1 THE CORAL TRIANGLE INITIATIVE A View of a People by the Sea
2 CORAL TRIANGLE INITIATIVE A View of a People by the Sea Copyright NGO Forum on ADB, December 2012 NGO FORUM ON ADB is an Asian-led network of civil society organizations and community groups that has been monitoring policies, projects and programs of the Asian Development Bank. The Forum does not accept funds or any other grants from the ADB. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The FORUM acknowledges the efforts of the late Jaime Escober Jr., who passed away during the making of this photo book. We are grateful to SAMMACA (Samahan ng Artisanong Mangingisda Communities ng Calatagan) in Calatagan, Batangas, Tony Bautista and Ruperto Aleroza, for allowing us to closely observe their lives and struggles throughout the process. We also recognize Avilash Roul, Roberto Emilio Hernandez, Arsenio Tanchuling, and Tambuyog Development Center for helping conceptualize this publication. Editorial Support: Rayyan Hassan, Lala Cantillo, Rizalito Lopez and Ronald D. Masayda Photography: Raymond Panaligan Photo Consultant: Presciano Yabao Cover Design: R. Jordan P. Santos Inside Design & Print: Proprint Design Corner
3 THE CORAL TRIANGLE INITIATIVE A View of a People by the Sea
4 2 FOREWORD Grassroots development practitioners has always questioned the notion of thinking global in modern environmental management and development practice. They have argued that in thinking globally or thinking big, modern development policy allows a few experts to decide the outcome of the many, especially for those who remain far removed from the strategic planning boardroom. As a result in terms of climate change adaptation policies, a rich diversity of knowledge, practices and ideals inherent to the local communities and their natural habitat are often overlooked. Development thinkers who have critiqued the idea of a generalized modern development system all agree that the one-size-fits-all prescription fails to adhere to diverse ecological systems and localities. As dissent and social protest and use of force become common themes in natural resource management; the issue of environmental knowledge has emerged as a determinant factor in shaping state policies, adaptation programs, and community survival. It is often touted that development funding is the driving force in project realities; hence it is of no surprise that some voices tend to be more dominant than others during the implementation of a project or program. Consequently, what emerges is a power play between actors such as the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the state, and non-state actors. The outcomes of these dynamics often influence the acceptability and reach of a project/program. Unsurprisingly, these dynamics do not address the concerns of the communities. There are innumerable examples of top down strategies that have not focused on existing cultural and local contexts. The outcomes have often led to an erosion of local society dynamics and local knowledge systems. They have led to the destruction of precious ecosystems. But more significantly, top down strategies have reduced the target members or beneficiaries like dependents that hang on the lowest rung of the development ladder rather than genuine participatory stakeholders. To this end, this coffee table book on the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) aims to highlight how Filipino fisher folk communities live and practice their traditional livelihoods in the project area of Calatagan, Batangas. In the same vein this pictorial book can be seen as a testament to local knowledge systems that fisher folk communities have drawn upon for survival and adaptation during severe climate change and man-made crises. This initiative emerges during a time when the emission concentrations of Green House Gasses and the degradation of the earth s natural cycles continue amid a trail of failed policy dialogues and climate summits. It is now evident to grass root development practitioners and civil society organizations (CSO) that the possibility of an alternative approach has to be investigated. The draconian mindset, which has dominated the ADB s large scale project operations is also starting to display signs of self-reflection; their new Public Communication Policy or PCP emphasizes the need for more CSO dialogue in project areas (how nominally effective they maybe). One can almost sense large scale development practitioners such as the ADB, unwillingly having to comprehend the underlying social influences which shape communities into their project/program plans, as emerging inroads in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Accountability Mechanism discourse are being high on the agenda of CSO discussion meetings globally. Thus, the focus in areas such as local wisdom and ethno ecology may seem like a dream now. But we should remind ourselves that so was the concept of air travel before the Wright Brothers came along! Let us hope that looking at local communities as custodians of natural resources may be a way to bridge that gap where pro-growth development objectives and community interests have often found themselves at odds. Throughout the pages before you, we hope that some of the pictures gather your interest to look a bit closer into the lives of fisher folk communities. We hope that as you flip through the book, you will get the vicarious feeling of talking to like-minded friends around the coffee table. That alone would be counted as a measure of success for this effort. For instance, your eyes may rest upon the simple intimacy shared by coastal fisher folks as they manage their fishing grounds; or be simply amazed at the clarity of the blue skies, green mangroves and glittering fresh catch in the baskets. Breathe and relax while you absorb and reflect on the visualizations of fishing communities and how they are placed within the context of our fast-paced, hectic