs SLC (Cont) Electronic Engineering Times, July

13 Price and Read/Write Performance NOR NAND SLC NAND MLC x2 Price 3455 $/GB 679 $/GB 248 $/GB Read 2384 MB/sec 1533 MB/sec 135 MB/sec Write 007 MB/sec 457 MB/sec 234 MB/sec Erase 022 MB/sec 8533 MB/sec MB/sec *NOR: Silicon Storage Technology (SST) NAND SLC: Samsung Electronics K9F1G08Q0M NAND MLCx2: ST STMicroelectronics [1,2] 1 Jian-Hong Lin, Yuan-Hao Chang, Jen-Wei Hsieh, Tei-Wei Kuo, and Cheng-Chih Yang, "A NOR Emulation Strategy over NAND Flash Memory," the 13th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), Daegu, Korea, August 21-24, Yuan-Hao Chang and Tei-Wei Kuo, A Log-based Management Scheme for Low-cost Flash-memory Storage Systems of Embedded Systems

14 Flash Memory Management Management issues Write constraints imposed by flash memory Scalability issue Garbage collection Performance considerations Reliability issues Cell error rate problem imposed by MLC flash memory Error correction coding vs wear leveling Read/write disturbance problem Data retention problem

15 Typical System Architecture Application 1 Application 2 Application n fwrite (file, data) Shared Library Virtual File System (VFS) Native Flash File System Layer (eg, JFFS2, YAFFS) File-system Management Unit Allocator Address Translation / Block Assignment File Systems (eg, DOS FAT) Flash Translation Layer (FTL) Allocator Address Translation / Block Assignment flash write (block, page) Control single Cleaner Garbage Collection Wear Leveler Cleaner Garbage Collection Memory Technology Device Layer (MTD) Flash Memory Wear Leveler

16 Flash Translation Layer (FTL) FTL adopts a page-level address translation mechanism The main problem of FTL is on large memory space requirements for storing the address translation information Access LBA = 3 Logical Block Address (array index) Physical Block Address (block,page) Address Translation Table (in main-memory) (1,3) (1,2) (2,1) (1,0) (4,7) (0,4) (0,6) (0,1) (0,3) Physical Block Address (block,page) 1,3 1,2 1,1 1,0 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0 User data Spare data Flash memory Spare data LBA=3; ECC= ; Status= ;

17 NAND Flash Translation Layer (NFTL) A logical address under NFTL is divided into a virtual block address and a block offset eg, LBA=1019 => virtual block address (VBA) = 1019 / 8 = 127 and block offset = 1019 % 8 = 3 Write data to LBA=1019 VBA=127 NFTL Address Translation Table (in main-memory) (9,23) Block Offset=3 A Primary Block Address = 9 Free Free Free Used Free If the page Free has been Free Write to the used Free first free page Free Free Free A Replacement Block Address = 23 Used Used Used Free Free

18 FTL or NFTL FTL NFTL Memory Space Requirements Large Small Address Translation Time Short Long Garbage Collection Overhead Less More Space Utilization High Low The memory-space requirements for one 1GB NAND (2KB/Page, 4B/Table Entry, 128 Pages/Block) FTL: 2MB (= 4*(1024*1024*1024)/2K) NFTL: 32KB (= 2*4*(1024*1024*1024)/(2K * 128))

19 Size of Translation Tables 1GB 32GB 1TB 32TB FTL 2MB 64MB 2GB 64GB NFTL 32KB 1MB 32MB 1GB No matter which kind of granularity of address translation is adopted, the fast growing flash memory capacity would eventually make the translation table too large to be fitted in RAM

20 Adaptive Two-Level Mapping Mechanism The coarse-grained hash table maintains the primary block and its replacement block This will be mainly used to identify the primary and replacement blocks The fine-grained hash table has limited entries to store the excessive live pages in the replacement block When the fine-grained table is full, the replacement policy has to be considered to move some pages to the coarse-grained table Improve the space utilization The delayed recycling of any primary block lets free pages of a primary block be likely used in the future A Fine-Grain Hash Table A Coarse-Grain Hash Table AFTL (A, RPBA + 5) (B, RPBA + 7) ( δ VBA, δ PPBA, δ RPBA) cg cg δ cg δ cg cg A Primary Block ( δcgppba ) A B C D E A Replacement Block ( δ cg RPBA ) A B A B A A B B Chin-Hsien Wu and Tei-Wei Kuo, 2006, An Adaptive Two-Level Management for the Flash Translation Layer in Embedded Systems, IEEE/ACM 2006 International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), November 5-9,

21 New Write Constraints of MLC Flash Write constraints Pages can only be written sequentially in a block Partial page write/programming is prohibited Impact on NFTL Data can t be written to any free page of primary blocks The space utilization in primary blocks is even lower Most writes are forced to be placed in the replacement block Pages of invalid data can t be marked as dead Each read operation should scan pages of the replacement block

22 Intuitive and Practical Solution Level-paging translation tables Pages of translation tables are stored in flash, and are cached in RAM Problems: Hit ratio of cached pages Extra page reads and writes for translation information Crash recovery for translation table and lost data 9 bits Level 0 paging page Level 1 paging page 3 bits Chip 4 bytes 2nd outerpage table LBA (4 bytes) 9 bits 4 bytes PBA (4 bytes) 17 bits Block empty Outer-page table 2 9 bits bits Level 2 paging page Offset 4 bytes Page table 7 bits Page 256GB Flash memory 1 Page = 2KB 1 Block = 2 7 Pages 1 Chip = 2 17 Blocks Page (2KB)

23 Performance Considerations MLC flash has growing market share: Reason: low cost and high density Drawbacks: low speed, low endurance, and low reliability Solutions: Hardware multi-channel programming Software multi-bank or multi-channel programming

24 Wear Leveling No Wear Leveling Dynamic Wear Leveling Intuitive Perfect Static Wear Leveling Erase Cycles Physical Block Addresses (PBA)

