School Construction Authority Architecture & Engineering

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1 SCOPING GUIDELINES 1.0 GENERAL GUIDELINES 2.0 BUILDING ENVELOPE SCOPING GUIDELINES 3.0 CATEGORIES AND COMPONENTS: The Flood Elimination/Below Grade Capital Category may include some or all of the following components: Foundation Walls and Slabs Areaways (including drains, gratings, slabs, stairs, and walls; typically scoped under Flood Elimination/Below Grade ) Stairs/Ramps: Exterior (including building cheek/flank walls, and railings; typically scoped under Exterior Masonry ) Vaults/Bunkers (Foundation Walls, Slab Structure, Vault/Hoist Doors) Mechanical (Pumps/Sump Pump; Drain/Waste/Vent and Storm System /Sump Pumps) Design Requirements: Refer to DR Guidelines for Foundation Design in High Water Table, DR Waterproofing Systems for Foundations Subject to Hydrostatic Pressure and other relevant sections of the SCA Design Requirements for further design and technical requirements General Flood Elimination projects are normally intended to focus on water related issues identified in the basement, cellar, pipe space, or other areas below grade. Identify all water related items that may warrant a Flood Elimination project from different sources such as floor, walls, ceiling, broken pipes, and backflow of storm/sewage system or leaky equipment. It must be noted that there are projects that are requested for scoping through Capital Plan Management that are listed as Flood Elimination even when the infiltration is at the upper floors when the source of the water is not known and it has not been tied to the roof, masonry, parapets, or windows. When scoping the project and the infiltration is above grade, follow the individual Building Envelope component guidelines for technical scoping requirements. If pipe leaks exist, include a statement in the findings of the Scope Report with a recommendation. Consult with the Design Project Manager (DPM) or Design Manager (DM) for direction on whether this should be included in the referred item or forwarded to DOE for repair by maintenance crews. Prepare Existing Condition or Damage Mapping drawings which record the location(s) and extent of deficiencies observed on annotated plans, elevations and other drawings as appropriate. Also, prepare corresponding Recommended Work drawings which graphically describe the recommendations. Refer to the Building Envelope Scoping Guidelines, Section 2.4 Investigation & Documentation of Findings for additional requirements Foundation Walls and Slabs By studying original drawings, determine type and thickness of the foundation wall, openings, window and louver sills, areaway walls, slabs and drains. (Rev. 0 08/20/12) Flood Elimination/Below Grade Scoping Guidelines Page 1 of 6

2 In some area of Queens and Brooklyn, the water table has risen substantially after Jamaica Water Supply stopped dewatering to supply drinking water. The schools in that area of Queens and south Brooklyn are the most likely to have water infiltration through walls and slabs compared to other areas of the city. Timing of water infiltration is also very important with respect to the location of the school building. Schools near bodies of water may experience water infiltration only at high tides. Buildings located on old stream beds may experience water infiltration at times of heavy rain. Determination of source and frequency of water infiltration through floor slab, ceiling or wall is very important. Continuous water flow is likely due to high water table and deteriorated waterproofing systems. Study the borings from the original design drawings, any borings done after that period such as for addition(s), and check borings of the any other nearby school and study the different cases to identify or have a tentative idea of the depth of the water table. Order borings if recent data cannot be found regarding water table levels. Consult with a geotechnical engineering firm to explore possibilities and alternatives and to study the historic data for that area. If a Flood Elimination was recently done at the school and the school continues to have complaints about water infiltration in the same or new areas, consult the DPM or DM. The new project is likely to be reassigned to the original designer, or Construction Management may engage the same contractor to perform additional work or have the infiltration addressed through the warranty. If traces of oil are found in water infiltration, the project must be forwarded to the HAZMAT unit in IE&H for remedial work investigation Chemical and biological testing of water is important to rule out possibility of sewage or supply water pipe breakage being the source of the infiltration. On some projects, dye tests have been performed by adding dyes to adjoining storm drains to determine if there is a storm line break nearby. Brick walls are especially susceptible to a condition known as rising damp, where moisture comes from ground water below the slab into the brick through capillary action. This is a difficult issue to solve and may require extensive research to resolve. Determine the location of the water infiltration as it relates to the structure, i.e. at the top the wall, entire wall, junction of wall and slab, etc. Verify location of storm and sewage water systems, detention tanks on the roof or yard and plumbing connections to the street. Verify operation and capacity of sump pumps. This will be very helpful in knowing the extent of water under the slab. If pumps are not operating, broken or under capacity, then these conditions may accelerate water related issues at the school. Location and elevation of pumps, boilers, piping on the floor etc. related to HVAC work and electrical panel is important when there is an active water infiltration from the floor slab. (Rev. 0 08/20/12) Flood Elimination/Below Grade Scoping Guidelines Page 2 of 6

