# MONEY MARKET FUND GLOSSARY

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1 MONEY MARKET FUND GLOSSARY 1-day SEC yield: The calculation is similar to the 7-day Yield, only covering a one day time frame. To calculate the 1-day yield, take the net interest income earned by the fund over the prior day and subtract the daily management fee, then divide that amount by the average size of the fund's investments over the prior day, and then multiply by 365. Many market participates can use the 30-day Yield to benchmark money market fund performance over monthly time periods. 7-day SEC yield: Also known as the, SEC Yield. The 7-day Yield is an industry standard performance benchmark, measuring the performance of money market mutual funds regulated under the SEC s Rule 2a-7. The calculation is performed as follows: take the net interest income earned by the fund over the last 7 days and subtract 7 days of management fees, then divide that amount by the average size of the fund's investments over the same 7 days, and then multiply by 365/7. Many market participates can use the 7-day Yield to calculate an approximation of interest likely to be earned in a money market fund take the 7-day Yield, multiply by the amount invested, divide by the number of days in the year, and then multiply by the number of days in question. For example, if an investor has \$1,000,000 invested for 30 days at a 7-day Yield of 2%, then: (0.02 x \$1,000,000 ) / 365 = \$54.79 per day. 30-day SEC yield: The calculation is similar to the 7-day Yield, only covering a longer 30-day time frame. To calculate the 30-day yield, take the net interest income earned by the fund over the last 30 days and subtract 30 days of management fees, then divide that amount by the average size of the fund's investments over the same 30 days, and then multiply by 365/30. Many market participates can use the 30-day Yield to benchmark money market fund performance over monthly time periods. Amortized Cost: A money market fund method of valuation where the fund values its portfolio securities by reference to their acquisition-cost, as adjusted for amortization of premium or accretion of discount. Amortized cost is the book price of a security the price a fund pays for a security, as adjusted over time for accounting changes in any discount or premium. Money market funds use amortized cost, rather than market value, to value their securities when calculating their net asset value (NAV). The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) allows a money market fund to use the amortized cost method only if the fund follows Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (AMLF): A lending facility that provides funding to U.S. depository institutions and bank holding companies to finance their purchases of high quality asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP) from money market mutual funds under certain conditions. The program is intended to assist money funds that hold such paper in meeting demands for redemptions by investors and to foster liquidity in the ABCP market and money markets more generally. Asset-Backed Commercial Paper: Short-term debt that is backed by physical assets, such as cash flows from receivables. Asset-backed commercial paper is issued by a financial institution and typically has a maturity of three to six months. Auction Rate Security (ARS): A debt security in which the interest rate is reset through a Dutch auction. The ARS is sold at an interest rate that will clear the market at the lowest yield possible. This ensures that all bidders on an State Board of Administration (SBA) Page 1