25 Static Wear Leveling Random policy It randomly select a block to reclaim after a fixed number of block erases or write requests It doesn t track the locality of data acceses, such that it might move hot data that might turn dead in the near future

26 Static Wear Leveling (Cont) Random policy with block-erasing table Each-bit flag of the table is to indicate whether the corresponding blocks have been erased Whenever the block erases are not even enough, select blocks whose corresponding bit flag are not set Pros and Cons: Pros: it can identify the locality of data accesses Cons: the block-erasing table needs extra RAM space even it is comparatively small Yuan-Hao Chang, Jen-Wei Hsieh, Tei-Wei Kuo: Endurance Enhancement of Flash-Memory Storage, Systems: An Efficient Static Wear Leveling Design DAC 2007:

27 The Block Erasing Table (BET) A bit-array: Each bit is for 2 k consecutive blocks Small k in favor of hot-cold data separation Large k in favor of small RAM space e cnt =2 =3 =0 =1 f cnt =2 =0 =1 Flash e cnt =1 =0 =2 =3 =4 f cnt =1 =0 = BET k=0 k=2 e cnt : the total number of block erases done since the BET is reset f cnt : the number of 1 s in the BET : an index to a block that the Cleaner wants to erase : a block that has been erased in the current resetting interval

28 A SimpleStatic-Wear Leveler An unevenness level (e cnt / f cnt ) >= T à Triggering of the SW Leveler Resetting of BET when all flags are set T: A threshold, T=1000 in this example e cnt : the total number of block erases since the BET is erased e cnt =1998 =1999 =2000 =2004 =2998 =2999 =3000 =3004 =3999 =4000 =0 f cnt =2 =3 =4 = f cnt : The number of 1 s in the BET : An index that SW Leveler triggers the Cleaner to do garbage collection : An index in the selection of a block set : An index to a block that the Cleaner wants to erase : A block that has been erased in the current resetting interval k=2 The Cleaner is triggered to Reset to a randomly 1 Copy valid data selected block set free area, 4000 After a / 4 period = 1000>= Erase block in the selected of of time, selected block the (ethe block set cnt total / total f set, cnt erase >=1000) erase and , 3 count but Inform all / reaches 2 3 the flags = Allocator 1000 in (flag) 3999 BET >= 2998 to update 1000 are 1à the (E address reset cnt / f cnt >= mapping BET T) between LBA and PBA

29 Main-Memory Requirements 512MB 1GB 2GB 4GB 8GB k=0 256B 512B 1024B 2048B 4096B k=1 128B 256B 512B 1024B 2048B k=2 64B 128B 256B 512B 1024B k=3 32B 64B 128B 256B 512B MLC x2 (1 page = 2 KB, 1 block=128 pages)

30 File-System Considerations - Observations Archive: Linux-2617 source Number of files 19,535 Number of directories 1,200 Average file size 11 KB Archive size 215,666 KB FAT is the default file system for removable storage devices Write the files to a removable storage device File system NTFS FAT Number of write requests 24, ,670 Time taken (min:sec) 4:33 54:21 Read the files from a removable storage device File system NTFS FAT Number of read requests 14,568 23,528 Time taken (min:sec) 2:53 3:19 FAT file systems introduce excessive write requests! why?

31 File-System Considerations - Observations (Cont) Layout of FAT filesystem File #1 FAT #1 FAT #2 Directory Entry Content of File LBA 0 Directory Entry FAT #1 FAT #2 File #2 Directory Entry Content of File Directory Entry

32 File-System Considerations Applications Card Readers Operating System API File System Drivers Host Disk Drivers Device Drivers Filter Drivers USB Flash Drives Device Device Controller Storage Media Bus Drivers Host Device Device Controller Storage Media Flash Memory Cards (a) (b)

33 Overview When? Notifications Read and Write IoPackets USB Mass Storage Device Driver I/O Request Dispatch Unit Other IoPackets I/O Response Cohesivecaching algorithm Filter Driver Filesystem Identifier File System Layout Partition Table & Boot Sectors Cache FIFO Queue I/O Request Transport Unit Debug Unit I/O Response Trace Debug Viewer USB Bus Driver

34 The Allow/Prevent Medium Removal Operation Code in the USB Bulk-Only Transport <CBW> Prevent Medium Removal <CSW> Success FAT File System hrtimerc intermodulec itimerc kallsymsc Disk Driver 1 st FAT 2 nd FAT Directory Entry File Content Directory Entry Disk W W W W W W W W USB Mass Storage Class, Bulk-Only Transport Protocol CBW: Command Block Wrapper CSW: Command Status Wrapper USB Mass Storage Device Driver <CBW> Write10 LBA=1446 LEN=1 <DATA> <CSW> Success USB Bus An IoPacket Send a notification <CBW> Allow Medium Removal <CSW> Success

35 Worsening Reliability - Narrow Threshold Voltage Window MLC/TLC/QLC technology must squeeze the available window of threshold voltage for each logical state Higher Bit Error Rate Lower Endurance SLC MLC Source:

36 Reliability Issues The low-cost MLC flash Has lower erase cycles Has higher and higher bit error rate Ways to improve reliability Error correction coding (ECC) à passively Non-erasure code such as BCH and RS Wear leveling à positively Distribute block erases as even as possible Note: Erasure code is used in communication Non-erasure code is used in storage systems

37 Error Correction Coding Error correction code of a page is stored in its spare area The time on error correction might be affected by the location of error bits or the number of error bits The space of the ECC hardware V is increased as the number of t supported error bits increases Trend of MLC flash The page size is getting larger The bit error rate is getting higher Fast erasing bits The fast worn-out flash cells

38 Data Retention Problem The guaranteed data retention: 10 years As the cell size is getting smaller, the number of electrons in the floating gate of a flash cell is getting smaller For example: A programmed cell can store 10,000 electrons A lost of only 10% in this number can lead to a wrong read à A loss of less than 2 electrons per week can be tolerated

