1 ADLER GRADUATE SCHOOL ART THERAPY INTERNSHIP MANUAL Susan Pye Brokaw, ed. Judy Sutherland and Sadie (Tee) Dreikurs From Classroom to Community, Committed To Improving Human Relationships Practical Psychology. Inspiring Change
3 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Part I: The Internship Program 3 Internship Introduction 4 Additional Requirements and Policies 6 Internship Diagram for All Supervision 8 Part II: Beginning Internship Supervision 9 Beginning Internship Supervision 591 and Syllabus for 591/592 (Art Therapy) 12 Course Packet Materials for 591/ Part III: Intermediate Internship Supervision 35 Intermediate Internship Supervision 593 and Syllabus for 593/594 (Art Therapy) 38 Course Packet Materials for 593/ Part IV: Advanced Internship 53 Advanced Internship Supervision Syllabus for 597 (Art Therapy) 56 Course Packet Materials for Part V: Individual Internship Supervision 81 Individual Internship Format for Individual Supervision 83 Alternate Plan: Crisis Counseling Individual Supervision 85 Syllabus for 598 Individual Supervision 87 #597 and #598 Instructor s Contact List 89 Part VI: Internship Site 91 Internship Site Information 92 Requirements for Approval of Site 92 Field Site Faculty Liaison 93 Part VII: Licensure 95 Explanation of Licensing Options 96 Post Degree Students Only 98 Licensure for Marriage and Family Therapy 99 Marriage and Family Licensure Coursework 100 Licensing Grid 101 Marriage and Family Requirements for Licensure 102 Professional Counselor Requirements for Licensing 104 Professional Clinical Counselor Requirements for Licensing 105 Post Degree Requirements for LPC/LPCC Licensing 109 Part VIII: Forms 111 Learning Contract 112 New Site Approval Form 114 Site Clinical Instructor Evaluation 115 Art Therapy Session Contact Summary 117 Art Therapy Logs Advanced Internship/598 Direct Supervision Evaluation 121 Case History for Case Presentations 123 Lifestyle Assessment 125 Student Evaluation of Internship 142 Authorization Form for Use of Patient/Client Information 148
4 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 2 Authorization to Photograph Art Work Created in Art Therapy 149 Supervision Class Make-Up 150 Part IX: Master s Project 151 Master s Project Proposal Form 153 Human Subjects Research Review Process 155 Part X: Graduation Requirements 157 Finish Line 158 Graduation Ceremony Questionnaire 159
5 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 3 Part I Internship Program
6 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 4 The Internship Introduction Students begin the Adler Graduate School (AGS) internship program after the first term at the institution. This involves finding an internship site or sites and doing field placement work throughout the program until graduation. Students must be registered and attending a supervision class at the school to get credit for on site hours. Students are required to log a total of 500 or 700 hours (700 for Art Therapy) at internship sites to meet graduation requirements. Specialty areas and licensing tracts have different requirements. See Logging Hours for additional information. The internship portion of the program consists of five credits of group supervision and one credit of individual supervision. There are three levels of group internship supervision: beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Students are required to meet with the Director of Student services with the first three months of their program to discuss internship plans, Various forms are required for courses and throughout the program. All forms are located in the forms section. Beginning Supervision (# ): Beginners are at an internship site for a minimum of 4 hours per week, take two supervision courses during two terms, and receive.5 credits for each course. There are on-site responsibilities, but no counseling is done at this level. Grades are Pass/Retake based on meeting all course requirements. Intermediate Supervision (# ): After most of the AGS core courses are completed, as well as the two beginning supervision required, pre-requisite courses (591-2), the student begins the intermediate courses (# ). They are taken over one to two terms and students receive credit for each course. During course #593, the student eases into seeing clients and has an expected client load of one to two when entering #594. Grades are Pass/Retake based on meeting all course requirements. Advanced Supervision (#597.1, & 597.3): In the second year when taking Advanced Supervision, students are required to have an active caseload of clients. A minimum of one new client presentation,(two preferred) must be presented for each section. Each course is one credit (one course per term) and is be taken over three terms. Students starting Advanced Supervision must demonstrate that they are applying the techniques learned throughout the AGS program. If a student does not have the required clients, he or she takes additional intermediate courses until this requirement is met. These courses are graded Pass/Retake based on meeting all course requirements. Individual Supervision: Advanced students are also required to take course #598 in which they receive direct supervision from an AGS Clinical Instructor. This can be done any time following the completion of the first Advanced Supervision
