The Effect of Enterprise Architecture on Employees Performance: The Moderating Role Task-Technology Fit

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1 The Effect of Enterprise Architecture on Employees Performance: The Moderating Role Task-Technology Fit Roham Yazdanpanah 1,ghasem jaknjad 2,nasser yousefi raki 3 1 Faculty of Management, Allamehtabatabaie University, Iran 2 Department of Management, Yasouj Branch, Islamic azad University, Yasouj, Iran 3 Department of Management, Yasouj Branch, Islamic azad University, Yasouj, Iran ABSTRACT The Enterprise Architecture refers to a comprehensive description of all of the key elements and relationships that make up an organization. The aim of this article is, determine the relationship between enterprise architecture and its four dimensions with tourism organization in Iran. This is a survey research. The research method is a descriptive survey. This study was conducted on cultural heritage and The sample comprises 200 employees, which were selected randomly. Data have been collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire and sampling has been done through census and analyzed using SPSS software. The validity of the method was achieved through content validity and the reliability through Cronbach Alpha. the study finds out some interesting conclusions: (1): There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (2): There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Task-Technology Fit, (3): There is a meaningful relationship between Task-Technology Fit and Employees Performance, (4): There is a meaningful relationship between Convergence of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (5): There is a meaningful relationship between Maintainability of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (6): There is a meaningful relationship between Security of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (7): There is a meaningful relationship between Efficiency of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance. Keywords: enterprise architecture, Performance, Task-Technology Fit, Efficiency, Maintainability, Security, Convergence. INTRODUCTION With the quick growth of information technology, the use of information systems to improve staffs performance in corporations is evolving. Organizations are introducing computer technology and developing their own information systems for more effective management. The growing usage of information systems may patronize staffs to increasingly use information systems to help them perform jobs and manage work. This has concluded in quick growth of the electronic government (egovernment) content and enterprise architecture. The sphere of enterprise architecture result not only internal resources such as information technology elements, personnel and processes, but also organizational external relations. Therefore, before it is being performed, it should be evaluated precisely in order to evaluate its practicality. We have to pay attention to the truth that performing an inappropriate architecture does not help to meet the organizational aim, causes disorder in business proceedings and imposes many expenses on the organization. principal aim of enterprise architecture evaluation is to decide this matter: in terms of applicable architecture, what attributes dose the considered design has? Task-technology fit is the grade that technology assists an individual in performing his jobs. It is the interaction between technology, task and individual characteristics. Enterprise Architecture can help organizations and their transforming processes to perform their strategy. Prosperous enterprise architecture provides interests for enterprise. Those interests may relate to decreased expense, increased revenues develop business opportunities and improved processes. In another hand, unfavorable enterprise architecture can imperil the whole enterprise. Instances of such outcomes are: high expenditures, technical chaos and diminished administrative creditability (opt Land et al, 2009; Sessions, 2006). Enterprise Architecture In its customary content, the phrase enterprise refers to a commercial organization. More generally however, this phrase can be used for intentional and principled purposeful operations.