Implementation and Challenging Issues of Flash-Memory Storage Systems

Implementation and Challenging Issues of Flash-Memory Storage Systems Implementation and Challenging Issues of Flash-Memory Storage Systems Tei-Wei Kuo Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering National Taiwan University Agenda Introduction Management Issues

More information

A File-System-Aware FTL Design for Flash-Memory Storage Systems

A File-System-Aware FTL Design for Flash-Memory Storage Systems A File-System-Aware FTL Design for Flash-Memory Storage Systems Po-Liang Wu Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Taiwan University, Taipei 16, Taiwan, R.O.C. Email: b9129@csie.ntu.edu.tw

More information

A NOR Emulation Strategy over NAND Flash Memory

A NOR Emulation Strategy over NAND Flash Memory A NOR Emulation Strategy over NAND Flash Memory Jian-Hong Lin, Yuan-Hao Chang, Jen-Wei Hsieh, and Tei-Wei Kuo Embedded Systems and Wireless Networking Laboratory Dept. of Computer Science and Information

More information

An Adaptive Striping Architecture for Flash Memory Storage Systems of Embedded Systems

An Adaptive Striping Architecture for Flash Memory Storage Systems of Embedded Systems An Adaptive Striping Architecture for Flash Memory Storage Systems of Embedded Systems Li-Pin Chang and Tei-Wei Kuo {d65269,ktw}@csientuedutw Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering

More information

Linux flash file systems JFFS2 vs UBIFS

Linux flash file systems JFFS2 vs UBIFS Linux flash file systems JFFS2 vs UBIFS Chris Simmonds 2net Limited Embedded Systems Conference UK. 2009 Copyright 2009, 2net Limited Overview Many embedded systems use raw flash chips JFFS2 has been the

More information

RNFTL: A Reuse-Aware NAND Flash Translation Layer for Flash Memory

RNFTL: A Reuse-Aware NAND Flash Translation Layer for Flash Memory RNFTL: A Reuse-Aware NAND Flash Translation Layer for Flash Memory Yi Wang, DuoLiu, MengWang, ZhiweiQin, Zili Shao and Yong Guan Department of Computing College of Computer and Information Management The

More information

A Data De-duplication Access Framework for Solid State Drives

A Data De-duplication Access Framework for Solid State Drives JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 28, 941-954 (2012) A Data De-duplication Access Framework for Solid State Drives Department of Electronic Engineering National Taiwan University of Science

More information

Nasir Memon Polytechnic Institute of NYU

Nasir Memon Polytechnic Institute of NYU Nasir Memon Polytechnic Institute of NYU SSD Drive Technology Overview SSD Drive Components NAND FLASH Microcontroller SSD Drive Forensics Challenges Overview SSD s are fairly new to the market Whereas

More information

NAND Flash FAQ. Eureka Technology. apn5_87. NAND Flash FAQ

NAND Flash FAQ. Eureka Technology. apn5_87. NAND Flash FAQ What is NAND Flash? What is the major difference between NAND Flash and other Memory? Structural differences between NAND Flash and NOR Flash What does NAND Flash controller do? How to send command to

More information

1 / 25. CS 137: File Systems. Persistent Solid-State Storage

1 / 25. CS 137: File Systems. Persistent Solid-State Storage 1 / 25 CS 137: File Systems Persistent Solid-State Storage Technology Change is Coming Introduction Disks are cheaper than any solid-state memory Likely to be true for many years But SSDs are now cheap

More information

Scalus Winter School Storage Systems

Scalus Winter School Storage Systems Scalus Winter School Storage Systems Flash Memory André Brinkmann Flash Memory Floa:ng gate of a flash cell is electrically isolated Applying high voltages between source and drain accelerates electrons

More information

File Systems for Flash Memories. Marcela Zuluaga Sebastian Isaza Dante Rodriguez

File Systems for Flash Memories. Marcela Zuluaga Sebastian Isaza Dante Rodriguez File Systems for Flash Memories Marcela Zuluaga Sebastian Isaza Dante Rodriguez Outline Introduction to Flash Memories Introduction to File Systems File Systems for Flash Memories YAFFS (Yet Another Flash

More information

2LGC: An Atomic-Unit Garbage Collection Scheme with a Two-Level List for NAND Flash Storage

2LGC: An Atomic-Unit Garbage Collection Scheme with a Two-Level List for NAND Flash Storage 2LGC: An Atomic-Unit Garbage Collection Scheme with a Two-Level List for NAND Flash Storage Sanghyuk Jung and Yong Ho Song Department of Electronics Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

More information

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li Computer Science Department Princeton University. (http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/cos318/)

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li Computer Science Department Princeton University. (http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/cos318/) COS 318: Operating Systems Storage Devices Kai Li Computer Science Department Princeton University (http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/cos318/) Today s Topics Magnetic disks Magnetic disk performance

More information

Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems Sensors 2014, 14, 18851-18877; doi:10.3390/s141018851 Article OPEN ACCESS sensors ISSN 1424-8220 www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for

More information

Efficient Identification of Hot Data for Flash-Memory Storage Systems

Efficient Identification of Hot Data for Flash-Memory Storage Systems Efficient Identification of Hot Data for Flash-Memory Storage Systems Jen-Wei Hsieh, Li-Pin Chang, and Tei-Wei Kuo Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Taiwan University,

More information

Indexing on Solid State Drives based on Flash Memory

Indexing on Solid State Drives based on Flash Memory Indexing on Solid State Drives based on Flash Memory Florian Keusch MASTER S THESIS Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich http://www.systems.ethz.ch/ September 2008 - March 2009 Supervised

More information

Efficient Identification of Hot Data for Flash Memory Storage Systems

Efficient Identification of Hot Data for Flash Memory Storage Systems Efficient Identification of Hot Data for Flash Memory Storage Systems JEN-WEI HSIEH and TEI-WEI KUO National Taiwan University and LI-PIN CHANG National Chiao-Tung University Hot data identification for

More information

In-Block Level Redundancy Management for Flash Storage System

In-Block Level Redundancy Management for Flash Storage System , pp.309-318 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2015.10.9.32 In-Block Level Redundancy Management for Flash Storage System Seung-Ho Lim Division of Computer and Electronic Systems Engineering Hankuk University

More information

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li and Andy Bavier Computer Science Department Princeton University

COS 318: Operating Systems. Storage Devices. Kai Li and Andy Bavier Computer Science Department Princeton University COS 318: Operating Systems Storage Devices Kai Li and Andy Bavier Computer Science Department Princeton University http://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/archive/fall13/cos318/ Today s Topics! Magnetic disks!

