2 Topics Key to successful cloud service adoption is an understanding of underlying infrastructure. Topics Understanding cloud networks Leveraging automation and self-service Understanding federated cloud services Achieving interoperability
3 Understanding Cloud Networks Cloud networks provide: Scalability Expand to meet variable requirements Resiliency Remain accessible even in the event of loss of power or a network device. Throughput Support the transfer of large amounts of data, particularly between cloud hosting servers. Simplified management Resources allocation and reallocation simple enough that the consuming organization can easily manage configuration and changes.
4 Open Systems Interconnection Model Each logical layer has specific functionality, described in Table 6.1 (next slide). Private cloud networking is commonly implemented using Layer 2 or Layer 3 technology (or a combination of both). Much debate regarding which is the better choice.
6 Layer 2 Cloud Networks In a Layer 2 network, elements of the cloud network infrastructure share the same address space (the same network subnet, allowing all addresses to receive broadcasts and service announcements from all others) Interconnect directly through locally switched networking without the need for routers to pass data between participating devices and services. Can be easier to manage because all IP and MAC addresses share a common network communication partition. Customers don t need to modify their network settings to transition to cloud-hosted service alternatives. But Layer 2 clouds can be overwhelmed if devices are oversubscribed to the point that they begin to compete for network bandwidth until they become congested.
7 CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection access control allows multiple devices to share the same network segment by transmitting a packet of data and then checking to see if there is another transmission at the same time by another device. When a collision occurs, both devices wait a random amount of time before resending packet. When a network becomes oversubscribed, it has so many devices that collisions are detected very regularly. Delays in data exchange begin to impede data exchange and service availability. Segmenting a network using Layer 3 routers can help to reduce competition by reducing the number of neighbors with which a device will share the same network segment.
8 Layer 3 Cloud Networks In a Layer 3 network, cloud resources are interconnected through routers Allows resources to be located across multiple address ranges and in multiple locations. Can bridge resources between locations and require an understanding of subnetwork structure to properly separate groups of devices into manageable neighborhoods to reduce competition and data collisions between devices. With subnetting, Layer 3 cloud resource counts can be expanded to include a virtually unlimited number of devices.
9 Routed Subnetting Routed subnetting breaks the network into many subnetworks Similar to neighborhoods of homes broken up by separate feeder roads so that all traffic does not have to share the same access route. Layer 3 networking also allows widely separated network subnets to exchange data, routing packets across public or private network connections more like telephone calls, which can establish connections between devices in different area codes to connect offices in different locations.
10 Combined Layer 2/3 Cloud Networks To bridge separated network address ranges using Layer 3 routing while also taking advantage of the simplicity of Layer 2 device interconnection and discovery, it is possible to implement combination networks that use Layer 3 routing to create virtual Layer 2 network connections. These combination networks essentially create network bridges that can transparently route data between different subnets while allowing Layer 2 device broadcasts and services announcements to be detected by all devices across all linked subnets.
11 Internet Protocol Version The OSI model is a simplified organization of the basic layers of networking that form the Internet and other TCP/IP networks. Both publicly routed (Internet) and private (used only inside an organization). Currently, the Internet is in transition from Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) to Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) So are cloud service providers. IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long (4 bytes) IPv6 addresses are 128 bits long
12 IPv6 improvements over IPv4 Removes broadcasting Reduces network congestion Improved routing speed Automatically generated host identifier that eliminates the possibility of IP address conflict. Organizations considering moving to the cloud may want to also have a plan for transitioning to IPv6, or at running both IPv4 and IPv6 until they are able to make the full transition.
13 Network Challenges Latency is biggest cloud network challenge. Network latency is the amount of time it takes for data to get from one network node to another. Following contribute to latency: Network node count Using an inadequate number of network devices such as switches and routers can cause latency. Number of hops The more nodes packets traverse, the greater the potential delay. A cloud network should include multiple paths between endpoints and a mechanism to leverage connectivity across as few devices as possible.
14 Transport Protocol Latency High-throughput networks between cloud devices may require alternative transport protocols, such as Fibre Channel or InifiniBand. Have bandwidth capabilities exceeding those of more common switched Ethernet network interconnects. Cloud networks often bear much in common with networks used in high-performance computing environments due to the higher level of resource utilization.
15 Network congestion Both number of network devices and available bandwidth influence network congestion. Modern internetworking protocols (Ethernet) operate using a Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) mechanism to share the same network medium. Internetworking protocols with collision detection (CSMA/CD) or collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) improve performance by detecting when multiple devices are trying to communicate at the same time, applying a random delay to each before attempting a retransmission. When too many devices are connected to the same network segment, collisions become more numerous and lead to congestion between devices.