3 Interior damage at the junction of slab & wall may many times be due to deteriorated joints between slab and wall, joints between exterior pavement and walls and/or reverse landscape slope. The storm line from yard drain or catch basin to street must also be checked for blockage. This condition may create water ponding near the building and eventually will find its way inside the building through weathered/deteriorated joints. Grading/landscaping on outside shall also be inspected closely. A reverse slope towards the building of landscaping or pavement may often allow or accelerate water infiltration inside the building. This is many times the issue for brick foundation walls at planted areas. Inspect and verify condition of areaway drains. The drains must be functional; otherwise water ponding in the areaway where walls are not treated, as well as the sill height of window and louver being very low, can provide a path for water infiltration inside the building. When waterproofing is initially done in new projects and the membranes are not overlapped properly or the joints are improperly sealed often create water related damage inside the building through foundation walls. Waterstop installation often helps to stop water penetration. Improperly installed pipes/penetrations are often a cause of water infiltration inside foundation walls. Any penetration made in the wall must be made watertight (i.e. new electrical upgrade or gas line for boiler replacement projects). In many old schools, storm and sewage lines are combined in the basement. This condition may cause overflow/back flow in the basement. If the school is experiencing such problems, then the lines should be separated by providing a detention tank in the play yard for storm water and connected to the street. DEP filing and approval is required in this case. In some schools, toilets in the basement are sometimes found connected into the storm sewer. This condition needs to be evaluated and requires disconnection of waste line from the storm water and connection to a sewage line. Many projects have used chemical injection to stop water infiltration in the wall and floor slab. This condition must be evaluated if leaks persist. These installations are often effective, especially where recent waterproofing was done. When waterproofing is very old and injection is performed at one area, water sometimes starts to infiltrate into the next weakest area, so the leaks continue and the leaking water is chased. Depending on the water infiltration location, alternatives must be considered, such as providing waterproofing on the outside of foundation walls. Verify the clear height in the basement, boiler pit area and in pipe spaces. It is often easier and more effective to provide waterproofing on the top of the existing slab and turn up waterproofing on wall and provide a new slab on top of waterproofing. In Boiler replacement projects, instead of removing the slab and line to facilitate new lines, consider providing waterproofing and new lines on the existing slab and raise the slab, providing a membrane and pressure slab above. Many projects have failed and created worse problems when hydrostatic slabs have been cut to replace a drain and allowed water to flood the space. (Rev. 0 08/20/12) Flood Elimination/Below Grade Scoping Guidelines Page 3 of 6

4 When excavation is being done on outside to provide new waterproofing on the outside face of wall, installation of perforated pipes and dry wells should be considered to relieve some of the water pressure depending upon ground water conditions. Repointing of brick masonry joints or repairing of interior plaster and painting will not resolve any water related issues. Water infiltration conditions must be thoroughly investigated and proper design done to stop water infiltration inside the building. Interior finishes shall be repaired only after the walls and slab are made watertight. For concrete walls, repair of deteriorated portions of concrete wall shall be performed once walls and slab are watertight. To address water infiltration at existing vault areas, plaza decks, etc, remove the existing concrete topping and waterproofing down to the structural concrete. Perform concrete repair of the slab, apply new waterproofing and install new concrete topping or pavers above as required to restore the surface conditions Areaway Drains, Gratings, Slabs, Railings, Stairs and Walls Typically, Areaways, with associated drains, gratings, slabs, railings, stairs, and walls should be scoped under Flood Elimination/ Below Grade. If Flood Elimination/Below Grade work is not otherwise authorized, it may be scoped under Exterior Masonry. Inspect existing areaway drains, gratings, slabs, railings, stairs and walls and describe their condition. Identify materials, locations and any deterioration noted. Identify if deficiencies result in water infiltration into the building interior. Include recommendations for repair and refinishing of rusted/corroded elements if required Stairs/Ramps: Exterior Typically, Stairs/Ramps and associated building cheek/flank walls and railings should be scoped under Exterior Masonry. If deficiencies are found at stairs or ramps which result in water infiltration into below grade spaces, the Stair/Ramp work may be scoped with Flood Elimination/ Below Grade. Inspect condition of steps, landings, railings, ramps, cheek walls, etc. Minor work at stairs/ramps can be included in Exterior Masonry. However, extensive damage of stairs and ramps which may trigger replacement of stairs and/or ramps should be scoped as SCA Additional Recommended Items, since replacement may trigger requirements for accessibility. Replace or repair existing stairs, ramps, platforms, building cheek/flank walls, and railings with exterior masonry. Exterior entrances are a major source of water penetration into the basement of older schools. Many exterior stairs are constructed of loose bluestone treads spanning between walls that permit water to enter spaces beneath and may require a complete replacement with a sandwich slab system to provide a membrane. These items need to be carefully analyzed, as replacement of exterior entrances invokes LL58, thus requiring the entrance to be made accessible. The joint at the base of the building wall and pavement shall be inspected for deteriorated caulking and filler of the joint. Deteriorated and/or open joints are surprisingly many times a (Rev. 0 08/20/12) Flood Elimination/Below Grade Scoping Guidelines Page 4 of 6