More information

UBI with Logging. Brijesh Singh Samsung, India brij.singh@samsung.com. Rohit Vijay Dongre Samsung, India rohit.dongre@samsung.com.

UBI with Logging. Brijesh Singh Samsung, India brij.singh@samsung.com. Rohit Vijay Dongre Samsung, India rohit.dongre@samsung.com. UBI with Logging Brijesh Singh Samsung, India brij.singh@samsung.com Rohit Vijay Dongre Samsung, India rohit.dongre@samsung.com Abstract Flash memory is widely adopted as a novel nonvolatile storage medium

More information

Offline Deduplication for Solid State Disk Using a Lightweight Hash Algorithm

Offline Deduplication for Solid State Disk Using a Lightweight Hash Algorithm JOURNAL OF SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, VOL.15, NO.5, OCTOBER, 2015 ISSN(Print) 1598-1657 http://dx.doi.org/10.5573/jsts.2015.15.5.539 ISSN(Online) 2233-4866 Offline Deduplication for Solid State

More information

UBIFS file system. Adrian Hunter (Адриан Хантер) Artem Bityutskiy (Битюцкий Артём)

UBIFS file system. Adrian Hunter (Адриан Хантер) Artem Bityutskiy (Битюцкий Артём) UBIFS file system Adrian Hunter (Адриан Хантер) Artem Bityutskiy (Битюцкий Артём) Plan Introduction (Artem) MTD and UBI (Artem) UBIFS (Adrian) 2 UBIFS scope UBIFS stands for UBI file system (argh...) UBIFS

More information

Using MLC NAND in Datacenters (a.k.a. Using Client SSD Technology in Datacenters) Tony Roug, Intel Principal Engineer

Using MLC NAND in Datacenters (a.k.a. Using Client SSD Technology in Datacenters) Tony Roug, Intel Principal Engineer Using MLC NAND in Datacenters (a.k.a. Using Client SSD Technology in Datacenters) Tony Roug, Intel Principal Engineer SNIA Legal Notice The material contained in this tutorial is copyrighted by the SNIA.

More information

Data Distribution Algorithms for Reliable. Reliable Parallel Storage on Flash Memories

Data Distribution Algorithms for Reliable. Reliable Parallel Storage on Flash Memories Data Distribution Algorithms for Reliable Parallel Storage on Flash Memories Zuse Institute Berlin November 2008, MEMICS Workshop Motivation Nonvolatile storage Flash memory - Invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka

More information

Implementation of Buffer Cache Simulator for Hybrid Main Memory and Flash Memory Storages

Implementation of Buffer Cache Simulator for Hybrid Main Memory and Flash Memory Storages Implementation of Buffer Cache Simulator for Hybrid Main Memory and Flash Memory Storages Soohyun Yang and Yeonseung Ryu Department of Computer Engineering, Myongji University Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, Korea

More information

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends Michael Abraham (mabraham@micron.com) NAND Solutions Group Architect Micron Technology, Inc. August 2012 1 Topics NAND Flash Architecture Trends The Cloud

More information

Survey of Filesystems for Embedded Linux. Presented by Gene Sally CELF

Survey of Filesystems for Embedded Linux. Presented by Gene Sally CELF Survey of Filesystems for Embedded Linux Presented by Gene Sally CELF Presentation Filesystems In Summary What is a filesystem Kernel and User space filesystems Picking a root filesystem Filesystem Round-up

More information

Disks and RAID. Profs. Bracy and Van Renesse. based on slides by Prof. Sirer

Disks and RAID. Profs. Bracy and Van Renesse. based on slides by Prof. Sirer Disks and RAID Profs. Bracy and Van Renesse based on slides by Prof. Sirer 50 Years Old! 13th September 1956 The IBM RAMAC 350 Stored less than 5 MByte Reading from a Disk Must specify: cylinder # (distance

More information

Data Storage Framework on Flash Memory using Object-based Storage Model

Data Storage Framework on Flash Memory using Object-based Storage Model 2011 International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT 2011) IPCSIT vol. 51 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore DOI: 10.7763/IPCSIT.2012.V51. 118 Data Storage Framework

More information

NAND Flash & Storage Media

NAND Flash & Storage Media ENABLING MULTIMEDIA NAND Flash & Storage Media March 31, 2004 NAND Flash Presentation NAND Flash Presentation Version 1.6 www.st.com/nand NAND Flash Memories Technology Roadmap F70 1b/c F12 1b/c 1 bit/cell

More information

Design of a NAND Flash Memory File System to Improve System Boot Time

Design of a NAND Flash Memory File System to Improve System Boot Time International Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol.2, No.3, December 2006 147 Design of a NAND Flash Memory File System to Improve System Boot Time Song-Hwa Park*, Tae-Hoon Lee*, and Ki-Dong

More information

An Efficient B-Tree Layer for Flash-Memory Storage Systems

An Efficient B-Tree Layer for Flash-Memory Storage Systems An Efficient B-Tree Layer for Flash-Memory Storage Systems Chin-Hsien Wu, Li-Pin Chang, and Tei-Wei Kuo {d90003,d6526009,ktw}@csie.ntu.edu.tw Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering

More information

File System Management

File System Management Lecture 7: Storage Management File System Management Contents Non volatile memory Tape, HDD, SSD Files & File System Interface Directories & their Organization File System Implementation Disk Space Allocation