2 Enterprise Architecture background is considered to have started with the 1987 article of Zachman named "A Framework for Information Systems Architecture (Zachman, 1987). Enterprise architecture is described by Gartner as: Enterprise Architecture the process of translating commercial view and strategy into efficient enterprise variation by creating, communicating and improving the main principles, prescriptions and models that explain the enterprise s future state and enable its evolution (Gartner, 2008). Enterprise architecture enables corporations to manage and structure their process, technology, and staff with the relationships they have to each other. To be competent in the competitive commercial universe, organizations need to fulfillment a well thought enterprise architecture (Johnson, 2012). Enterprise Architecture can be described as a discipline that can be a alternative for the enterprise for identifying, developing and managing its knowledge amount and its aim, as well as the way it is structured. This knowledge of the enterprise could be related to Information technology in this case, but it also comprises other main concerns (Graves, 2009): Business Architecture Organization Architecture Process Architecture Security Architecture Data Architecture Applications Architecture Infrastructure Architecture Enterprise Architecture is an efficient connection between all these diverse Architectures mentioned above (Graves, 2009). Enterprise architecture can be described as an emerging occupation and management process that is devoted to facilitate effective management processes to improve business performance of enterprises. This can be managed by enabling them to view enterprises in terms of a integrated and comprehensive viewpoint of their strategic route, information flows, business processes and technology resources. It is a roadmap that helps enterprise to manage a transition from its prevalent state to future favorable state (Bernard, 2005). Enterprise architecture can be defined as architecture at the level of a complete organization, describing the various aspects, relations and domains as a coherent whole. Gartner states Enterprise architecture as (Gartner, 2012): a discipline for holistically and proactively leading enterprise responses to disruptive powers by identifying and analyzing the implementation of variation toward desirable business view and results. Providing a comprehensive viewpoint of the enterprise in the most main characteristic of enterprise architecture (Lankhorst, 2005). Where classical approaches tackle problems one by one, enterprise architecture aims to tackle problems from a complete and coherent overview. In order to govern enterprise development, it also offers a common understanding and conceptualization among all stakeholders involved (Land, 2009). A main operant to gain to this common understanding and conceptualization is generating an overview; Lankhorst (2005) states that enterprise architecture gives an overview from technology to business. The four dimensions of good enterprise architecture as follows: Convergence: regarding the increase in use of elements of information technology in organizations and the extensive diversity in such elements their same direction must be paid attention to in design architecture. Those element involved in design architecture must be convergent and have the same direction to provide the goals more effective. Control of accordance and converge process of an architecture is evaluated through this feature. Sub characteristics of these properties are coverage rate of various layers of enterprise architecture. Maintainability: Regarding the quick alterations in business environment necessities and positions, organizations must adapt their business strategies and processes to modern decisions and conditions. Then the mediums and means of performing business processes must be pliable enough to make novel decisions and perform them. Law variables, competitors, and novel technologies are driving powers and an organization must have a well reaction towards them. Enterprise architecture in addition to having controllability of precision of prevalent functions must adapt itself to novel variables quickly. This is called maintainability of a system (IEEE, 1998). This character is described by sub characteristics such as changeability and analyzability. Efficiency: It demonstrates the best use of information technology systems of organizational resources. This feature is described by sub characteristics such as time behaving and resource behaving. Undoing of inessential matters and avoiding the powerful of repeated or inessential information are instances of efficiency in systems. In this feature regarding the significance of time, beneficial times to give services in a sub characteristic are investigated and other beneficial resources such as memory in other sub characteristic are evaluated (iso, 2001). Security: Today information and relevant technology have been one of the most main resources in any organization and security is very main in information technology. Security must not only protect, but also provide legal availability. The subject of protection of information and application systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification and destruction in order to 116

3 provide integrity, availability and confidentiality are considered here (Gammelgrd et al, 2007). Employee's performance Borman and Motowidlo (1993) divided performance into duty and contextual performance. Task performance was defined as the effectiveness with task incumbents carry out operations that contribute to the organization s technical basis (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). Contextual performance was defined as performance that is not formally required as section of the duty but that helps shape the social and psychological context of the organization (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993). Contextual performance has been further proposed to have two perspectives: interpersonal facilitation and job dedication. Based on literature, the effect of strategic alignment between business strategy and information systems / information technology strategy should have a constructive impact on the business performance of the organization. This performance is described as the measures of growth in profitability and productivity of the organization through its business endeavors and deployment of organizational and technological resources (Croteau et al., 2001; Chan et al., 1997; Smith and McKeen, 1993; Venkatraman, 1980). Although job performance is the most main scale for organizational scholars, it has been hard to describe this dynamic construct. Some exemplary definitions of performance widely accepted by organizational scholars comprise: Observable things employee do that are related for the aims of the organization (Campbell et al., 1993, p. 314), Scalable practices, behavior and results that staffs engage in or bring about that are connected with and contribute to organizational aims (Viswesvaran & Ones, 2000, p. 216). In relation Task-Technology Fit It has been proposed that task-characteristics may drive the necessities for suitable technology support. For instance, highly non-routine duties are expected to be best supported with technology that has a wide level of media-richness (Daft and Lengel 1984), whereas duties of high interdependence may require more complex procedures of coordination than duties of low interdependence (Thompson 1966). In our research study, we would like to be able to determine task-related fit as a result of appropriate combinations of specific task characteristics and technology performance. We furthermore expect users who appreciate the support that is provided by the technology to help perform their tasks to also rate the technology highly. Convergence Maintainability Efficiency Enterprise architectu Task- Technology Employees Performanc e Security Fig 1: conceptual model From the above mentioned model the following main hypothesis are developed: 1- There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and 2- There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Task- Technology Fit on cultural heritage and 3- There is a meaningful relationship between Task-Technology Fit and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and 4- There is a meaningful relationship between Convergence of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and 5- There is a meaningful relationship between Maintainability of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and 6- There is a meaningful relationship between Security of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and 7- There is a meaningful relationship between Efficiency of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and Methodology The aims of this article are found out the relationship between enterprise architecture and its four dimensions and Employees Performance with regard to the mediating role of Task-Technology Fit among employees of cultural heritage and tourism 117