7 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 5 course # Students work with one case over many weeks under the supervision of a Clinical Instructor. If a student does not start internship within or immediately after the first term at Adler, additional time may be needed at the end of the program which may affect Financial Aid. See Internship Diagrams for all Supervision below. Logging Hours for Licenses and Specialties Over and above the AGS requirements of 500 or 700 hours to meet graduation requirements, there are requirements for licenses and specialties. For Marriage and Family Therapy licensing, students are required to accrue 300 pre-degree hours of counseling to apply toward the total hours needed for licensing. Of these 300 hours of face to face counseling time, a minimum of 150 hours must be counseling couples or families. For LPC licensing, students are required to accrue 700 hours (of which 150 hours must be face to face with the client) in a pre-degree field experience. The Art Therapy specialty requires 700 hours of counseling time (of which 150 hours must be family therapy only if the student is pursuing the MFT licensing). Of this, 350 hours of face-to-face art therapy counseling is required. Supervision Plan: There are four ways that student can progress in obtaining site hours and supervision. Students are required to meet with the Director if Student Services to select a plan. If a student fails to follow the plan agreed upon it may result in added time in the program and added expense to the student. Questions & Concerns Regarding Internship: The Director of Student Services provides an internship support group meeting one Monday, one Tuesday and one Thursday each term from 4:30 to 5:30p.m. For further information contact the Director of Student services. Logs Logs must be kept of all hours worked on an internship site. There are four important types of hours that are clocked on logs to obtain licenses in the state of Minnesota. 1. Peer hours are client contact hours where therapy is not taking place. These include intake interviews, assessments, running support groups as a facilitator with no therapy occuring, and case management. 2. Individual therapy hours occur when the therapist sees one client, couple, family, or group practicing therapy resulting in change based on a treatment plan. The
8 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 6 meeting must be face-to-face. Phone and internet meetings are not counted as therapy except by the Board of Behavioral Health (LPC/LPCC licensure). 3. Relationship therapy follows the definition above of individual therapy but two or more people involved in a relationship must be present in the room such as families, couples, siblings or people living together. Group therapy can be counted in either area 2 or Supervision hours are hours spent with the on-site supervisor and are counted over and above client contact licensing requirement hours. Additional Requirements and Policies Students must complete the Pre-Counseling Learning Contract with the supervisor when entering a new site. The form must be turned in to Student Services. The form is found in the forms section. Malpractice insurance Requirement: It is required that students purchase professional malpractice insurance upon entering the program and provide documented proof at each course registration. Forms are available at AGS from student services or in the Library or on line at AAMFT.org. Confidential Case Materials Policy and Requirement: AGS students follow ethical guidelines in course papers or where sharing client information in class when they use information obtained from clients or patients. All students are responsible for knowing, understanding, and following this policy. Students who violate this policy may be subject to review. The policy is inserted below. Policy On Student Use of Patient/Client Information AGS students are expected to adhere to the applicable ethical guidelines put forth by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) and the American Counseling Association (ACA). From time to time, students present to instructors and/or fellow students confidential client information, they have learned through their internships or other clinical settings. In presenting such information, students must follow AAMFT and ACA standards. For example, students should be familiar with AAMFT principle 2.3 which states: Marriage and family therapists use client and/or clinical materials in teaching, writing, consulting, research, and public presentations only if a written waiver has been obtained in accordance with sub-principle 2.2, or when appropriate steps have been taken to protect client identity and confidentiality.
9 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 7 AGS considers information to be protected or "disguised" within the meaning of these guidelines, if there is no reasonable basis to believe that the information could be used to identify any individual and if the following steps are taken: 1. Last and first names are removed or changed. 2. Geographic references (such as references to the city and street address) are removed or changed. 3. All dates directly related to the individual are changed or removed, including birth date, admission date, discharge date, and age. 4. Any numbers that could be used to identify the individual are removed, such as social security numbers, telephone numbers, fax numbers, patient numbers, account numbers, medical records numbers, or any other unique identifying number or code. 5. Computer information such as addresses, URLs, and Internet Protocol numbers are removed. 6. All photographic images are removed. 7. All other information, which could reasonably be used to identify the individual, is removed or changed. If students have questions regarding whether they have adequately disguised a client/patient, student, research participant, or organizational client, they must contact an AGS Clinical Instructor or the AGS Academic Vice President to discuss the situation. Written and/or recorded materials containing confidential client information learned at an internship or other clinical setting is destroyed in a confidential manner (i.e. shredded and/or erased) once they have been used and are no longer necessary. In addition, confidential information about a client/patient should not be preserved in written documents (such as a Master's Project or class paper) unless the information is properly disguised and the client or patient has given written authorization for the use of such information.
