Extractive Nutrient Recovery as a Green Option for Managing Phosphorus in Sidestreams and Biosolids

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1 Extractive Nutrient Recovery as a Green Option for Managing Phosphorus in Sidestreams and Biosolids Wendell Khunjar, Ph.D. Ron Latimer, P.E. Katya Bilyk, P.E. Joe Rohrbacher, P.E. Paul Pitt, Ph.D., P.E.

2 Agenda Sidestream treatment overview Phosphorus Removal/Recovery Options Case Study 1 - Nansemond Treatment Plant Case Study 2 FWHWRC Case Studies 3 and 4 Miami Dade Treatment Plants Summary

3 Biological treatment is a cost effective, robust option for carbon and nutrient removal Biological nutrient removal uses microorganisms To solids handling To solids handling Solids generated must be processed before disposal Anaerobic digestion is a common solids treatment option

4 Water resource reclamation facilities accumulate nutrients within the solids process Adapted from Cornel et al., 2009 Urine 67% Feces 33% Primary Sludge 10-15% Secondary Sludge 25-40% EBPR or Chem - P Removal 35-50% Effluent 10% Up to 90% of the influent P can be present in the solids stream Sludge Up to 90% Adapted from Phillips et al., 2011 Urine 80% Gaseous emission 67% Feces 20% Sludge 20% Effluent 13% Up to 20% of the influent N can be present in the solids stream

5 Solids stabilization generates nutrient rich liquid stream 1 0 Treatment 2 0 Treatment Fe or Alum Fe or Alum Disinfection Screenings Sidestreams are typically returned to the head of the plant for treatment Examples of sidestream BFP filtrate GBT filtrate Filter backwash Centrate Digester supernatant Grit 1 0 Sludge Biosolids Handling 2 0 Sludge Effluent Residual

6 High nutrient recycle loads can upset the mainstream process TP Load (lb/day) Description 7/11/06 Recycle Stream Percent Sampling of Phosphorus Total Influent Nitrogen Load Up to 50% of the total influent P load can be present in the Nansemond, Suffolk, VA Centrate sidestream Bowery Bay, NYC Centrate Henrico County, VA Centrate High Point Eastside, NC Fermenter Percent of Total Influent Phosphorus Load 13% 29% 17% * 15% * * 50% Wards Island, NYC Centrate 30-40% * Centrate Ash Lagoon Decant Primary Effluent North Durham, Sampling NC Location 19% 30% Centrate Total P South Durham, NC Centrate 21% 25%

7 Struvite can be a significant maintenance concern with anaerobic digestion Struvite = Mg + NH 4 + PO 4 NH 4 & PO 4 released in digestion Typically Mg limited Mg addition (i.e. Mg(OH) 2 ) can promote struvite formation NYC Newtown Creek WPCP Miami Dade SDWRF

8 Sidestream treatment is the manipulation of the return liquid stream for a treatment purpose Typically focused on nutrient removal or recovery Usually economical when sidestreams contribute: 15% of the influent TN 20% P load Can often reuse existing infrastructure to reduce costs Biological mainstream process Sidestream treatment Dewatering Anaerobic Digestion Thickening Biosolids

9 What options are available for sidestream nutrient treatment? Nutrient rich sidestream Treatment process Nutrient free effluent Removed/recovered nutrient N Removal and recovery Nitrification/Denitrification Nitritation/Denitritation Deammonification Gas stripping and/or ion exchange P removal and recovery Coagulant aided precipitation Struvite crystallization

10 P removal from sidestreams relies on chemical precipitation Coagulant aided precipitation o o o o Uses Alum or Ferric Non-proprietary Traditionally used for controlling sidestream P at this plant High O&M requirement Struvite recovery o o Forms struvite which can be used as a slow release fertilizer Proprietary Ostara MFH Procorp/DHV Paques Veolia

11 Struvite recovery exploits ph dependent chemical precipitation phenomena Struvite precipitation N:P ratio in struvite = 0.45 lbs N required per lb P removed N:P ratio in filtrate ~ , ammonia in excess Mg(NH 4 )PO 4 (s) = struvite External NaOH External Mg +2 Mg +2 NH 4+ -N PO P Struvite Recovery Reactor Mg(NH 4 )PO 4 (s)

12 Intentional struvite recovery exploits ph dependent chemical precipitation phenomena Fluidized bed reactor or CSTR used for struvite recovery FBR Effluent N:P ratio in struvite = 0.45 lbs N required per lb P removed Dewatering Dryer Struvite Magnesium Caustic Sand (Procorp) Centrate/Filtrate N:P ratio in filtrate ~ , ammonia in excess