modern realities. Perhaps, you might find that tranquil simplicity you were looking for in their smiles, their elders hopes and their children s songs. The daily struggles and aspirations of fisher folks may not really be that different from yours. In the pages to come you will observe how on a daily basis they brave into the open waters armed with nothing but simple tools and sheer will. Smile as you turn a page, and reflect. These pictures are testament to their personal glory. See how they return victorious to their families with all the sea s providence in sturdy hand-woven baskets. As the men earn their rest from the sea, the women take turns drying and processing the fish and the seaweeds. After their share is kept for the home kitchen, observe who takes them to the market and who mends the nets. This book we hope can be a simple reminder for us urban folks of the things we hold precious and what can we do to protect it. It also allows us in a way to examine how age-old community practices may become vulnerable to large-scale initiatives that are being aggressively pushed by dominant development actors. We encourage you to share your ideas and reflections from this book with your friends and families. By doing so you will help us raise more awareness, and we will be that much closer to protecting the waters, the fish and marine resources of as well as the smiles in the Calatagan CTI project area. Happy reading! Rayyan Hassan Executive Director, NGO Forum on ADB
5 3 The proposed program framework has a total estimated program implementation cost of more than US$459 million for the following seven program components: INTRODUCTION The Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (or CTI in short), is an undertaking of six countries lying in the Coral Triangle, the richest center of marine biodiversity in the world. These countries are Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Solomon Islands. Although preparatory activities began in 2007, CTI was officially launched during the CTI Summit of these six countries in May 2009 in Manado, Indonesia. Besides these six countries, other countries (e.g. the United States), international funding agencies and international NGOs are also participating in CTI. The international funding agencies are: Asian Development Bank (ADB), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and its Global Environment Facility (GEF), United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and World Bank. Three international NGOs are involved: World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF), The Nature Conservancy and Conservation International. The Coral Triangle region in which the CTI is being implemented is a vast span of ocean straddling the islands that compose the six countries (CT6), an area half the size of the United States. It contains 75 percent of the world s known coral species, more than 3,000 species of fish and the world s riches mangrove forests. The region generates about US$2.4 billion worth of marine products per year, and an estimated 120 million people that live in coastal communities in the area are directly dependent on the local coastal and marine resources for their livelihoods and food security. Moreover, it is the spawning and juvenile growth area for the world s largest tuna fishery and it has the potential of becoming the world s most important refuge for marine life in light of the future climate change impacts. CTI in its Proposed Program Framework has the following goals agreed by participating countries: 1) Introduce effective management systems for priority seascapes; 2) Apply ecosystem approach to fisheries management; 3) Expand and improve management and representation of effectively managed marine protected areas; 4) Support climate change adaptation measures to sustain economic development and global services from vulnerable coastal and marine ecosystems; 5) Improve threatened species status in coastal and marine ecosystems. 1. Strengthening and enabling legal, policy & planning environment for improved water, coastal and marine resources management. 2. Capacity building for improved coastal and marine resources management. 3. Establishing sustainably financed and resilient marine protected/managed areas and systems. 4. Managing environmental threats to international waters from ridge to reef and supporting integrated coastal resources management, including sustainable fisheries. 5. Increasing resilience to climate change that threatens the integrity of coastal and marine ecosystems. 6. Monitoring coastal and marine resource conditions and threats, and sharing knowledge for improved management. 7. Regional cooperation program coordination and management. Several sub-projects have already been implemented under the CTI by ADB, UNDP, GEF, FAO and the World Bank. While not all these institutions are active in each and all sub-projects, they are all generally responsible for crafting the CTI as the overall Programme linking up all projects and sub-projects. One of the sub-projects is the Sulu-Sulawesi Sea Large Marine Ecosystem and Adjacent Area Sustainable Fisheries Management funded by UNDP and GEF. This sub-project is jointly managed by a tri-national cooperation structure composed of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines and the NGOs WWF and Conservation International. Three subcommittees are in-charge of three priority concerns: species protection, establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and sustainable fisheries development. The Sulu-Sulawesi is a large seascape that includes the coastal and marine areas between the provinces of Batangas (the site of this photo book) and Mindoro in the Verde Island Passage, and extends south up to the marine areas off Sabah in Malaysia and East Kalimantan in Indonesia.
6 4 For ages, the underwater treasures of the Bay have defined the existence, survival and even extinction of its surrounding habitat.