10 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 8 Licensing Internship plan for a regular 24 month program (requires approximately an average of 5 hours a week on site.) Internship requirements are 6 credits obtained in conjunction with coursework while on site. If coursework is complete and hours are not, then extra internship credits will be needed. The way the plan is executed will determine how financial aid will work. This plan is suited for those who begin interning in the second term who wish to finish in 24 months. Term 1 No internship site Term 2 Course 591 Internship Supervision 7.5 hours ½ credit Term 3 Course 592 Internship Supervision 7.5 hours ½ credit Term 4 Course 593 Internship Supervision 7.5 hours ½ credit Term 5 Course 594 Internship Supervision 7.5 hours ½ credit One case study is required Term 6 Course 597 Advanced Supervision 15 hours 1 credit One case study is required Term 7 Course 597 Advanced Supervision 15 hours 1 credit One case study is required Term 8 Course 597 Advanced Supervision 15 hours 1 credit One case study is required Course 598, Individual Supervision may be taken as soon as 1 597, Advanced Supervision class is completed. LMFT students must complete 500 hours; 200 peer; 300 therapy with a minimum of 150 of the 300 as relationship hours. LPC students must complete 700 hours; 550 peer and 150 therapy. Dual licenses require 700 hours with 300 therapy and a minimum of 150 as relationship hours. Art therapy students must complete 700 hours with 350 as Art therapy.
11 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 9 Part II Beginning Internship Supervision
12 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 10 Beginning Internship Supervision - #591 and#592 In most cases, there may be no actual counseling or psychotherapy done by students. Prior to starting a beginning internship supervision course, students are expected to arrange for a field site and start working at this site at the beginning of the academic term or shortly before. No hours spent on site will be credited toward licensure or graduation if a student is not attending internship supervision class 591 or 592. This site may be used for either the first year only or for all of the internship experience, depending on the availability of clients. A list of potential sites is available on the Adler web page at New sites or openings on current sites are posted on the Adler as soon as they become available. Students must be sure that their e- mail addresses are current. Contact the AGS Library to assure that the library director has your correct . If students are encountering difficulty finding a site, they should contact Evelyn Haas, AGS Director of Admissions and Student Services. Each site is assigned an AGS faculty liaison that is available to address questions or concerns that students or site supervisors may have. Acceptable Clinical Activities: This level of internship consists of observation and interaction with an agency, their clients and its particular human service functions and clinically related activities. The intern becomes acquainted with the mission and purpose of the facility establishes a relationship with a supervisor, and/or coordinator and, then, spends a minimum of 4 hours per week at the facility observing clinical sessions, reading the agency's literature and program descriptions if there are any, and studying how the clinic maintains its functionality, approach and who are the clientele that are treated within the program. Consultation/supervision time will be established by the agency and maintained with a due diligence apropos to the sequence of treatment and care of the clients. This level of internship includes sitting in on sessions of psychotherapy and couples and family counseling with another therapist. Any face to face, direct contact hours need to be logged and identified as such on the log sheets located within the internship manual. Internship Responsibilities: On site responsibilities may include orientation to the site, answering crisis lines and making referrals, doing intakes or other types of assessments, and facilitating or co-facilitating a parent group or other support groups. Students may also attend staff meetings or in-services at the request of their site supervisor. Staff and office time plus peer hours make up the first 200 hours that are required. Students have a supervisor on- site who meets with student interns on a regular basis, either one-to-one, as a group, or both. If the supervisor does not fulfill this obligation, the student should notify the faculty liaison for the site. If the liaison is unknown, check with Ev Haas. The site supervisor needs to complete an evaluation each term. This is a requirement for the student to receive credit for the supervision course. Forty to eighty hours of time per term are generally necessary if one is to log the hours required for completion of the program in 18 months to 2 years.