More information

A Group-Based Wear-Leveling Algorithm for Large-Capacity Flash Memory Storage Systems

A Group-Based Wear-Leveling Algorithm for Large-Capacity Flash Memory Storage Systems A Group-Based Wear-Leveling Algorithm for Large-Capacity Flash Memory Storage Systems Dawoon Jung, Yoon-Hee Chae, Heeseung Jo, Jin-Soo Kim, and Joonwon Lee Computer Science Division Korea Advanced Institute

More information

Model and Validation of Block Cleaning Cost for Flash Memory*, **

Model and Validation of Block Cleaning Cost for Flash Memory*, ** Model and Validation of Block Cleaning Cost for Flash Memory*, ** Seungjae Baek 1, Jongmoo Choi 1, Donghee Lee 2, and Sam H. Noh 3 1 Division of Information and Computer Science, Dankook University, Korea,

More information

Managing the evolution of Flash : beyond memory to storage

Managing the evolution of Flash : beyond memory to storage Managing the evolution of Flash : beyond memory to storage Tony Kim Director, Memory Marketing Samsung Semiconductor I nc. Nonvolatile Memory Seminar Hot Chips Conference August 22, 2010 Memorial Auditorium

More information

A Simple Virtual FAT File System for Wear-Leveling Onboard NAND Flash Memory

A Simple Virtual FAT File System for Wear-Leveling Onboard NAND Flash Memory A Simple Virtual FAT File System for Wear-Leveling Onboard NAND Flash Memory Robert Klar, Sue Baldor, Charles Howard, Randal Harmon, and Allison Bertrand Southwest Research Institute Promise of Flash Flash

More information

A PRAM and NAND Flash Hybrid Architecture for High-Performance Embedded Storage Subsystems

A PRAM and NAND Flash Hybrid Architecture for High-Performance Embedded Storage Subsystems 1 A PRAM and NAND Flash Hybrid Architecture for High-Performance Embedded Storage Subsystems Chul Lee Software Laboratory Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology Samsung Electronics Outline 2 Background

More information

Speeding Up Cloud/Server Applications Using Flash Memory

Speeding Up Cloud/Server Applications Using Flash Memory Speeding Up Cloud/Server Applications Using Flash Memory Sudipta Sengupta Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA Contains work that is joint with B. Debnath (Univ. of Minnesota) and J. Li (Microsoft Research,

More information

Algorithms and Methods for Distributed Storage Networks 3. Solid State Disks Christian Schindelhauer

Algorithms and Methods for Distributed Storage Networks 3. Solid State Disks Christian Schindelhauer Algorithms and Methods for Distributed Storage Networks 3. Solid State Disks Institut für Informatik Wintersemester 2007/08 Solid State Disks Motivation 2 10 5 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 PRODUCTION

More information

Solid State Drive (SSD) FAQ

Solid State Drive (SSD) FAQ Solid State Drive (SSD) FAQ Santosh Kumar Rajesh Vijayaraghavan O c t o b e r 2 0 1 1 List of Questions Why SSD? Why Dell SSD? What are the types of SSDs? What are the best Use cases & applications for

More information

hybridfs: Integrating NAND Flash-Based SSD and HDD for Hybrid File System

hybridfs: Integrating NAND Flash-Based SSD and HDD for Hybrid File System hybridfs: Integrating NAND Flash-Based SSD and HDD for Hybrid File System Jinsun Suk and Jaechun No College of Electronics and Information Engineering Sejong University 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul

More information

Yaffs NAND Flash Failure Mitigation

Yaffs NAND Flash Failure Mitigation Yaffs NAND Flash Failure Mitigation Charles Manning 2012-03-07 NAND flash is one of very few types of electronic device which are knowingly shipped with errors and are expected to generate further errors

More information

Lecture 16: Storage Devices

Lecture 16: Storage Devices CS 422/522 Design & Implementation of Operating Systems Lecture 16: Storage Devices Zhong Shao Dept. of Computer Science Yale University Acknowledgement: some slides are taken from previous versions of

More information

Abstract. 1. Introduction 978-3-9810801-5-5/DATE09 2009 EDAA

Abstract. 1. Introduction 978-3-9810801-5-5/DATE09 2009 EDAA FSAF: File System Aware Flash Translation Layer for NAND Flash Memories * Sai Krishna Mylavarapu 1, Siddharth Choudhuri 2, Aviral Shrivastava 1, Jongeun Lee 1, Tony Givargis 2 Sai.Mylavarapu@asu.edu 1

More information

Important Differences Between Consumer and Enterprise Flash Architectures

Important Differences Between Consumer and Enterprise Flash Architectures Important Differences Between Consumer and Enterprise Flash Architectures Robert Sykes Director of Firmware Flash Memory Summit 2013 Santa Clara, CA OCZ Technology Introduction This presentation will describe

More information

Update on filesystems for flash storage

Update on filesystems for flash storage JM2L Update on filesystems for flash storage Michael Opdenacker. Free Electrons http://free electrons.com/ 1 Contents Introduction Available flash filesystems Our benchmarks Best choices Experimental filesystems

More information

p-oftl: An Object-based Semantic-aware Parallel Flash Translation Layer

p-oftl: An Object-based Semantic-aware Parallel Flash Translation Layer p-oftl: An Object-based Semantic-aware Parallel Flash Translation Layer Wei Wang, Youyou Lu, and Jiwu Shu Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China Tsinghua National

More information

An Exploration of Hybrid Hard Disk Designs Using an Extensible Simulator

An Exploration of Hybrid Hard Disk Designs Using an Extensible Simulator An Exploration of Hybrid Hard Disk Designs Using an Extensible Simulator Pavan Konanki Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment

More information

SLC vs MLC: Which is best for high-reliability apps?

SLC vs MLC: Which is best for high-reliability apps? SLC vs MLC: Which is best for high-reliability apps? Here's an examination of trade-offs, with an emphasis on how they affect the reliability of storage targeted at industrial, military and avionic applications.