13 There are several commercial options for struvite recovery Name of Technology Ostara Pearl Multiform Harvest struvite technology Phospaq Crystalactor NuReSys Name of product recovered Crystal Green struvite fertilizer struvite fertilizer Struvite, Calcium phosphate, Magnesium phosphate BioStru % efficiency of recovery from sidestream 80-90% P 10-40% NH 3 -N 80-90% P 10-40% NH 3 -N 80% P 10-40% NH 3 -N 85-95% P 10-40% NH 3 -N >80% P 5-20% N Product marketing/resale # of full-scale installations in design/operation Ostara Multiform Harvest N/A Third party facilitated by Procorp N/A

14 Nansemond Treatment Plant is a 30 MGD facility that employs a 5-stage BNR for N and P removal Nansemond HRSD, Virginia TN = 8 mg/l 30 MGD BNR 5 Stage 8 mg TN/L 1 mg TP/L TP = 1 mg/l

15 Nansemond Treatment Plant is a 30 MGD facility that employs a 5-stage BNR for N and P removal TP (mg/l) Sidestream load represents up to 30% of the plant influent P load Diurnal Sampling TN = 8 mg/l TP = 1 mg/l Day 1 Influent TP Day 2 Influent TP Day 1 PE TP Day 2 PE TP :00 AM 2:00 am 4:00 am 6:00 am 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 12:00 PM 2:00 PM 4:00 pm 6:00 pm 8:00 pm 10:00 pm Time

16 Two options were considered for sidestream P Treatment at NTP Ferric addition o o o o Forms ferric phosphate and ferric hydroxide Non-proprietary Traditionally used for controlling sidestream P at this plant High O&M requirement Struvite recovery o o o Ostara Pearl Treatment fee option o OSTARA provides facility and HRSD pays fee for use Capital purchase option o NTP purchases equipment and receives annual payments from OSTARA

17 Net present worth analyses indicated that the capital purchase option was the most cost-effective solution Item Treatment Fee Capital Purchase Option Option Ferric Chloride Chemical Cost $ (290,000) $ (290,000) Sludge Savings $ (155,000) $ (155,000) Methanol Savings $ (29,000) $ (29,000) Oxygen Savings $ (19,000) $ (19,000) Ostara Paybacks $ (87,850) $ (135,850) Total Annual Savings $ (580,850) $ (628,850) Caustic Cost Allowance $ 25,000 $ 25,000 Ostara Annual Fee $ 444,000 $ - Total Annual Operating Cost $ 469,000 $ 25,000 Nutrient recovery option was more cost effective than Total Capital Cost $ 1,080,000 $ 4,143,000 Ferric addition option Present Worth Operating Costs $ (1,505,750) $ (8,129,160) Net Present Worth 5 $ (425,750) $ (3,986,050) Present worth cost of line 10 over 20 years at 5% cost of financing

18 NTP constructed and has operated the nutrient recovery facility for ~ 2 years

19 Full scale struvite recovery facility at NTP System has produced ~ 1100 lb struvite/day

20 The struvite recovery facility has reduced ortho-p concentrations by approximately 85% Concentration mg/l Percent Removal 1000 Inf.& Eff. Ortho-P and % Removal for Ostara Influent ortho-p to Ostara Average Eff. ortho-p % ortho-p Removal 7 per. Mov. Avg. (Influent ortho-p to Ostara) 7 per. Mov. Avg. (Average Eff. ortho-p) 7 per. Mov. Avg. (% ortho-p Removal) 100% % % % % % % % % % 0 0% May-10 Aug-10 Nov-10 Mar-11 Jun-11 Sep-11 Dec-11 Apr-12 Jul-12 Oct-12 Jan-13 May-13

21 Concentration mg/l Percent Removal Ammonia removal has averaged 25% 1000 Inf and Eff Ammonia and % Removal for Ostara Influent Ammonia to Ostara Average Eff. Ammonia from Ostara % Ammonia Removal 7 per. Mov. Avg. (Influent Ammonia to Ostara) 7 per. Mov. Avg. (Average Eff. Ammonia from Ostara) 7 per. Mov. Avg. (% Ammonia Removal) 100% % % % % % % % % % 0 0% Jan-11 Mar-11 Jun-11 Aug-11 Nov-11 Feb-12 Apr-12 Jul-12 Oct-12 Dec-12 Mar-13 May-13

22 F. Wayne Hill Water Reclamation Center Gwinnett County, GA 60 MGD advanced WWTP 0.08 mg/l TP effluent limit Bio-P and chemical trim for P-removal