2 ARS receive the same yield on the debit issue. Basis Point: One one-hundredths of a percentage point. This term is often used in describing changes in interest rates. For example, if a money market fund s yield increases from 2.25% to 2.50%, it has moved up 25 basis points. Bond: A debt security issued by a company, municipality, or government agency. The bond issuer promises to pay the bond holder a stated rate of interest up to the date of maturity, when the issuer promises to repay the principal. Bond Terms: A short-term bond matures in less than 2 years; an intermediate-term bond matures in 2-10 years; a long-term bond matures in more than 10 years. Callable: An option that allows a bond issuer to recall a bond before its maturity date. Capital Growth: An increase in the market value of a fund's securities which is reflected in the value of the fund's shares. This is a specific long-term objective of many mutual funds. Certificate of Deposit (CD): A savings certificate entitling the bearer to receive interest. A CD bears a maturity date, has a specified fixed interest rate, and can be issued in any denomination. CDs are generally issued by commercial banks and are currently insured by the FDIC up to a maximum of \$250,000. The term of a CD generally ranges from one month to five years. Closing Price: The price of a security at the end of the day, after the final trade. Commercial Paper: Short-term obligations with maturities ranging from 2 to 270 days issued by banks, corporations, and other borrowers to investors with temporarily idle cash. Issuers like commercial paper because the maturities are flexible and because the rates are usually marginally lower than bank rates. Investors actually lenders, since commercial paper is a form of debt like the flexibility and safety of an instrument that is issued only by top-rated concerns and is nearly always backed by bank lines of credit. Commercial Paper Funding Facility (CPFF): Authorized by Federal Reserve Board to provide a liquidity backstop to U.S. issuers of commercial paper. The CPFF is intended to improve liquidity in short-term funding markets and thereby increase the availability of credit for businesses and households. Coupon: The annual rate of interest on a bond's face value that the bond's issuer promises to pay the bondholder. Credit Analysis: Process of analyzing the record and financial affairs of an individual or a corporation to ascertain creditworthiness, or determining the credit ratings of corporate and municipal bonds by studying the financial condition and trends of the issuers. Current Income: Interest income expressed as a percentage of share price net asset value (NAV). Credit Quality Ratings: The ratings agencies that provided the ratings are Standard and Poor's, Moody's, and Fitch. When ratings vary, the highest rating is used. Credit ratings of A or better are considered to be high credit quality; credit ratings of BBB are good credit quality and the lowest category of investment grade; credit ratings BB and below are lower-rated securities ("junk bonds"); and credit ratings of CCC or below have high default risk. Custodian: An organization, usually a bank, which holds in custody and safekeeping the securities and other assets of a mutual fund. State Board of Administration (SBA) Page 2

3 Dealer: Acts as principal and buys securities from or sells securities to his/her customers. Default: Failure to pay principal or interest when due. Direct Obligation: A U.S. government security, such as a Treasury bill, note, or bond that is backed by the full faith and credit of the federal government. Duration: A measure of a security s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. Securities with longer durations are more sensitive to changes in interest rates than securities of shorter durations. Federal Reserve System: A system of Federal Reserve Banks in the United States forming 12 districts under the control of the Federal Reserve Board. These banks regulate the extension of credit as well as other banking activities. First Tier Security: An Eligible Security a money market fund may hold. A First Tier Security receives the highest short-term rating from only one Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (NRSRO): Standard & Poor s A-1+ and A-1, based on the obligor s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligations; Fitch F-1+ and F-1, based on the issuer s liquidity necessary to meet financial commitments in a timely manner, and Moody s P-1, based on the issuer s ability to repay short-term obligations. Fixed Income: Paying a specified rate of interest income. Floating Rate Note (FRN): A note with a variable interest rate. The adjustments to the interest rate are usually made every six months and are tied to a certain money market index. Commonly referred to as a floater. Government Money Market Funds: Invest exclusively in U.S. government and/or government agency securities. Inflation: A general rise in prices. Interest Rate Risk: The risk that a bond's price will decrease due to rising interest rates. Junk Bond: A debt obligation with a rating of Ba or BB or lower, generally paying interest above the return on more highly rated bonds. Junk bonds are also known as high yield bonds. LIBOR: London Interbank Offered Rate. LIBOR Rates: Rates that the most creditworthy international banks dealing in Eurodollars charge each other for large loans. The LIBOR rate is usually the base for other large Eurodollar loans to less creditworthy corporate and government borrowers. Liquidity: Characteristic of a security or commodity with enough units outstanding to allow large transactions without a substantial drop in price. Liquidity Crisis: Period of short-term or technical insolvency during which persons or organizations cannot pay the due bills and meet other demands or obligations. Maturity: Date on which the principal amount of a note, draft, acceptance, bond, or other debt instrument becomes due and payable. Also denotes the termination or due date on which an installment loan must be paid in full. State Board of Administration (SBA) Page 3