More information

JAM: Justifiable Allocation of Memory with Efficient Mounting and Fast Crash Recovery for NAND Flash Memory File Systems

JAM: Justifiable Allocation of Memory with Efficient Mounting and Fast Crash Recovery for NAND Flash Memory File Systems The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 7, No. 4, October 2010 395 JAM: Justifiable Allocation of Memory with Efficient Mounting and Fast Crash Recovery for NAND Flash Memory File

More information

Efficient Management for Large-Scale Flash-Memory Storage Systems with Resource Conservation

Efficient Management for Large-Scale Flash-Memory Storage Systems with Resource Conservation Efficient Management for Large-Scale Flash-Memory Storage Systems with Resource Conservation Li-Pin Chang and Tei-Wei Kuo Department of Computer Science National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan

More information

Solid State Drives Data Reliability and Lifetime. Abstract

Solid State Drives Data Reliability and Lifetime. Abstract Solid State Drives Data Reliability and Lifetime White Paper Alan R. Olson & Denis J. Langlois April 7, 2008 Abstract The explosion of flash memory technology has dramatically increased storage capacity

More information

Choosing the Right NAND Flash Memory Technology

Choosing the Right NAND Flash Memory Technology Choosing the Right NAND Flash Memory Technology A Basic Introduction to NAND Flash Offerings Dean Klein Vice President of System Memory Development Micron Technology, Inc. Executive Summary A 75% increase

More information

On Benchmarking Embedded Linux Flash File Systems

On Benchmarking Embedded Linux Flash File Systems On Benchmarking Embedded Linux Flash File Systems Pierre Olivier Université de Brest, 20 avenue Le Gorgeu, 29285 Brest cedex 3, France pierre.olivier@univbrest.fr Jalil Boukhobza Université de Brest, 20

More information

WP001 - Flash Management A detailed overview of flash management techniques

WP001 - Flash Management A detailed overview of flash management techniques WHITE PAPER A detailed overview of flash management techniques November 2013 951 SanDisk Drive, Milpitas, CA 95035 2013 SanDIsk Corporation. All rights reserved www.sandisk.com Table of Contents 1. Introduction...

More information

Solid State Drive Technology

Solid State Drive Technology Technical white paper Solid State Drive Technology Differences between SLC, MLC and TLC NAND Table of contents Executive summary... 2 SLC vs MLC vs TLC... 2 NAND cell technology... 2 Write amplification...

More information

An Efficient B-Tree Layer Implementation for Flash-Memory Storage Systems

An Efficient B-Tree Layer Implementation for Flash-Memory Storage Systems An Efficient B-Tree Layer Implementation for Flash-Memory Storage Systems CHIN-HSIEN WU and TEI-WEI KUO National Taiwan University and LI PING CHANG National Chiao-Tung University With the significant

More information

Programming NAND devices

Programming NAND devices Technical Guide Programming NAND devices Kelly Hirsch, Director of Advanced Technology, Data I/O Corporation Recent Design Trends In the past, embedded system designs have used NAND devices for storing

More information

Understanding endurance and performance characteristics of HP solid state drives

Understanding endurance and performance characteristics of HP solid state drives Understanding endurance and performance characteristics of HP solid state drives Technology brief Introduction... 2 SSD endurance... 2 An introduction to endurance... 2 NAND organization... 2 SLC versus

More information

NAND Basics Understanding the Technology Behind Your SSD

NAND Basics Understanding the Technology Behind Your SSD 03 Basics Understanding the Technology Behind Your SSD Although it may all look the same, all is not created equal: SLC, 2-bit MLC, 3-bit MLC (also called TLC), synchronous, asynchronous, ONFI 1.0, ONFI

More information

A PRAM and NAND Flash Hybrid Architecture for High-Performance Embedded Storage Subsystems

A PRAM and NAND Flash Hybrid Architecture for High-Performance Embedded Storage Subsystems A PRAM and NAND Flash Hybrid Architecture for High-Performance Embedded Storage Subsystems Jin Kyu Kim 1 Hyung Gyu Lee 1 Shinho Choi 2 Kyoung Il Bahng 2 1 Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, CTO,

More information

NAND Flash Memory Reliability in Embedded Computer Systems

NAND Flash Memory Reliability in Embedded Computer Systems WHITE PAPER NAND Flash Memory Reliability in Embedded Computer Systems Ian Olson INTRODUCTION NAND flash memory named after the NAND logic gates it is constructed from is used for nonvolatile data storage

More information

CAVE: Channel-Aware Buffer Management Scheme for Solid State Disk

CAVE: Channel-Aware Buffer Management Scheme for Solid State Disk CAVE: Channel-Aware Buffer Management Scheme for Solid State Disk Sung Kyu Park, Youngwoo Park, Gyudong Shim, and Kyu Ho Park Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) 305-701, Guseong-dong,

More information

How it can benefit your enterprise. Dejan Kocic Netapp

How it can benefit your enterprise. Dejan Kocic Netapp PRESENTATION Case for flash TITLE GOES storage HERE How it can benefit your enterprise Dejan Kocic Netapp SNIA Legal Notice The material contained in this tutorial is copyrighted by the SNIA unless otherwise

More information

File System & Device Drive. Overview of Mass Storage Structure. Moving head Disk Mechanism. HDD Pictures 11/13/2014. CS341: Operating System

File System & Device Drive. Overview of Mass Storage Structure. Moving head Disk Mechanism. HDD Pictures 11/13/2014. CS341: Operating System CS341: Operating System Lect 36: 1 st Nov 2014 Dr. A. Sahu Dept of Comp. Sc. & Engg. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati File System & Device Drive Mass Storage Disk Structure Disk Arm Scheduling RAID

More information

Introduction Disks RAID Tertiary storage. Mass Storage. CMSC 412, University of Maryland. Guest lecturer: David Hovemeyer.