16 Infrastructural Changes In traditional data centers, shown in Figure 6.2 (next slide), the bulk of network communication passes from local access interconnects up through aggregation devices to core high-bandwidth network paths Many of which may implement wide area network (WAN) protocols in favor of local area network (LAN)alternatives. When connectivity between resources over the public Internet is required, data communication passes through a gateway bridging the core network and the Internet service provider s connection. Traditional data center internetworking connections generally do not consume the full bandwidth available. Cloud resource pools are shared and interoperate across many host servers, requiring a much higher degree of continuous and sustained communication at the same networking level. In networks developed for cloud service interconnections, the layering of network devices is reduced and protocol separation is simplified.
18 Reducing Congestion Done by connecting a limited number of devices to high-speed leaf layer devices that can handle direct switching between local devices and data pass-through to even higher bandwidth spine connections Might involve newer 40 GB or even 100 GB connections at the time of this writing. When the aggregation process is eliminated, and the hop count of device layering, network latency is reduced and data is more rapid in direct exchange between cloud data center devices. Network broadcast isolation at the leaf layer reduces congestion Transferring the bulk of data exchange from a vertical transition across the traditional data center network to a horizontal transfer between cloud service host devices. Because each leaf handles only a few racks worth of servers, device oversubscription is eliminated and total device count capacity is greatly expanded. Reduction of device count between any two points also reduces network latency.
19 Leveraging Automation and Self- Service One of the essential characteristics of cloud services is self-service provisioning. Virtual servers, applications, storage, and other services provisioned by user organization on demand. Figure 6.3 (next slide) shows an example of self-service provisioning using Microsoft Azure, configuring a new Windows Server 2012 virtual machine with two CPU cores and 3.5 GB of allocated RAM. Other options presented at the left of the same interface allow the provisioning of cloud services, SQL databases, data storage pools, and virtual networks within the Azure pool of resources.
21 Risks Generally, management consoles are designed to allow both IT staff and business staff to provision resources. Without oversight or governance this could lead to increased costs, duplication of resources, or security risks. As such, internal processes should be in place prior to allowing business staff to provision resources. Virtual server sprawl is very easy Tendency to stand up a new server without releasing the resources allocated to an existing system. Designating cloud resources within a web interface lacks the reality of designating a particular machine in the data center for a new project. Cleanup seems unnecessary unless organizational policies include regular review and deprovisioning of no longer needed virtual servers.
22 Automation in Provisioning On-demand self-service provisioning is not possible without automation. To be effective, automated cloud services must include: Data recovery Data backup and recovery can be automated to increase data availability in the event of a system failure or network outage. Resource pooling Allows computing resources such as storage, memory, network bandwidth, virtual servers, and processing power to be assigned dynamically or upon request.
23 Provisioning policies Provisioning policies are used by cloud service providers to define provisioning attributes (parameters used to identify resources) related to various services. For example, storage provisioning policies may be used to automatically increase storage capacity when needed. Certain forms of resource provisioning, such as adding RAM, may require a reboot to effect the change unless migration between virtualized instances is available. Similarly, added data storage capacity may require a reboot unless it is handled as a separate partition (as if it were another separate disk) within the operating system.
24 Automation Benefits Cloud service automation has a number of advantages: Hidden complexity Automation takes care of resource availability without requiring operators to understand the location and type of individual host server equipment. Availability Automated cloud self-service makes it possible to manage resource allocation and provisioning even during off-hours, weekends, and holidays when the IT staff is otherwise engaged. Standardization Limitations configured within the self-service interface ensure that new allocated resource pools conform to established standards for quality management and ease of support. Resource utilization Power consumption and resource management can be configured to improve an organization s data center carbon impact
25 Understanding Federated Cloud Services With regard to cloud services, federation refers to the collection of multiple cloud resource pools into a single manageable whole. VXLAN technology can be used to bridge multiple different clouds located in various Layer 3 network segments, forming a single Layer 2 cloud network environment through virtualized networking. Federated cloud services expand this integration to allow an organization to grow beyond local data center resources, as in the case of cloud bursting, when a service demands resources beyond local limits and can integrate externally provided hosted services to meet expanded requirements.
26 Federated Cloud Services Federated cloud services like CloudSwitch, shown in Figure 6.5 (next slide), make it possible to migrate services such as cloud-hosted virtual machines between private and public cloud hosting through the same type of web client as the one used to originally provision each resource. Federated cloud services can provide interconnections between clouds functioning in private/private, private/public, and public/public configurations, allowing multiple clouds to be managed as a single cloud resource pool.