4 Minimal Credit Risk: A portfolio limitation in that an Eligible Security must be determined by a fund's directors to pose minimal credit risk to the fund when investing. Money Market Funds: Open-ended mutual fund that invests in commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, repurchase agreements, government securities, certificates of deposit, and other highly liquid and safe securities, and pays money market rates of interest. Money Market Fund Insurance: Announced by the U.S.Treasury Department on September 19 and 29, 2008, the temporary guarantee program aims to protect shareholders of money market mutual funds by providing coverage up to the amount they owed if the fund fails to maintain a \$1.00 NAV. Money Market Investor Funding Facility (MMIFF): Authorized by the Federal Reserve Board to provide senior secured funding to a series of special purpose vehicles to facilitate an industry-supported private-sector initiative to finance the purchase of eligible assets from eligible investors. Eligible assets will include U.S. dollardenominated certificates of deposit and commercial paper issued by highly rated financial institutions and having remaining maturities of 90 days or less. Eligible investors will include U.S. money market mutual funds and over time may include other U.S. money market investors. Municipal Bond: A debt obligation to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets, and water and sewer projects. There are general obligation bonds that are secured by the issuer's pledge of good faith, credit, and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. There are also revenue bonds that are payable only from the revenues derived from a particular facility or from the proceeds of a special excise tax. Net Asset Value (NAV): A funds' price per share (or unit), calculated by dividing the total market value of all the securities in its portfolio, less any liabilities, by the number of fund shares (units) outstanding. Non-Callable Bond: A bond that cannot be called for redemption by the issuer before its specified maturity date. Option Adjusted Yield: Expected yield to maturity of a bond or note after adjusting for the probability-weighted impact of an embedded option, usually an issuer's call provision. Par Value: The principal amount of a bond due at maturity. Portfolio: All securities held by a fund. Premium: The amount by which the price of a security exceeds its principal amount. Prepayment Risk: The risk that falling interest rates will lead to heavy prepayments of mortgage or other loans forcing the investor to reinvest at lower prevailing rates. Prime Money Market Funds: Offer the potential for comparatively higher yields with the same attributes of all money funds governed by SEC Rule 2a-7: credit quality, portfolio diversity and daily liquidity at par. Prime funds invest only in high-quality, First or Second Tier money market instruments and like all 2a-7 regulated funds have a dollar-weighted average maturity not greater than 60 days, and final maturity for government notes not greater than 762 days, and for all other individual securities a final maturity not greater than 397 days. Principal: The amount of money you invest. State Board of Administration (SBA) Page 4

5 Premium Bond: A bond selling above par or face value. Repurchase Agreement: Agreement between a seller and a buyer, usually of U.S. government securities, whereby the seller agrees to repurchase the securities at an agreed upon price and, usually, at a stated time. Repos are widely used both as a money market investment vehicle and as an instrument of Federal Reserve monetary policy. Revenue Bond: A tax-free municipal bond payable from revenues derived from tolls, charges, or rents paid by users of the facility constructed with the proceeds of the bond issue. Risk: The possibility that an investment may fluctuate in value. Factors that increase an investment's risk or volatility include credit quality, currency exchange rates, and inflation rates. Risk / Reward Tradeoff: The concept that an investment must offer higher potential returns as compensation for the likelihood of increased price volatility. Rule 2a-7: Under the SECs Investment Company Act of Rule 2a-7 includes several conditions intended to stabilize a fund s share (unit) price at \$1.00. These conditions limit risk in a money market funds portfolio by governing the credit quality, diversification, and maturity of money market fund investments. Second Tier Security- Rated security is the second highest category from one NRSRO (Nationally Recognized Statistical Ratings Organization). If the rating is below the second tier, it is not an Eligible Security. SEC Yield: Since 1988, the SEC has required fund managers to report uniform, annualized 30-day yields. The standardized SEC yield allows different bond funds to be compared to each other by analyzing fund income pursuant to a uniform set of accounting assumptions. SEC yield is more predictive of a fund's total return than distribution yield. SEC yield is calculated by dividing the net investment income per share for the 30 days ended on the date of the calculation by the net asset value per share on that date. To understand a fund's performance, both SEC and distribution yields should be reviewed. Secondary Market: Market for bond issues previously offered or sold. Spread Weighted-Asset Maturity (Spread WAM): Relatively new method of maturity calculation that does not permit the use of interest rate reset dates and instead only uses a security s stated (legal) final maturity date or the date on which the fund may demand payment of principal and interest (known as a demand feature) to measure the fund s Weighted Average Maturity. Spread WAM is synonymous with the Weighted Average Life Limitation ( WAL ). Standard & Poor's (S&P's) Credit Ratings: Obtained after S&P evaluates a number of factors, including credit quality, market price exposure and management. Credit Ratings are subject to change and do not remove market risk. Standard & Poor s Money Market Ratings: An assessment of the safety of invested principal and the ability to maintain a stable market value of the fund's shares. Ratings are based on an evaluation of several factors, including credit quality, diversification, and maturity of assets in the portfolio, as well as management strength and operational capabilities. Credit Ratings are subject to change and do not remove market risk. Structured Investment Vehicle (SIV): A limited-purpose operating company that undertakes arbitrage activities by purchasing mostly highly rated medium- and long-term, fixed-income assets and funding itself with cheaper, mostly short-term, highly rated CP and MTNs. Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF): A Federal Reserve credit facility authorized under section 13(3) of the Federal Reserve Act. The TALF is intended to assist the credit markets in accommodating the credit needs of State Board of Administration (SBA) Page 5

