Box Leangsuksun+ * Thammasat University, Patumtani, Thailand # Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA + Louisiana Tech University, Ruston,

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1 N. Saragol * Hong Ong# Box Leangsuksun+ K. Chanchio* * Thammasat University, Patumtani, Thailand # Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA + Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA

2 Introduction Goals and Motivations Related Works VCCP Mechanisms Protocol and Analysis Experimental Results Progress and Future Works

3 Fault tolerance is necessary for HPC The more hw/sw components, the higher the chances some of them will fail Bad for long-running parallel applications Checkpoint/Restart is a common technique used to provide fault tolerance. Common approaches include: Modifying App. source code Linking App with User-level library Modifying OS kernel

4 Existing checkpoint/restart tools for parallel processing are: Complex: require runtime systems and/or compilation tools, thus adding more components system-wide Not user-friendly: require additional works such as software installation, code modification, kernel modification, recompilation/re-linking. Vendor-specific: each software tool for parallel processing has a different checkpoint/restart implementation

5 High transparency Checkpoint/restart mechanisms should be transparent to applications, OS, and runtime environments; no modification required Efficiency Checkpoint/restart mechanisms should not generate unacceptable overheads Normal Execution Communication Checkpointing Delay

6 vm vm vm vm vm vm vm vm etwork of VMs as an abstract system unit that allo ckpointing to be conducted transparently and ciently without modifying guest OS or applications.

7 Leverage Virtualization Technology to provide highly transparent checkpointing mechanisms for HPC Hypervisor can transparently save and restore VM state A Cluster of Virtual Machines can be built to run parallel applications Virtual Machine Technology keeps get better E.g. HW supports (Intel VT), Virtual I/O

8 Most coordinated checkpointing approach are implemented at library level E.g. LAM/MPI, MPICHV, CoCheck Some is hypervisor-based, but require software component on guest OS Scarpuzza et al.: a Xen-based system on Infiniband Highly-transprent, hypervisor-based, but not coordinated checkpointing approach Kangarlou et al. implement a non-blocking snapshot on Xen and VIOLIN virtual network

9 Layered Virtual Cluster Architecture Novel Hypervisor-based Coordinated Checkpointing Protocols Transparent C/R mechanisms Correctness Analysis Preliminary Implementation Experiments A proof of concepts &

10 Head node High speed network comp u comp u comp u

11 Head VM Virtual network Comp u VM Comp u VM Comp u VM

12

13 Run apps/os unmodified Checkpoint/restart protocols FIFO, Reliable

14 Stop VM computation Flush messages out of the network Locally Save State of every VM Continue computation

15 VCCP checkpoint protocol Head compute 01 save compute 02 save

16 VCCP checkpoint protocol Head pause set channel busy set in progress compute 01 pause set channel busy compute 02 pause set channel busy

17 VCCP checkpoint protocol Head channel empty save VM & buffer compute 01 channel empty compute 02 Flush communi cation channel channel empty save VM & buffer save VM & buffer

18 VCCP checkpoint protocol Head compute 01 result result success cont compute 02 resume cont resume cont

19 VCCP recovery protocol

20 The checkpoint/recovery protocols do not cause problems to normal execution TAB/VDE/TCP maintain FIFO ordering and reliable The protocols can cause clock skew Cannot guarantee pausing and resuming at the exact same time on every VM Checkpointing and recovery events can affect RTT (See Next slide)

21 1. Checkpointing can affect message RTT; depending on the clock skew value 2. This problem also occurs on traditional checkpointing mechanisms 3. Solutions: Make the timeout threshold large Keep the clock skew value small

22 Cluster Node x 9 (8 compute, 1 virtual switch) Processor: Intel Xeon 2.6 GHz x 2 Memory: 2 GB HD: 40 GB Host OS: Rock Gigabit Ethernet Virtual Cluster x 8 Hypervisor: Modified QEMU Guest OS: Damn Small Linux OpenMPI Memory: 512 MB HD : 300 MB (4 GB Maximum)

23 vde Head vm 1 Gigabit Ethernet Comp vde u vm Comp vde u vm vswt Comp h u

24

25 NAS Parallel Benchmark EP : estimate floating point performance minimal interprocessor communication CG : estimate unstructured matrix vector multiplication performance with interprocessor communication IS : estimate integer sort performance with interprocessor communication MG: estimate data communication performance

26

27 VCCP v.s. Qemu cluster Average 1.33 % Minimum 0.03% (EP 4 Nodes), Maximum 3.30% (CG 4 Nodes)

28 VCCP v.s. Qemu cluster Average 1.33 % Minimum 0.03% (EP 4 Nodes), Maximum 3.30% (CG 4 Nodes) VCCP v.s. Real cluster Average % (EP) Minimum 11.58%,(EP) Maximum 13.24% (EP)

29 VCCP v.s. Real cluster Average % Minimum 11.58%, VCCP v.s. Qemu cluster VCCP v.s. Real cluster Maximum 13.24% Average % (EP) Minimum 0.03% (EP 4 Nodes), (No hardware Minimum 11.58%,(EP) Maximum supports) 3.30% (CG 4 Nodes) Average 1.33 % Maximum 13.24% (EP)

30 Virtual Network Problems: 1. VM and VDE compete for resources 2. Hot spot on central VDE switch

31 Virtual Network Problems: 1. VM and VDE compete for resources 2. Hot spot on central VDE switch

32 Checkpoint time = Flush time + Time to save VM State + Save messages to disks + Wait time

33 E P Wait Time 6 SaveVM 8 SaveFrames 4 FlushTime Wait Time 6 SaveVM 8 4nodes 8nodes SaveFrames 4 FlushTime 2 0 2nodes C G 2nodes 4nodes 8nodes

34 IS Wait Time 6 SaveVM 8 SaveFrames 4 FlushTime 2 0 M G Wait Time 6 SaveVM 8 4 4nodes 8nodes FlushTime 2 0 2nodes SaveFrames 2nodes 4nodes 8nodes

35 We have developed a transparent hypervisor-based coordinated checkpointing system for Virtual Clusters Transparency is achieved Efficiency requires further investigations Low normal execution overhead High communication overhead High local checkpointing overhead

36 Study and develop new virtual network Direct TCP connections among VM Virtio We are investigating low-latency local VM checkpointing mechanisms Multi-threaded mechanism to save VM state Diskless checkpointing

37 THANK YOU and QUESTIONS?

38

39 VCCP recovery protocol coordi nator load Pause set in progress load VM & buffer compu te01 load Pause compu te02 Pause load VM & buffer load VM & buffer

40 VCCP recovery protocol coordi nator result compu te01 result resum e success cont cont compu te02 resum e cont

41 Restoration time = coordinate time + load coordinator s vm time + load coordinator s frame time + wait time

42 Recovery Performance E P Wait Time 4 LoadFrames 3 LoadVM PrepareTime C G 6 Wait Time 5 Load Frames 4 Load VM 3 PrepareTime nodes 4nodes 8nodes 2nodes 4nodes 8nodes

43 Recovery Performance IS Wait Time 4 LoadFrames 3 LoadVM PrepareTime M G 6 Wait Time 5 Load Frames 4 Load VM 3 PrepareTime nodes 4nodes 8nodes 2nodes 4nodes 8nodes

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