5 reason for water infiltration inside the building, even though they may seem like such a small item. 3.4 Vaults/Bunkers Vault areas may experience water infiltration due to damaged waterproofing below concrete walkways/sidewalks or deteriorated joints at the junction of the building and walkway. Water infiltration may cause damage of the bottom of the slab, concrete encasement of beams, hangers for piping, etc. Condition of vault doors, coal chute covers, service elevator doors and their perimeters shall be inspected to ensure watertight conditions. These are many times corroded or completely open, permitting surface water to flood the areas. 3.5 Mechanical The number, type, and condition of sump pump(s) shall be evaluated, especially when the school is experiencing water related issue in the basement area. Many times non-working or under capacity sump pumps are the reason for flooding in the basement. This condition shall be noted in the referred item. Broken water, storm or sewage pipes may some times be the reason for water related issues. Frequency of water infiltration and testing of water may help to determine the source of water infiltration. When possible, disconnect and cap existing pipes, reroute and relocate new pipes to avoid breaking through and repair of existing slabs or walls. This work shall be included in the referred item. During the scoping, engage the services of a firm that can perform video monitoring of the piping, which may reveal broken pipes or blockages that may be causing the flooding. In case of water back flow especially after heavy storms, verify condition of storm and sewage water connection from the basement to the street Related Items 3.7 Design Some HVAC fans, hot water heater, gas and water lines, etc. may be sitting low on the floor that require removal, rerouting and/or relocating at a new location to facilitate work related to flood elimination, which is typically an injection program but may also include surface applications. If the solution requires installation of a new slab, the reinstallation and/or replacement of the HVAC equipment, water heaters, pipe lines, electrical panels, ducts, etc. should be included in the referred item, not as SCA Additional Recommended Items. Electrical panels may be located on walls that are experiencing water infiltration. Due to water infiltration through the walls and/or floor slab, the side and bottom of the panel box may be severely rusted and deteriorated. In order to perform flood elimination work, therefore, electrical supply may require disconnection, temporary supply provided, and reconnection of a new panel. This work should be included in the referred item. Per SCA Design Requirements, the preferred method of waterproofing is by positive-side application, consisting of a sheet membrane waterproofing system applied on the exterior of the foundation walls. For existing buildings, where excavation makes access to waterproof the outside wall to be impractical and/or costly or there is also water coming from under the slab, (Rev. 0 08/20/12) Flood Elimination/Below Grade Scoping Guidelines Page 5 of 6

6 chemical resin injection with acrylate ester materials from the building interior are the typical approach. Issues that many times affect the effectiveness of injection are the subsoil conditions. If there are void spaces under the slab or behind the wall, acrylate ester injection will not work without first filling the voids. During scoping, pilot holes may be needed or there may be signs of voids. If it can t be determined, include a provision to inject voids behind the wall or slab. It is always good to have one of the firms doing the injection review the project during the design. Do not alter the SCA specifications without discussions with the SCA technical staff, as the spacings and patterns are based on input from the injector contractors. Drawings should clearly indicate the areas that require area injection and crack injection. When doing crack and area injection, include injection of construction joints. As indicated above, provisions for filling voids with expanding urethane or cement grout are to be included. Ensure that the areas of injection are accessible and clearly indicate items to be removed and reinstalled to facilitate the injection. Vault/plaza area work should include removal of topping, waterproofing, repair of existing slab, and removal of masonry at the perimeter walls to extend the new waterproofing up the inside of the wall prior to installing a new topping of concrete or pavers. Include detailed work related to water, storm, sewage and/or gas pipes including rerouting instead of including general statements. When storm and sewage lines are being separated, include a detention tank in the playground to restrict storm water flow. The design must be approved by DEP so a preliminary meeting with DEP is recommended instead of meeting with DEP after completion of the project. A preliminary meeting should also shorten design filing time. Though exterior work is typically not performed when doing chemical resin injection, improperly sloped landscape and pavement areas should be regraded to reduce the water that could potentially infiltrate through the wall. End of Flood Elimination/Below Grade Scoping Guidelines (Rev. 0 08/20/12) Flood Elimination/Below Grade Scoping Guidelines Page 6 of 6

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