23 In 2009, F. Wayne Hill Changed from Bioxide to Mg(OH) 2 in Collection System for Odor Control Pros: Eliminated need for ALK addition at plant Cons: Struvite formation in centrate lines, centrifuges, digester complex Sludge from 22 mgd Yellow River Bio-P plant coming, which would substantially increase P load in sidestreams and SFP Struvite taken from centrifuge

24 Limiting effluent P and struvite formation are key drivers for this plant Phosphorus outlets: o Effluent (Limit TP = 0.08 mg/l) o Sludge cake (precipitated complex, biomass, struvite) o Struvite solids from nuisance formation Study goal: determine best solution for struvite issue (Mg continues) or P recycle issue (Mg stops) o Nutrient Recovery o Metal salts

25 Five options were considered for sidestream P removal from F. Wayne Hill AWRF Do Nothing Ferric addition with and without Mg(OH) 2 addition Struvite recovery with and without WASStrip TM

26 WASSTRIP concept minimizes nuisance struvite production Release P from sludge using VFA rich stream Send P rich sidestream to recovery process Low P content of sludge minimizes nuisance struvite formation from digester onwards

27 Bench scale testing of the WASSTRIP process was performed Determine levels and rates of PO 4 release from WAS Optimize parameters to maximize PO 4 release in pilot studies o Anaerobic retention time and WAS:PS blend ratio

28 Using the pilot data, Biowin process modeling was used to simulate each alternative 1. Use calibrated whole plant model to simulate alternatives at each flow scenario 2. Do Nothing scenario is modeled for comparison of struvite formation 3. The modeling results were used to assess effectiveness of the nutrient control strategy and also to estimate costs for the BCE. Raw INF Grit tank YR Sludge Grit BRB A1 BRB C3+C4 BRB A2 BRB B1 BRB B2 BRB C5+C6BRB C7 BRB C8 BRB C1+C2 Tertiary Clarifier Metal Salt Tertiary Caustic Influent (SV)7 P release Sec Scum Influent (SV)17 Combined Filter Effluent - Pre Anaerobic Digesters Bioreactor21 Dewatered Sludge Influent (SV)51 Bioreactor33 OSTARA struvite

29 P recovery provides equivalent struvite reduction compared with the ferric addition option PPD of Struvite in Sludge Cake 14,000 12, mgd 40 mgd 50 mgd 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Do Nothing Ostara + WASSTRIP + Mag Ostara + WASSTRIP + No Mag Ostara Centrate No Mag Ferric Digesters Mag Ferric Centrate No Mag Scenario

30 Struvite recovery + WASSTRIP has lowest net present cost and 8-Year Payback NPC, $ Millions $25.0 $20.0 $15.0 Ostara + WASSTRIP, Mag Ostara + WASSTRIP, No Mag Ostara Centrate, No Mag Ferric Digesters, Mag Ferric Centrate, No Mag $10.0 $5.0 $ Year FWHWRC is pursuing nutrient recovery option

31 Miami-Dade resource recovery Pure oxygen facilities Meets secondary treatment standards Disposal through deep injection wells CDWWTP 143 mgd AADF Significant nuisance struvite formation issue SDWWTP mgd AADF

32 Miami Dade resource recovery - evaluations In-situ Coupon Testing to Determine Degree of Struvite Formation and Confirm Theoretical Ferric Dose Bench Scale Testing to Determine Optimal Ferric Dose Modeled Struvite Potential and Reduction for Each Alternative & Performed Cost Evaluation Ostara Pilot Test

33 Nutrient Recovery was the most cost effective option at both plants Notes: * 6% interest and escalation ** Could be significantly higher Long term recommendation is to implement nutrient recovery at both facilities

34 Summary To mainstream 1. Reduce energy and chemical consumption in the mainstream process 2. Provide factor of safety for mainstream nutrient removal process clarificatio n 3. Minimize nuisance struvite formation and reduce O&M costs Sidestream treatment Dewatering Anaerobic Digestion Thickening Biosolids 1. Manipulate the nutrient content of the biosolids 2. Provide plant with alternative revenue stream

35 Summary Compare struvite crystallization with precipitation with coagulant (i.e., alum or ferric) Payback site-specific and dependent on the P load Tool for Evaluating Resource RecoverY (TERRY) developed through WERF grant to help facilities perform high level evaluation for implementing P recovery

36 Contact Information Wendell O. Khunjar, PhD 4035 Ridge Top Road, Suite 400, Fairfax VA (direct) Katya Bilyk 4011 Westchase Blvd., Suite 500, Raleigh, NC Phone: Ron J. Latimer, PE 5775 Peachtree Dunwoody Rd. Suite D-520, Atlanta, GA (main)

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