13 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 11 Course Description: Beginning students are required to attend 7.5 hours of internship supervision at AGS per term. They observe more advanced internship students presenting cases; learn how to address many types of issues using Adlerian approaches and other appropriate therapeutic techniques; and discuss issues regarding field placement. These students may be asked to participate in role-playing situations where advanced students are seeking guidance. Course Requirements: Students meet for the required hours of supervision. If a class session is missed, students attend a make-up class at the end of the term and have the instructor sign the internship make-up form. Students sign up for this session and pay an additional fee. Students are also required to complete a reading assignment and write an assigned paper. Once again, 40 to 80 hours per term is recommended if one is to complete the required 500 or 700 hours in approximately 2 years. It is required that logged hours, and the site supervision evaluation (internship make-up form if appropriate) should be turned in with the course assignment to the instructor within 2 weeks of the completion of the applicable term. All information should be stapled together with the course number and instructor listed on the title page. Proof of malpractice insurance should be provided at the beginning of the course. Checklist for # Be on a site during the course Attend 7.5 hours of supervision course Log hours per term on-site if possible Have site supervisor complete a supervisor evaluation form Complete reading and written assignment Proof of professional Insurance must be submitted at beginning of class Make-up any missed class and submit verification with paperwork
14 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 12 1) Course Designation: Adler Graduate School Course 591 & 592 Art Therapy Beginning Internship (I & II) Course Syllabus 1.1 Course Number 591/ Prerequisite: Internship Orientation 1.3 Art Therapy Beginning Internship I & II 1.4 This course will involve observation of an art/expressive therapist in treatment or work settings to help the student become orientated to the therapy/group processes and techniques. Students will spend 80 hours in a site placement. 1.5 Course will yield.5 credit per section 1.6 Each section is comprised of a total of 7.5 seated hours in class 2) Course Description: This course offers the students an opportunity to learn about typical problems brought to a therapist and the Adlerian and art therapy techniques that can be used in addressing those problems. Students experience the role of the art therapist through on-site observation, classroom discussions, reading and personal art processes. Students observe an art/expressive therapist in the clinical or work setting, share experiences and pose questions about their clinical placements. 3) Required Reading 591 Gonzales Dolginko, B. & Robbins, A. (1987). The institution as a holding environment for the therapist. In A. Robbins, (Ed.). The artist as therapist (pp ). New York, NY: Human Services Press, Inc. 592 Robbins, A. (1989). A psychoaesthetic approach to empathic contact. The psychoaesthetic experience. An approach to depth-orientated treatment (pp ). New York, NY: Human Services Press. Other readings as assigned by the instructor. 4) Learning Outcomes: Students become familiar with relating to the client population to get an understanding of the types of issues and dynamics that clients bring to counseling and art therapy sessions. (5b,10a,b,c) Students become familiarized with typical cases using Adlerian and art therapy techniques with clients. (7h,10d,11b,11e)
15 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 13 Students process their understanding of the site organization and the role that the art therapist plays. (1b,11g) Students gain additional insight into their skills and limitations through their own art journal processing. (5a,b) Students explore ethical issues that come up in internship settings. (1g,5h,11f) 5) Assessment of Learning Outcomes: Students write a 2-3 page paper in APA format that integrates the reading, internship experiences and personal art processes Students are required to turn in signed logs of client contact hours during the current term Signed site supervisor evaluation forms All of these materials must be stapled together and submitted to the instructor two weeks following the end of the current term Students must keep their own copies of logs and evaluations, as well. 6) Course Content: Discussion of current issues relating to internship experience Lecture on specific techniques and processes of treatment Observation of advanced case presentations Receive feedback from fellow students Engage in process art making Rev. 1/10
16 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 14 WAYS TO ENCOURAGE YOUR CLIENT by: Saun Pye Brokaw, LICSW, LMFT ENCOURAGE MEANS: TO GIVE COURAGE WHERE IT IS LACKING! 1. Acknowledge the value and worth of the client regardless of anything done. Worth is what they are right now as they are right now. 2. Recognize their strengths talents, skills, positive characteristics and attributes. 3. Separate their behavior from their worth. "I know what you have done and you are still worthwhile, because youl" worth is who you are not what you have done!". 4. State your belief that the client can overcome this problem. Believe in the client when the client doesn't believe in herself. 5. Minimize mistakes. It is a miss take and suggests a retake. It's nota catastrophe, it is an "oops". 6. Recognize and acknowledge the effort, no matter how small. 7. Notice even the small successes and build on them. 8. Agree on assignments that the client is certain can be done successfully. If he is not certain, the assignment is too big. 9. When she slips up, encourage her to pick herself up and try again. Believe and say,"you can do itt". 10. Poiot out how he has survived in spite of all the difficulties that he has had. "You can handle itl". 11. Notice what she has done right. "Wow, it was really great the way you handled that. I bet you feel really good about that!." This encouragement cannot be overdone. Clients will soak it up like a dry sponge. Encouragement that affirms self worthshould be done in every session.