28 Encryption and Storage Gateways Federated cloud resources are protected through encryption and standards for passwords and digital certificates. Organizations employing federated cloud services should consider setting up a cloud storage gateway. A local server that ensures data protection by handling encryption and data compression when accessing, modifying, backing up, or recovering data from cloud-based file storage. Storage gateway also functions as a standard pass through for cloud storage,. Allowing an organization the ability to consume resources from multiple vendors without concern for the storage vendor. Protects against proprietary lock-in for cloud storage resources and allows use of multiple storage providers services at the same time.
29 Storage gateways can provide multiple functions: Backup Cloud storage gateway integrates with data recovery suites to handle backups and data recovery options. Caching Storage gateway can store regularly accessed data to improve response time in comparison to repeated access against the original storage server.
30 Cloud Gateways Compression Gateways can provide data compression services to reduce network bandwidth requirements for storing and retrieving file data. Encryption Cloud storage gateways ensure that all data is properly encrypted before transport or storage, protecting cloud-hosted data against unauthorized access or modification.
31 Interoperability One of the greatest challenges to cloud adoption is interoperability, which can be defined in the following ways: The ability to move resources, such as applications, between service providers The ability for services running in different clouds to access a common set of data or share information The ability to use a common set of management tools with services from multiple providers
32 Resource limitation Limitations of resource pools available within the self-service interface should be clearly evident. Figure 6.4 (next slide) illustrates this within the Microsoft Azure administration interface, showing the resources allocated to a VM from the account s available capacity. In addition to direct limitations, limitations need to be managed for automated provisioning of cloud resources in terms of type of resource and administrative functions such as data protection that can be configured. Users might be able to provision a new database but not a new virtual network, and they might be able to configure the data backup type and frequency for the database but not for a file server based on automation settings in the new resource provisioning self-service interface.
34 In general, current cloud providers services rely on proprietary storage formats, so, for example, an Azure instance cannot be directly ported to EC2 hosting. One way to improve interoperability is through an orchestration layer. In a noncomputing environment, orchestration is the arrangement or organization of elements toward a desired goal or effect. In cloud computing, an orchestration layer is a mechanism to arrange, organize, integrate, and manage multiple cloud services.
35 Cloud Orchestration Tools Most vendors align their tools with a particular spectrum of technologies. For example, Cisco s products are intended to orchestrate interconnections between Cisco- compatible products and may not work on some other forms of cloud access or hosting technologies. The following vendors are among those offering cloud orchestration tools: Cisco Intelligent Automation for Cloud Citrix CloudPlatform Flexiant Cloud Orchestrator IBM SmartCloud Continuous Delivery NephoScale Cloud Orchestration Suite RightScale Cloud Management
36 Cloud Brokers Even with the proper tools, some organizations may find managing multiple cloud services difficult and instead turn to a cloud broker to handle it for them. A cloud service broker is an entity that acts as a middleman between cloud service providers and consumers. In addition to aggregating and integrating multiple services into a single service, cloud brokers may add value to the aggregated services, such as identity management or performance reporting.
37 Cloud Computing Standards Cloud service providers that follow the same standards are much more likely to be interoperable than those that follow their own proprietary model. Part of the selection process of cloud service providers should always involve identifying the standards they have adopted to reduce the risk of vendor lock-in. Several standards bodies involved in cloud computing, including: Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) This group focuses on audit and security standards for cloud computing. Cloud Standards Customer Council (CSCC) One of this organization s goals is to influence standards development based on cloud user requirements.
38 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) DMTF has several working groups involved with developing standards for management interfaces, audit data, interoperability, software license management, and virtualization. IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) IEEE-SA has several active projects for development of cloud computing standards, covering topics such as portability, interoperability, and federation. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) NIST addresses cloud computing standards in its Special Publications 500 series, in particular SP , NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap. Security standards can be found in the Special Publication 800. Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) OASIS is developing standards for identity management, data sharing, privacy, and portability, among others.
39 Storage Networking Industries Association (SNIA) SNIA s Cloud Storage Initiative developed the Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) standard. This standard describes the processes for assigning metadata that defines required services, such as backup or encryption.
40 Standards for Private Clouds Private clouds can be configured to meet standards such as NIST and ISO standards, regulatory mandates related to credit card information and protected health care information, or other functional guidelines as currently employed in the traditional data center. Standards for Public Clouds Public cloud providers adopt standards for audit and security management, such as ISO and Additional provisions for organizational regulatory mandates such as SOX, PCI, and HIPPA must be negotiated by an organization as part of its public/hybrid cloud service-level agreement (SLA).
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