UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION PROCEEDINGS

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1 UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGIONAL WORKSHOP aground WATER AND SOIL SALINITY RELATED DAMAGE TO THE MONUMENTS AND SITES IN CENTRAL ASIAI) Samarkand/Bukbara, Uzbekistan 14-18June, 2000 UNESCO Tashkent Office National Commission of the Republic of Uzbekistan for UNESCO

2 The proceedings was published with financial assistance of UNESCO. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of UNESCO. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. Editorial Board: Mr. Barry Lane (Head of UNESCO Tashkent OfZce), Mr. J.Bogardi (Water Science Division, Science Sector, UNESCO Secretariat), ML Botir Usmanov (Director of the Department for Monuments Protection of the Ministry of Cu/tura/ Affairs of Uzbekistan), Mr. Alish er fkramo v (Secretary - General, Na tiona/ Commissior, of Uzbekistan for UNESCO), Mr. Tut kun Sbamsbarov (Printing House of the Tashk-ent University of World Economy and Dipiomacy), Ms. Elena Cbemufova (Culture Department of the National Commission of the Republic of Uzbekis tan for UNESCO). Mr. Sba vka t Ocbilov (UNESCO Chair of Preservation and management of Historica/ Centres at the Samarkand Architectural and Construction Institute), Mr. Farrub /nogomov (Culture Department of the National Commission of Uzbekistan for UNESCO), Mr. Murod Sbamsbarov (Pnnting House of the Tashkent University of World Economy and UNESCO, National Commission of the Republic of Uzbekistan for UNESCO, Tashkent

3 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION If GOALS AND OBJECTIVES III. PARTICIPANTS IV. OPENING CEREMONY V. ORGANIZATION OF THE WORKSHOP VI. AGENDA VII. ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND CLOSING CEREMONY ANNEX I: FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS ANNEX II: PROGRAMME ANNEX 111: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS ANNEX IV: PRESENTATIONS OF REGIONAL EXPERTS 1. BoIat Aubekerov (Kazakhstan) Hydro-Geological Conditions and Historical and ArchaeoIogical Monuments of the Arid Zone of Kazakhstan 2. Ludmila Dubrovskaya (Kazakhstan) The Problems of Protection of Khoaa Akhmad Yassavi Khanaka of Xl V from Ground Water Refa ted Damage 3. Vladimir Kalinin (Kyrgyz Republic) Ground Water and Soil Safinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Kyrgyz Republic 4. Vladimir Matichenkov (Kyrgyz Republic) Hydro - Geological Situation within Zones of Historical Monuments of Kyrgyz Republic 5. Akmal Akhmedov (Tajikistan) Aspects of Anthropogenic Affect to the Ground Waters in Tajikistan 6. Ali,jon Abdullayev (Tajiikistan) Ground Water and Soil Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Tajikistan (Kabadian Valley) 7. Abduvali Khudobergenov (Uzbekistan) Influence of Ground Water to the State of Historical and Architecturai Monuments and Problems of their Protection in Uzbekistan 3

4 8. Larisa Kourduk (Uzbekistan) Ground Water and Soil Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Uzbekistan 9. Rustam Niyazov (Uzbekistan) Changing of Ground Water Level and Contemporary Deformations of Ancient ArchitecturaI Monuments of Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva 10. Shavkat Abdullayev, Rakhim Tursunmetov (Uzbekistan) PossibXties of Geophysical Measurements in Studying of Historicaf Monuments 11. M. Akhmedov, Yakubov (Uzbekistan) Natural and Technogen Affects on Historical Monuments of Uzbekis tan 12. F. Kadirov (Uzbekistan) Protective Measurements to Deal with Settlement of Foundations of Historical Monuments in Conditions of FIooding by Ground Waters PRESENTATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS 1. Robert Myers (United Kingdom) Salt Damage to Important ls/amic Monuments at Bukhara and Khiva 2. Roger Capps (United Kingdom) Ground Water and SoiI Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Central Asia 3. Rinat Iskhakov (World Bank) Related Activities of the World Bank in Uzbekistan 4. Janusz Niemscynowicz (Sweden) Preliminary Report from Study I/ist in Khiva, Samarkand and Bukhara 5. Mario Biritognolo (Italy) Experiences in Ground Water Related Problems Affecting the Monuments: the cases of Tila Kari Mosque and Tower of Pisa 6. Pave1 Blaha (Czech Republic) Joint Czech - Uzbek Projects 7. Gert Karwath (Germany) The Efectro-Physical Method for the.dehydration of Threatened Stone Strut tures 4