17 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 15 ****GOAL RECOGNITION**** COMMENTS BY DR. DREIKURS: The trained observer has no difficulty in recognition of the child s goal and in classifying the category in which a particular behavior belongs. The recognition of the child s goals is the basis for his treatment. Different approaches are indicated for each goal. GOAL 1 ATTTENTION GETTING MECHANISMS (AGM S) Attention getting is almost universal in our young children before school age; it (should) disappear gradually during the first few years of school. ACTIVE CONSTRUCTIVE AGM S 1. Impression of excellence with purpose of praise and recognition. (They are often the delight of parents.) 2. Cute remarks 3. Performing for attention. 4. Stunts for attention 5. Being especially good, reliable, cooperative, industrious (maladjustment becomes apparent in situation where they cannot gain praise and recognition.) PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIVE AGM S 1. Excessive pleasantness. 2. Excessive charm 3. The Model Child. 4. Stunts for attention 5. Being especially good, reliable, cooperative, industrious (maladjustment becomes apparent in situation where they cannot gain praise and recognition.) ACTIVE DESTRUCTIVE AGM S 1. The show off. 2. The clown. 3. Obtrusiveness. 4. The walking question mark. 5. The infant terrible. 6. Instability.
18 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 16 " PASSIVE DESTRUCTIVE - AGM'S Bashfulness. Lack of ability. Instability. Lack of stamina. Fearfulness. Speech impediments. / i 7. Untidiness. 8. Self-indulgence. 9. Frivolity. 10. Anxiety. 11. Eating difficulties 12. Other performance deficiencies. Note of Caution: Any of these characteristics may appear in the child and not be an attention getting mechanism. If it is an attention getting mechanism, the child will cease its actions when reprimanded. If the action continues after reprimand, it may be considered a symptom of a stronger goal. In any event, the total situation of the child must be examined - the interactions between various member of the family, particularly between parents and child. It may copy successful actions of siblings but is more likely to use an opposite approach. GOAL 2 - POWER General Characteristics - Th~ power struggle is similar to destructive attention getting, but is more intense and a reprimand intensifies the misbehavior. During a power struggle no interrelationship is too trivial to be used as an opportunity for challenge. ACTIVE DESTRUCTIVE - PQWER: Argue Contradict Continue forbidden acts Temper tantrums 5. Bad habits 6. Masturbation 7.. Untruthfulness 8. Dawdling PASSIVE DESTRUCTIVE - POWER: Laziness Stubbornness 3. Disobedience 4. Forgetting GOAL 3 - REVENGE: General Characteristics - Child does things to hurt others; this may be for a limited time or in specific situations; may be the regular approach depending upon the degree of hostility. Being disliked serves to attain a social position. ACTIVE DESTRUCTIVE - REVENGE: 1. Vicious 2. Stealing 3. Bed wetting
19 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 17 PASSIVE DESTRUCT1VE - REVENGE: 1. Violent Passivity GOAL 4 - DISPLAYING INADEQUACY ("GIVE UP"): Child assumes real or imagined deficiency as means to safeguard prestige (inferiority complex).. PASSIVE DESTRUCTIVE (ONLY FORM) (PREVENTS ANYTHING BEJNG DEMANDED OF THEM) 1. Indolence 2.. Stupidity "Inaptitude" "Hopeless" Note: Progression beyond these behavioral methods becomes a pathological reaction. Here occurs the nervous disorders, psychosis, and psychopathic personality. rev. 6/95 1
20 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 18 - RECOGNIZING AND ENCOURAGING S?ECIFlC AEIUTlES FOR EACH CHILD.A..DtJ1.15 YV:-iO CRE..A..TI: OPPORTtJNITr.=.S FOR BASIC TRAn'rING 1. Recognizs each cb.i1d's special abilities aile interests. 1. Recognize e3c..;' c..~d's fea..~ and we':lbe.ssas. 3. Recognize that developing a skill ta..1<es a lot oftime and a lot ofpatie..'"'l.ce. 4. Recognize t.~at as a ~:,nd feels more C2.pa=le, he/she becomes more willing to try new skills. INSTRUCTIONS: Since opportunities are not readily available today, parents must delide~ ately create them to provide good basictrainingfor adul6ood. When parents setoutto creat. situations which help children or students learn, they r:1ust first recognize the follovling: List eac..~ u.~ld. Identify each c..luld's abilities and inte-2.sts. Identify each child's fe2.t5 an, we~""1esses. Ide.."T1tify one way to specifically help each c..~d listed recognize his/he capabilities. Olll.D ABILITIES INTERESTS I can help this c..~ld recognize his/her capabilities by:
