1 REVIEW OF TRENCHLESS TECHNIQUES FOR THE REHABILITATION OF SEWERS Gerhard (Gerry) P. Muenchmeyer, P.E. Muenchmeyer Associates, LLC
2 What is really out there?
3 DO YOU DIG IT?
4 INDUSTRY CONCERNS
5 UNEXPECTED DEVELOPMENTS
6 CAPACITY LIMITATION
7 INDUSTRY NEEDS
8 EPA ESTIMATES NEED According to the EPA, $388 billion is required for sewer rehabilitation and $274 billion for water renovation over the next 20 years in this country. That equates to over a $33 billion a year need 2002 EPA Clean Water Needs Survey (CWNS)
9 PROJECTIONS Underground Construction magazine estimates that water & sewer rehabilitation spending in 2007 will exceed $4.89 billion. Spending in 2006 for water & sewer trenchless reconstruction was $4.54 billion 10 th Annual Municipal Sewer & Water Survey
10 POTENTIAL MANHOLE RENOVATION Over 20 million manholes in the US 4 million over 50 years old Over 5 million years old Current expenditures at $100 million/year Projected annual expenditures at $500 million 2003 Wade & Assoc.
11 LATERAL SEWER REHABILITATION Over 72 million sewer laterals in US Over 48 million laterals will need replacement over the next 20 years At a cost of $2000 each = $48 billion $4.8 billion annually Estimate 20% trenchless = $1 billion/year
12 FUTURE MARKET TRENDS Future market for Trenchless Pipeline Renovation could be in excess of $5 billion per year Expanding Opportunities in the US Water & Sewer Pipe Renovation Industry Grant Whittle
13 WHY THE DEMAND FOR PIPELINE REHABILITATION? Increased public awareness of the aging and deteriorating underground pipeline infrastructure Elimination of Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO s) Elimination of Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSO s) Frequent emergency pipe failures NPDES permit requirements EPA consent decrees requiring pipeline renovation GASB 34 (Accounting program for calculating pipe infrastructure value) CMOM (capacity management, operation and maintenance)
14 WHY TRENCHLESS VS EXCAVATION? Easier-faster Cleaner-safer Typically lower in cost Minimal or no utility impact Minimal environmental impact Typically no surprises/change orders 50 year design life when properly installed Significant social & political benefits
15 THE TOOLBOX
16 Technology Choices
17 PIPELINE ASSESSMENT
18 STANDARDIZED DEFECT CODING The goal of a standardized defect coding system is to create a common, comprehensive and reliable reservoir of data to assess the sewer pipeline. This data can then be used in the prioritization, planning, and systematic renovation of wastewater collection systems.
19 DATA COLLECTION AND STORAGE
20 DEFECT IDENTIFICATION Based on NASSCO s Pipeline Assessment Certification Program (PACP) Structural Defects Cracks, Fractures,Broken, Holes, etc. Operational & Maintenance Defects Deposits, Infiltration, Obstacles, Obstructions, etc. Construction Features Taps, Intruding Seal Material, Alignment, etc. Miscellaneous Features Defects not otherwise identified
21 STRUCTURAL DEFECTS
22 OPERATIONAL & MAINTENANCE DEFECTS
23 CONSTRUCTION FEATURES
24 CCTV INSPECTION
25 INSPECTION EQUIPMENT
26 INSPECTION EQUIPMENT
27 MANHOLE INSPECTION
28 LATERAL INSPECTION
29 ROBOTIC CUTTERS
30 REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES
31 ROOT CONTROL
32 CHEMICAL GROUTING
38 Manhole Grouting
39 Drill Injection Holes
40 Inject Grout
41 FLOOD GROUTING
45 SLIPLINING Pipe Type - New Pipe Size - Smaller Pipe Life years Site Preparation - Minimal to Moderately Disruptive Replacement/Rehab - Cost Medium Social Impact - Moderate
46 Sliplining - Continuous
47 Sliplining- Sectional
48 Sliplining- Segmental Typically accomplished using short lengths of profile wall PVC or GRP (Typically 20 feet). Profile wall PVC is applicable to round pipe restorations while the GRP systems can accommodate round, egg, arch and elliptical shaped host piping. Bends and transitions can also be accommodated by the GRP systems.