7 5 The Sulu-Sulawesi is a large seascape that includes the coastal and marine areas between the provinces of Batangas (the site of this photo book) and Mindoro in the Verde Island Passage, and extends south up to the marine areas off Sabah in Malaysia and East Kalimantan in Indonesia. Calatagan is a municipality located in the southwestern of the province of Batangas, about four hours away from Manila by bus. It has a land area of more than 13,000 hectares divided into 25 villages (known locally as barangay). The majority are coastal villages fronting Pagapas Bay and Balayan Bay along the Verde Island Passage.
8 6 Fishery, apart from agriculture, is what sustains and nourishes the coastal villages of Calatagan such as Bagong Silang.
9 Coastal living 7
10 8 Early morning arrival of fishers with their fresh catch Indian mackerel (alumahan), roundscad (galunggong), yellowfin tuna (tambakol), frigate mackerel (tulingan), rabbitfish (danggit), squid (pusit) and octopus (pugita) are often among their rich harvest.
11 These family providers welcome the extra boost from caffeine after a hard night s work. 9
12 10 Womenfolk are a major driving force of Calatagan s fisheries industry.
13 Small fish traders weighing their catch to sell directly to domestic market. 11
14 12 Cleaning and degutting siganids (danggit)
15 Owing to its unique taste, the processed danggit of Calatagan has birthed a thriving cottage industry. 13
16 14 Dried Siganid (danggit) Pride in their product
17 Seaweed farming is another important livelihood source in coastal villages. Two species are farmed: caulerpa (lato) for food and eucheuma for industrial use. 15
18 16 Planting, harvesting, and selling of seaweeds
19 Seaweed culture activities in Calatagan is a joint venture of SAMMACA and Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. 17
20 18 Vast tidal flats and mangroves are sources of food and livelihood. Found here are both edible and decorative shellfish, tasty seaweeds, and other economically important marine flora and fauna. Tiny sea shells called caligay
21 The ebbing and flowing of the tide leave gifts for a solitary soul to collect. 19
22 20 A portrait of fishers as expert weavers; this is central to the hayuma (daily fish net maintenance).
23 Nets that are as strong, stable and sturdy as their masters 21
24 22 A sanctuary for marine life and humans, this mangrove plantation has successfully fended off the encroachment of new development.
25 Deep in the consciousness of coastal communities is the significance of propagating mangrove forests. 23
26 24 Commercial and traditional fishing share in the bounty of the Bay.
27 25 Fishing crew carrying their harvest to sell to big fish traders Fish-sorting for distribution to their target markets
28 26 Privately-owned structures and properties threaten to displace fishing communities from their settlement and fishing grounds.
29 Defacing Calatagan s Coast. Commercial aquaculture, tourism and residential sites have started to destroy coastal habitats such as mangroves and cause marine pollution in some of parts of the municipality. 27
30 28 Coastal villagers have proactively asked the local government to have all legitimate fishers of Calatagan duly registered.
31 29 Enjoying a light-hearted moment with some village children is SAMMACA advocacy officer, Ka Uper Aleroza. The group has repeatedly stated that CTI implemented its fisheries management without the participation of and consultation with local fishers.
33 31 Facing the Future. These young, beautiful faces belie an uncertainty that may soon visit their communities. CTI may expand the current Marine Protected Areas from two hectares to sixty hectares. This would spell loss of livelihood for the small-scale fishers and their loved ones.
34 32 Sailing On: These fishers will stand up against any threat to their lives and livelihoods.
36 LEA Composed by Rom Dongeto and performed with Noel Cabangon as Buklod Tagalog Lyrics of Lea May ningning pa ang mga bituin Nagbangon na sila t handa nang salubungin Yaong mga mangingisdang nagpalaot sa magdamag Katulad ng marami pang kabiyak naroroon si Lea, naghihintay Kilala nya ang kilos ng dagat Kilala niya ang mga awit ng habagat Saksi ang mga alon sa wagas ng pagsuyo At sa tuwing pagdating ng sinta Panglaw sa puso y dagling naglalaho Wala mang katiyakan, muling pagsasama Natutunan na niyang mahalin ang pangamba Natutunan na niyang mahalin ang paghihintay Wala mang katiyakan, Naroroon si Lea, naghihintay May ningning pa ang mag bituin Nagbanong na siya t handa nang salubungin Ang mahal na asawang lagi t laging lumilisan Ang tubig sa kanyang mga mata Maaring luha ng tuwa o pagdurusa Wala mang katiyakan... (The song is about a fisher s wife named Lea apprehensively waiting for the return of her husband, who has gone out on a regular fishing trip. The song reflects the uncertainties and risks related to fishing and to the families relying on it ) NGO FORUM ON ADB 85-A Masikap Ext., Barangay Central Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines Tel.: Telefax: Have you visited the FORUM website lately?
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