6 consumers and small businesses by facilitating the issuance of asset-backed securities and improving the market conditions for asset-backed securities more generally. Time Deposit: An interest-bearing deposit, at a savings institution, that has a specific maturity. Total Return: Represents the change in the value of an investment after reinvesting all income and capital gains. Transfer Agent: Organization that is employed by an investment fund to prepare and maintain records relating to the accounts of its investors. Treasury Bill (T-bill): A short-term debt obligation backed by the U.S. government with a maturity of less than one year. T-bills are sold in denominations of \$1,000 up to a maximum purchase of \$5 million and commonly have maturities of one month, three months, or six months. Treasury Bond: Government security with a maturity date of 10 years or more from the date of issue. Treasury Money Market Funds: Invests solely in Treasury bills. Treasury Note: Government security with maturity date of one to 10 years, issued at face value and redeemed at face value. Variable Rate Demand Note (VRDN): Tax-exempt securities that require the issuer or a third party, such as a dealer or bank, to repurchase the security for its face value upon demand. The securities also pay interest at a variable rate intended to cause the securities to trade at their face value. Also referred to as a variable rate demand obligation (VRDO). Weighted Average Life (WAL): WAL, as it applies to money market funds, is calculated in the same manner as the Weighted Average Maturity (WAM), but is based solely on the periods of time remaining until the securities held in the fund's portfolio (a) are scheduled to be repaid or (b) would be repaid upon a demand by the fund without reference to when interest rates of securities within the fund are scheduled to be readjusted. Also see definition for Spread WAM. Weighted Average Maturity (WAM): SEC rule limiting money market investments to maturities of 90 days. Until last year, money market funds did not experience redemption problems because those investing in securities with maturities in excess of 90 days must also invest in shorter-term securities. A fund operating in compliance with the rule has significant cash flows from maturing investments and has the bulk of its portfolio in liquid securities. Some recommendations suggest the SEC should amend the limit to 75 days. Yield: Return on an investor's capital investment. Yield to Maturity (YTM): Used to determine the rate of return an investor would receive if a long-term, interestbearing investment, such as a bond, is held to its maturity date. It takes into account purchase price, redemption value, time to maturity, coupon yield, and the time between interest payments. Yield to Worst (YTW): On a corporate bond, the yield to worst is the lowest yield that a buyer can expect among the reasonable alternatives, such as yield to maturity, yield to call, and yield to refunding. Sources: State Board of Administration (SBA), Federated Investors, Investment Company Institute, Barron s dictionary, and Standard & Poor s. State Board of Administration (SBA) Page 6

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