50 THERMOSET LINING TECHNOLOGIES
51 THERMOSET LINING Pipe Type - Lining Pipe Size - Same Pipe Life years Site Preparation - Typically Non-Disruptive Replacement/Rehab Cost Low Social Impact - Minimum
52 CIPP WET OUT
53 CIPP INSTALLATION CIPP is a thermoset resin system (polyester, vinyl ester, or epoxy) that is delivered via a felt tube of the thickness specified. The resin saturated tube is installed either by directly inverting the tube into position using water; or by pulling the resin saturated tube into place and inflating the tube with a calibration hose. Once in place and properly inflated the resin system is cured.
54 CURING WITH HOT WATER Once in place and properly inflated, with cold water, the liner is cured by heating the water. Cure temperatures are monitored at access points and at each end of the installation Boiler Truck Circulation Pump
55 CURING WITH STEAM Once in place and properly inflated with air the resin system is cured using steam heat. Typically the components must be an integrated system specially designed for steam curing
58 U V LIGHT CURED A fiberglass liner is usually pulled into the host pipe. A light train & CCTV is inserted in one end and pulled to the opposite end recording the pre-cure condition of the liner. The light train is then pulled back through curing the liner, at a regulated speed, with the CCTV camera recording the actual curing of the liner.
59 FOLDED PIPE LINING TECHNOLOGIES
60 FOLDED PIPE LINING Pipe Type - Lining Pipe Size - Same Pipe Life years Site Preparation Typically Non-Disruptive Replacement/Rehab Cost Low - moderate Social Impact - Minimum
61 HDPE FOLDED PIPE Commercially available in sizes 6 to 24. The pipe is extruded round then deformed into a U-shape and coiled for delivery. In the field the pipe is rerounded using steam and air pressure to fit tight within the host pipe. Fittings can be fused to the pipe for a multitude of applications.
62 PVC FOLDED PIPE Commercially available in sizes 6 to 24 or larger. The pipe is extruded round then deformed into a flat shape and coiled for delivery. In the field, the coiled pipe is typically preheated, pulled into the existing pipe then re-rounded using steam and air pressure to fit tight within the host pipe.
63 PVC SPIRAL WOUND Machine Spiral Wound PVC Liner Steel reinforcing may be used for large diameter lines Exact diameter can be tailored Steel gauges can be modified to customize stiffness
64 PIPE BURSTING
65 Pipe Type - New Pipe Size - Same or larger Pipe Life years Site Preparation - Moderately Disruptive Replacement/Rehab Cost Medium Social Impact - Moderate PIPE BURSTING
66 PIPE BURSTING In pipe bursting, the existing pipeline is fractured and expanded internally through static, pneumatic, or hydraulic means, to accommodate the outside diameter of the replacement pipeline. Existing pipe upsizing of up to 25% is routine, upsizing between 25% and 50% can be challenging and moderately difficult, while a 50% to 125% upsizing can be very challenging.
67 COMMON TYPES OF BURSTING SYSTEMS Mainline Pneumatic Systems Static Systems Hydraulic Systems Lateral Small portable systems
68 PNEUMATIC PIPE BURSTING SYSTEMS
69 STATIC PIPE BURSTING SYSTEMS
70 4 & 6 PORTABLE LATERAL BURSTING SYSTEMS
71 PIPE SPLITTING
72 PIPE REAMING
73 Pipe Type - New Pipe Size - Same or larger Pipe Life years Site Preparation - Moderately Disruptive Replacement/Rehab Cost - Medium Social Impact - Moderate PIPE REAMING
74 PIPE REAMING
75 PIPE EXTRACTION
77 DIRECTIONAL DRILLING Pipe Type - New Pipe Size - Same or larger Pipe Life years Site Preparation - Moderately Disruptive Replacement/Rehab Cost - Medium Social Impact - Minimum
78 DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
79 DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
80 GROUT IN PLACE LINERS
81 GROUTED IN PLACE LINERS GIPL s are typically composed of a thin sheet of plastic material, either PVC or HDPE, which is bonded to a structural grout layer. The GIPL together with the existing pipeline forms a new composite structure. The GIPL is designed to add tensile strength to the existing pipeline.