Introduction Disks RAID Tertiary storage. Mass Storage. CMSC 412, University of Maryland. Guest lecturer: David Hovemeyer. Guest lecturer: David Hovemeyer November 15, 2004 The memory hierarchy Red = Level Access time Capacity Features Registers nanoseconds 100s of bytes fixed Cache nanoseconds 1-2 MB fixed RAM nanoseconds

More information

A Workload-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Flash Translation Layer with an Efficient Caching Strategy

A Workload-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Flash Translation Layer with an Efficient Caching Strategy A Workload-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Flash Translation Layer with an Efficient Caching Strategy Dongchul Park, Biplob Debnath and David H.C. Du Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of

More information

SLC vs MLC: Proper Flash Selection for SSDs in Industrial, Military and Avionic Applications. A TCS Space & Component Technology White Paper

SLC vs MLC: Proper Flash Selection for SSDs in Industrial, Military and Avionic Applications. A TCS Space & Component Technology White Paper SLC vs MLC: Proper Flash Selection for SSDs in Industrial, Military and Avionic Applications A TCS Space & Component Technology White Paper Introduction As with most storage technologies, NAND Flash vendors

More information

What Types of ECC Should Be Used on Flash Memory?

What Types of ECC Should Be Used on Flash Memory? What Types of ECC Should Be Used on Flash Memory? Application 1. Abstract NOR Flash normally does not need ECC (Error-Correcting Code). On the other hand, NAND requires ECC to ensure data integrity. NAND

More information

MCF54418 NAND Flash Controller

MCF54418 NAND Flash Controller Freescale Semiconductor Application Note Document Number: AN4348 Rev. 0, 09/2011 MCF54418 NAND Flash Controller by: Liew Tsi Chung Applications Engineer 1 Introduction The ColdFire MCF5441x family is the

More information

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends

NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends NAND Flash Architecture and Specification Trends Michael Abraham (mabraham@micron.com) NAND Solutions Group Architect Micron Technology, Inc. August 2011 1 Topics NAND Flash trends SSD/Enterprise application

More information

HybridLog: an Efficient Hybrid-Mapped Flash Translation Layer for Modern NAND Flash Memory

HybridLog: an Efficient Hybrid-Mapped Flash Translation Layer for Modern NAND Flash Memory HybridLog: an Efficient Hybrid-Mapped Flash Translation Layer for Modern NAND Flash Memory Mong-Ling Chiao and Da-Wei Chang Abstract A Flash Translation Layer (FTL) emulates a block device interface on

More information

Trends in NAND Flash Memory Error Correction

Trends in NAND Flash Memory Error Correction Trends in NAND Flash Memory Error Correction June 2009 Eric Deal Cyclic Design Introduction NAND Flash is a popular storage media because of its ruggedness, power efficiency, and storage capacity. Flash

More information

SLC vs. MLC: An Analysis of Flash Memory

SLC vs. MLC: An Analysis of Flash Memory SLC vs. MLC: An Analysis of Flash Memory Examining the Quality of Memory: Understanding the Differences between Flash Grades Table of Contents Abstract... 3 Introduction... 4 Flash Memory Explained...

More information

Flash Memory Basics for SSD Users

Flash Memory Basics for SSD Users Flash Memory Basics for SSD Users April 2014, Rainer W. Kaese Toshiba Electronics Europe Storage Products Division SSD vs. HDD Enterprise SSD Can write the full capacity 30x per day over lifetime Client/Laptop

More information

Integrating NAND Flash Devices onto Servers By David Roberts, Taeho Kgil, and Trevor Mudge

Integrating NAND Flash Devices onto Servers By David Roberts, Taeho Kgil, and Trevor Mudge Integrating NAND Flash Devices onto Servers By David Roberts, Taeho Kgil, and Trevor Mudge doi:.45/498765.49879 Abstract Flash is a widely used storage device in portable mobile devices such as smart phones,

More information

Comparison of NAND Flash Technologies Used in Solid- State Storage

Comparison of NAND Flash Technologies Used in Solid- State Storage An explanation and comparison of SLC and MLC NAND technologies August 2010 Comparison of NAND Flash Technologies Used in Solid- State Storage By Shaluka Perera IBM Systems and Technology Group Bill Bornstein

More information

High-Performance SSD-Based RAID Storage. Madhukar Gunjan Chakhaiyar Product Test Architect

High-Performance SSD-Based RAID Storage. Madhukar Gunjan Chakhaiyar Product Test Architect High-Performance SSD-Based RAID Storage Madhukar Gunjan Chakhaiyar Product Test Architect 1 Agenda HDD based RAID Performance-HDD based RAID Storage Dynamics driving to SSD based RAID Storage Evolution

More information

Solid State Drive Architecture

Solid State Drive Architecture Solid State Drive Architecture A comparison and evaluation of data storage mediums Tyler Thierolf Justin Uriarte Outline Introduction Storage Device as Limiting Factor Terminology Internals Interface Architecture

More information

September 25, 2007. Maya Gokhale Georgia Institute of Technology

September 25, 2007. Maya Gokhale Georgia Institute of Technology NAND Flash Storage for High Performance Computing Craig Ulmer cdulmer@sandia.gov September 25, 2007 Craig Ulmer Maya Gokhale Greg Diamos Michael Rewak SNL/CA, LLNL Georgia Institute of Technology University

More information

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS THE FORENSIC POTENTIAL OF FLASH MEMORY by James E. Regan September 2009 Thesis Advisor: Second Reader: Simson Garfinkel George Dinolt Approved for

More information

Efficient usage of Flash memories in high performance scenarios

Efficient usage of Flash memories in high performance scenarios Efficient usage of Flash memories in high performance scenarios A Thesis Submitted For the Degree of Master of Science (Engineering) in the Faculty of Engineering by Srimugunthan Computer Science and Automation

More information

Flash for Databases. September 22, 2015 Peter Zaitsev Percona

Flash for Databases. September 22, 2015 Peter Zaitsev Percona Flash for Databases September 22, 2015 Peter Zaitsev Percona In this Presentation Flash technology overview Review some of the available technology What does this mean for databases? Specific opportunities

More information

AN1819 APPLICATION NOTE Bad Block Management in Single Level Cell NAND Flash Memories

AN1819 APPLICATION NOTE Bad Block Management in Single Level Cell NAND Flash Memories APPLICATION NOTE Bad Block Management in Single Level Cell NAND Flash Memories This Application Note explains how to recognize factory generated Bad Blocks, and to manage Bad Blocks that develop during

More information

760 Veterans Circle, Warminster, PA 18974 215-956-1200. Technical Proposal. Submitted by: ACT/Technico 760 Veterans Circle Warminster, PA 18974.