21 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 19 THE SIX STEPS IN PROBLEM SQLV1NG /.I STEP L DEFINE THE PROBLEM THIS IS A CRiTICAL STEP IN PROBLEM SOLVING. THINK ABOUT WHETHER THIS IS THE REAL PROBLEM OR WHETHER THERE IS ANOTHER PROBLEM THAT RESULTED IN THIS PROBLEM, WRITE DOWN EXACTLY WHAT THE PROBLEM IS, AS YOU SEE IT. STEP II. LIST ALL POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS THERE SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF THREE AND OFTEN EIGHT OR MORE SOLUTION'S TO A PROBLEM. SOME SOLUTIONS MAY BE A COMBINATION OF SOLUTIONS. BRAINSTORM ALL THE POSSIBILITIES WITHOUT LIMITATIONS. YOU CAN CROSS OFF THE UNREALISTIC ONE'S LATER. STEP' III. EVALUATE EACH SOLUTION ASK YOURSELF IF THE SOLUTION WILL BE POSSIBLE TO CARRY OUT AND WHETHER IT WILL BE FAIR. IN EVALUATING THE SOLUTIONS, OTHER POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS OFTEN ARE DISCOVERED. YOU MAY ALSO CHANGE OR MODIFY SOME SOLUTIONS.. STEP IV. STEP V. DECIDE ON THE BEST SOLUTION USE THE SOLUTION THINK ABOUT HOW YOU WILL IMPLEMENT THIS SOLUTION. HOW WILL YOU ACCOMPLISH IT? HOW WILL YOU CARRY OUT THIS SOLUTION? HOW WILL YOU DO IT, IF YOU DO NOT HAVE THE COOPERATION OF OTHERS? VI. EVALUATE THE SOLUTION SOLUTIONS DO NOT ALWAYS WORK OUT AS YOU EXPECT THEM TO. SO, IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO RECONSIDER AND DO SOME MORE PROBLEM SOLVING. DECISIONS CAN ALWAYS BE REVISED OR CHANGED. YOU MAY WISH TO RETURN TO THE LIST OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AGAIN. OR YOU MAY DECIDE THAT THIS SOLUTION IS WORKING AND CONTINUE TO USE IT. YOU MAY ALSO DECIDE TO MAKE SOME MODIFICATIONS/CHANGES IN YOUR SOLUTION. SUSAN PYE BROKAW /0
22 Art Therapy Internship Manual Adler Graduate School 20 BASIC PRINCIPLES IN DEALI~G WITn CHILDREN by Dr. Rudolf Dreikurs Golden Rule: lido unto others as you would have others do unto you:o--this is the basis of democracy, since it implies equality of individuals. Mutual Respect: Based upon the assumption of equality, is the inalienable right of all human beings. No one should take adva~tage of another neither adult nor child should be a sl~ve or a tyrant. Encouragement: Implies faith in the child as he is, not in his potentialit A child misbehaves only when he is discouraged and believes he cannot succeed by useful means. The child needs encouragement as a plant neeq water. Reward and Punishment are outdated. A child soon considers a reward his right and demands a-reward for everything~ He considers that punishment gives him the right to punish others, and the retaliation of children is usually more effective. than the punishment of adults. Natural Conseguences, utilizing the reality of the situation rather than personal power, can exert the necessary pressure to stimulate proper motivation. Only in moments of real danger is it necessary to protect the child rom the natural consequences of his disturbing behavior. Action instead of words in times of conflict. Children tend to become "mother-deaf" and act only when raised voices imply some impending action, and then respond only momentarily. Usually the child knows very well what is expected of him. Talking should be res~ricted to friendly conversations and not used as disciplinary means. Withdrawal - effective conteraction. Withdrawal is not surrender and is most effective when the child demands undue attention or tries to involve one in a power struggle. He gets no satisfaction in being annoying if nobody pays attention. Withdrawal from ~ provocation, not from the child. Don't talk in moments of conflict, but friendly conversation and pleasant contacts are essential. Have fun and play together. The less attention the child gets when he is disturbing, the more he needs when he is cooperative. Don't interfere in children's ficrhts. By allowing children to resolve their own conflicts, they learn to get along better together. Many fights are provoked to get the adult involved, and by separating the children or acting as judge, we fall for their provocation, thereby stimulating them to fight more.
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