82 GROUTED IN PLACE LINERS
83 SPRAY-ON LINERS
84 SPRAY-ON TECHNOLOGIES Pipe Type - Lined Pipe Size - Same Pipe Life years Site Preparation - No Disruption Replacement/Rehab Cost - Medium Social Impact - Minimum
85 SPRAY-ON LINERS
86 POINT REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES
87 POINT REPAIRS The most common point repair technologies are cured-in in-place and mechanical. Cured-In In-Place Typically can be ordered in a variety of lengths, sizes and thickness to accommodate structural renovation. The tube is saturated, typically with epoxy, in the field, wrapped around an inflation packer and winched through the existing pipeline to the defective section. The packer is then inflated and the epoxy is allowed to cure (Typically 2-hours 75 F) Heated packers are used to speed up the cure time. Mechanical Can be installed either using an inflation type packer or by man entry. Joint seals can vary in size from as small as 6 6 to over 200 in diameter. Typically requires trained personnel to install the products.
89 INTERNAL JOINT SEALS
95 CIPP POINT REPAIR LINERS
96 CIPP POINT REPAIR
97 LATERAL LINING
98 LATERAL LINING A significant component to accomplishing total collection system rehabilitation. Size range, line configuration, rapid grade change and multiple bends makes renovating these lines challenging. There are two generally varieties of soft liner lateral technologies. Other technologies include Pipe Bursting and Slip lining
99 LATERAL LINING
100 LATERAL LINING
101 POINT LATERAL REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES
102 First Joint Connection Annular Space
103 LATERAL INJECTION PACKERS
104 LATERAL REHABILITATION
105 MANHOLE REHABILITATION
106 MANHOLE REHABILITATION Manholes are an important part of a wastewater collection system. They provide access to the wastewater collection system pipelines for maintenance, inspection, and renovation. The term manhole derives from the fact that they were designed to provide man entry for cleaning and inspection. Technologies for the renovation of manholes are many. They include specialty products installed to primarily stop leakage as well as a variety of coatings and linings for leakage control, structural enhancement and corrosion protection.
107 CEMENTITIOUS LINING Material either spray or trowel applied. Long established history with recent improvements in fast setting high strength corrosion resistant mortars. Mild chemical resistance for most material blend
108 CEMENTITIOUS COATING
109 POLYURETHANE COATING Typically spray applied. Many variations from elastomeric to rigid formulations Generally, 100% solids only used for underground coating. They have good- excellent chemical resistance and rigid formulations generally have strong long-term physical properties.
110 EPOXY COATING Typically either spray or trowel applied with many variations available. Generally, only 100% solids used for underground coating. Will adhere to moist or damp substrates and have excellent chemical resistance and long-term physical properties.
111 CIPP LINING SYSTEMS These systems utilize a variety of resins but primarily epoxy. They are used for structural renewal of the manhole, have excellent chemical resistance and strong, long-term physical properties. NOTE: To achieve proper results, most manhole coatings and linings are installed by certified or trained applicators with an extensive application history.
112 THERMOPLASTIC SHEET LINERS Extensive installation history. Excellent chemical resistance with both PVC & HDPE and typically used with cementitious or polymer mastic basecoats.
113 SPECIALTY PRODUCTS Include mechanical seals, hand applied coatings, external wrap materials, etc. are designed to address specific I/I concerns such as leaks between the manhole casting and the chimney and usually can be applied with a minimum of labor and equipment.
114 EXTERIOR MANHOLE WRAPS
115 MECHANICAL CHIMNEY SEALS
116 POLYMER CHIMNEY SEALS
117 INFLOW DISH
118 PRE-FORMED MANHOLE CHANNEL INSERTS
119 QUESTIONS? Gerhard Gerry P. Muenchmeyer, P.E. Principal MuenchmeyerAssociates, LL New Bern, NC