4 organization in Iran in 2015 years. The current research has a descriptive-correlative method. The matters are chosen among staffs of cultural heritage and tourism organization. Data collection is done through random sampling. First, a group of 30 persons were selected from the subjects and the questionnaire distributed among them. After extracting the data from the responses of the intended group and the variance estimate, the volume of the sample of the study was drawn by using Cookran formula. 200 persons were selected randomly as the subjects of the study. In this research, questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Also, the data collection instrument for research variables was a researcher-developed questionnaire which it items were rated according to 5 point Likert scale. The validity of its content was ensured by using the expert viewpoints and consensus. The validity of its structure was measured through using the structural functions. The internal reliability of the items was verified by computing the Cranach's alpha. Nunnally (1978) suggested that a minimum alpha of 0.7 sufficed for stage of search. In table 1 our research the reliability of the items is checked through Cranach's alpha which shows that our research variables are reliable and there exists internal consistency between them. Variable Cranach's Alpha Coefficient enterprise architecture 0/839 Employees Performance 0/949 Task-Technology Fit 0/855 Convergence of enterprise architecture 0/723 Maintainability of enterprise architecture 0/837 Security of enterprise architecture 0/ Efficiency of enterprise architecture 0/747 total 0/913 Table 1: Cranach's alpha follows: 154 male and 45 female participated to the research. Findings The educational background of the participants are; Descriptive data 14 people High School, 95 people have This study attempts to understand the relationships among enterprise architecture and Employees University, 86 people have Master, and 5 people phd degree. The age classification of participants Performance on cultural heritage and tourism are; 15 people are Under 18; 53 people are organization in Iran. Table 2 Descriptive statistical between 19 25; 56 people are between 26 35, ; data shows the relation to the customers 34 people are between 36 45, 28 people are participated to the research (n = 200). The social demographic qualification of the participants are as variable between and 14 people are more than the age of 55: Frequency Female 154 Gender Male 46 Total 200 High School 14 University 95 Education Master 86 PHD 5 Total 200 Under Age More than Total 200 Marital Status Single 63 Married 137 Table 2. Demographic qualifications of participants Table 3 means, standard deviations, and Correlation Between research variables was examined: For 118

5 example, the correlation between two variables good correlation between these two variables. Performance and Fit is 0/735 which indicates a Variable mean SD Performance 3/308 1/02 1 0/753 0/256 0/605 0/453 0/379 Fit 3/12 0/ /273 0/643 0/464 0/505 Convergence 3/48 1/72 1 0/324 0/182 0/224 Maintainability 2/77 0/ /416 0/433 Security 3/28 0/ /439 Efficiency 3/43 0/844 1 Table 3: means, standard deviations, and Correlation Between research variables Results In the Table 4 research Hypothesis was examined. The Information about any hypothesis Included T, SIG, R-square and Result For each of the variables in research Hypothesis was examined. For example, in the first hypothesis, T value is 6.185, SIG is and Hypothesis was accepted. variable Independent enterprise architecture enterprise architecture Task-Technology Fit Convergence Maintainability Security Efficiency Dependent T Sig Employees Performance Task-Technology Fit Employees Performance Employees Performance Employees Performance Employees Performance Employees Performance Table 4: analyzing the hypotheses of research Result Hypothesis 1: There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and tourism organization in Iran. value is 6.185, Significant is 0.000, so there is a relationship between enterprise architecture and with 95% confidence. Hypothesis 2: There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Task- Technology Fit on cultural heritage and tourism organization in Iran. value is 5.472, Significant is 0.000, so there is a relationship between enterprise architecture and Task-Technology Fit on cultural heritage and with 95% confidence. Hypothesis 3: There is a meaningful relationship between Task-Technology Fit and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and tourism organization in Iran. value is 7.343, Significant is 0.000, so there is a relationship between Task-Technology Fit and with 95% confidence. Hypothesis 4: There is a meaningful relationship between Convergence of enterprise architecture and value is 6.361, Significant is 0.000, so there is a relationship between enterprise architecture and With 95% confidence. Hypothesis 5: There is a meaningful relationship between Maintainability of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and value is 5.299, Significant is 0.000, so there is a relationship between Convergence of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and With 95% confidence. Hypothesis 6: There is a meaningful relationship between Security of enterprise architecture and value is 5.087, Significant is 0.000, so there is a relationship between Security of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and With 95% confidence. Hypothesis 7: There is a meaningful relationship between Efficiency of enterprise architecture and 119