760 Veterans Circle, Warminster, PA 18974 215-956-1200. Technical Proposal. Submitted by: ACT/Technico 760 Veterans Circle Warminster, PA 18974. 760 Veterans Circle, Warminster, PA 18974 215-956-1200 Technical Proposal Submitted by: ACT/Technico 760 Veterans Circle Warminster, PA 18974 for Conduction Cooled NAS Revision 4/3/07 CC/RAIDStor: Conduction

More information

Impact of Stripe Unit Size on Performance and Endurance of SSD-Based RAID Arrays

Impact of Stripe Unit Size on Performance and Endurance of SSD-Based RAID Arrays 1 Impact of Stripe Unit Size on Performance and Endurance of SSD-Based RAID Arrays Farzaneh Rajaei Salmasi Hossein Asadi Majid GhasemiGol rajaei@ce.sharif.edu asadi@sharif.edu ghasemigol@ce.sharif.edu

More information

Update on filesystems for flash storage

Update on filesystems for flash storage Embedded Linux Conference Europe Update on filesystems for flash storage Michael Opdenacker. Free Electrons http://free electrons.com/ 1 Contents Introduction Available flash filesystems Our benchmarks

More information

Don t Let RAID Raid the Lifetime of Your SSD Array

Don t Let RAID Raid the Lifetime of Your SSD Array Don t Let RAID Raid the Lifetime of Your SSD Array Sangwhan Moon Texas A&M University A. L. Narasimha Reddy Texas A&M University Abstract Parity protection at system level is typically employed to compose

More information

Counting Problems in Flash Storage Design

Counting Problems in Flash Storage Design Flash Talk Counting Problems in Flash Storage Design Bongki Moon Department of Computer Science University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721, U.S.A. bkmoon@cs.arizona.edu NVRAMOS 09, Jeju, Korea, October 2009-1-

More information

Data Storage II. Prof. Ing. Pavel Tvrdík CSc. Ing. Jiří Kašpar

Data Storage II. Prof. Ing. Pavel Tvrdík CSc. Ing. Jiří Kašpar Pavel Tvrdík, Jiří Kašpar (ČVUT FIT) Data Storage II. MI-POA, 2011, Lecture 4 1/22 Data Storage II. Prof. Ing. Pavel Tvrdík CSc. Ing. Jiří Kašpar Department of Computer Systems Faculty of Information Technology

More information

A New Chapter for System Designs Using NAND Flash Memory

A New Chapter for System Designs Using NAND Flash Memory A New Chapter for System Designs Using Memory Jim Cooke Senior Technical Marketing Manager Micron Technology, Inc December 27, 2010 Trends and Complexities trends have been on the rise since was first

More information

COS 318: Operating Systems. Virtual Memory and Address Translation

COS 318: Operating Systems. Virtual Memory and Address Translation COS 318: Operating Systems Virtual Memory and Address Translation Today s Topics Midterm Results Virtual Memory Virtualization Protection Address Translation Base and bound Segmentation Paging Translation

More information

The Classical Architecture. Storage 1 / 36

The Classical Architecture. Storage 1 / 36 1 / 36 The Problem Application Data? Filesystem Logical Drive Physical Drive 2 / 36 Requirements There are different classes of requirements: Data Independence application is shielded from physical storage

More information

SATA SSD Series. InnoDisk. Customer. Approver. Approver. Customer: Customer. InnoDisk. Part Number: InnoDisk. Model Name: Date:

SATA SSD Series. InnoDisk. Customer. Approver. Approver. Customer: Customer. InnoDisk. Part Number: InnoDisk. Model Name: Date: SATA SSD Series Customer: Customer Part Number: InnoDisk Part Number: InnoDisk Model Name: Date: InnoDisk Approver Customer Approver Table of contents EverGreen SATA SSD REVISION HISTORY... 4 LIST OF TABLES...

More information

CHAPTER 17: File Management

CHAPTER 17: File Management CHAPTER 17: File Management The Architecture of Computer Hardware, Systems Software & Networking: An Information Technology Approach 4th Edition, Irv Englander John Wiley and Sons 2010 PowerPoint slides

More information

Sistemas Operativos: Input/Output Disks

Sistemas Operativos: Input/Output Disks Sistemas Operativos: Input/Output Disks Pedro F. Souto (pfs@fe.up.pt) April 28, 2012 Topics Magnetic Disks RAID Solid State Disks Topics Magnetic Disks RAID Solid State Disks Magnetic Disk Construction

More information

Data Retention in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Optimization, and Recovery

Data Retention in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Optimization, and Recovery Data Retention in MLC NAND Flash Memory: Characterization, Optimization, and Recovery Yu Cai, Yixin Luo, Erich F. Haratsch*, Ken Mai, Onur Mutlu Carnegie Mellon University, *LSI Corporation 1 Many use

More information

LFTL: A multi-threaded FTL for a Parallel IO Flash Card under Linux

LFTL: A multi-threaded FTL for a Parallel IO Flash Card under Linux LFTL: A multi-threaded FTL for a Parallel IO Flash Card under Linux 1 Srimugunthan 1, K. Gopinath 2, Giridhar Appaji Nag Yasa 3 Indian Institute of Science [ 1 2] NetApp 3 Bangalore 1 srimugunth@csa.iisc.ernet.in

More information