6 value is 3.218, Significant is 0.000, so there is a relationship between Efficiency of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance on cultural heritage and with 95% confidence. Conclusions Enterprise architecture can be a practical tool to increase the management power on information technology of any organization. The aim of this article is, determine the relationship between enterprise architecture and its four dimensions with. the study finds out some interesting conclusions: (1): There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (2): There is a meaningful relationship between enterprise architecture and Task-Technology Fit, (3): There is a meaningful relationship between Task-Technology Fit and Employees Performance, (4): There is a meaningful relationship between Convergence of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (5): There is a meaningful relationship between Maintainability of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (6): There is a meaningful relationship between Security of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance, (7): There is a meaningful relationship between Efficiency of enterprise architecture and Employees Performance. Enterprises should thus pay considerable attention to their enterprise architecture. Overall, four architecture aims were emphasized: Convergence, Maintainability, Security and Efficiency. In view of the increased business and organizational extension and dynamics, these four aspects are becoming more and more important in Employees Performance. Furthermore, Enterprise architecture frameworks should focus more on those dimensions in order to achieve the employee's satisfaction and finally high Performance on employees. Refrences - Bernard, S. A. (2005) An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture, 2Nd edition, AuthorHouse, Bloomington, IN - Borman, W. C. and Motowidlo, S. J. (1993) Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In Personnel Selection in Organizations (N. Schmitt & W. C. Borman, eds), pp San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. - Borman, W. C. and Motowidlo, S. J. (1997) Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10(2): Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial/ organizational psychology. In M. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 1 (2nd ed.): Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. - Chan, Y.E., Huff, S.L., Barclay, D.W. and Copeland, D.G. (1997). Business Strategic Orientation, Information Systems Strategic Orientation, and Strategic Alignment, Information Systems Research 8(2): Croteau, A. and Bergeron, F. (2001). An Information Technology Trilogy: Business strategy, technological deployment and organizational performance, Journal of Strategic Information Systems 10(2): Daft, R.L., and Lengel, R.H. Information Richness: A new Approach to Managerial Behavior and Organization Design, Organizational Behavior (6), 1984, pp Gartner Inc. (2008), Gartner Clarifies the Definition of the Term 'Enterprise Architecture. - Gartner. (2012). Hype Cycle for Enterprise Architecture By Burton, B., Allega, P. Gartner Research Publication. - Harmon, P. (2003). Developing an Enterprise Architecture, Business process trends: Whitepaper. - IEEE Std. (1998). Standard for Software Maintenance, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - ISO/IEC. (2001). Software Engineering Software Product Quality, Part 1: Quality model, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland,. - Lankhorst, M. (2005). Introduction to enterprise architecture. Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modelling, Communication, and Analysis, M. Gammelgrd, M. Ekstedt & P. Nrman. (2007). Architecture Scenario Analysis Estimating the Credibility of the Results, In 17th Annual International Symposium of The International Council on Systems Engineering, San Diego, California, USA, Curran Associates Inc. - Op't Land, M. (2009). Enterprise architecture: creating value by informed governance. Springer. 120

7 - P. Johnson, R. Lagerstrom, M. Ekstedt. (2012). IT Management with Enterprise Architecture - Sessions, R. (2006). A Better Path to Enterprise Architectures. Object Watch Inc. - Smith, H.A. and McKeen, J.D. (1993). How does information affect business value? A reassessment and research propositions. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 10(3), T. Graves. (2009). Enterprise Architecture. - Thompson, J.D. Organizations in Action, Mc Graw Hill, New York, Venkatraman, N. (1989). "Strategic Orientation of Business Enterprises: The Construct, Dimensionality, and Measurement." Management Science 35(8): Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on models of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8, Zachman, J. (1987). A framework for information systems architecture, IBM systems journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp

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