5 1. INTRODUCTION The Regional Workshop Ground Water and Soil Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Central Asia was held in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) from 14 to 18 June The Workshop was organized by UNESCO in close collaboration with the National Commission of the Republic of Uzbekistan for UNESCO, UNESCO Office in Tashkent, Ministry of Cultural Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan and UNESCO Chair on Preservation and Management of Historical Centers at the Samarkand State Architecture and Construction Institute (SAMGASI). II. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The main objectives of the Workshop were: (I) to organize a forum on discussion of tasks and problems on conservation and preservation of historical monuments of Central Asian region from negative effects of soil salinity and ground waters; (II) to discuss the results of practical measures undertaken in present days; (Ill) to exchange the experience in the field of conservation and restoration of historical and cultural monuments; (IV) to consider the possibility of establishment of a regional network for coordination of activities focused on conservation and preservation of historical monuments of the region from negative influence of soil salinity and ground waters. III. PARTICIPANTS Twenty participants (international, regional and local experts) from nine countries and ten observers (experts and government officials) attended the Workshop. Upon arrival, participants received background information, agenda and programme. IV. OPENING CEREMONY 1. The Workshop was opened by Mr. Pulat Abdurakhmonov, Mayor of Samarkand city, who welcomed international participants, UNESCO representatives, experts and specialists. He noted that Workshop was held in historical famous city with its unique ancient architectural monuments and expressed an appreciation to all participants and UNESCO for the interest in preservation and conservation of Central Asian monuments from soil salinity and ground water related damage. Mr. Abdurakhmonov wished a success to the Workshop and expressed his believe for fruitful results. 2. Mr. Barry Lane, Head of UNESCO Tashkent Office welcomed participants of the Workshop on behalf of UNESCO Director General, Mr. Koichiro Matsuura. He noted that the availability of water in the desert areas of Central Asia was an essential condition for the development of the ancient cultures of the Aral Sea Basin. The prosperity of cities such as Samarkand and Bukhara depended on the fertile irrigated land of the oases between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, and tens of thousands of historic sites are testimonies to the high cultures which evolved along these life-giving-rivers. The survival of the historic cities and archaeo- 5

6 logical sites of Central Asia to the present day is due to the dedicated efforts of the restorers and craftsmen of the region. They are among the region s main cultural tourism assets. However, this valuable heritage is now being endangered by a variety of unprecedented environmental impacts, many of which are directly related to water and poor water management. The water supply and sanitation infrastructure in historic cities is in poor condition and hardly meets the requirements of most residents today. The bad condition or absence of water infrastructure contributes to the deterioration of the historic monuments themselves through rising groundwater tables and excessive soil moisture caused partly by leaking pipes and bad condition of drainage and sewage systems. In many cases old surface-water drainage systems no longer function. Significant improvements are required to provide adequate living conditions both for residents and for the large numbers of tourists expected in the future. The principal aims of the symposium are to exchange international experience on new approaches to the protection of historical monuments from the negative effects of groundwater and soil salinity, to propose recommendations and practical measures to solve the problems, and to discuss perspectives for regional and international cooperation. Its Final Recommendations will be addressed to the Governments of Central Asian countries, as well as to the Director-General of UNESCO. The fact that the symposium is being held in Samarkand and Bukhara will give an opportunity to examine the water-related problems of conservation of historic buildings at first hand. In conclusion Mr. Barry Lane thanked the Ministry of Culture of Uzbekistan, the Samarkand UNESCO Chair on Preservation and Management of Historic Centers, and the National Commission of Uzbekistan for UNESCO for their work in organizing this Workshop. He also wished all of the participants a fruitful and very practical outcome to discussions. 3. Mr. Botir Usmanov, Head of Principal Department on Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments, addressed to the Workshop on behalf of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan and thanked all the participants, UNESCO, National Commission of Uzbekistan for UNESCO for participation and organization of the above mentioned Workshop. He underlined the success of Blue of Samarkand International Symposium, organized by UNESCO, which was also held in Samarkand 4-6 June Mr. Usmanov noted that Central Asian states could reach any results only through cooperation and ensured everybody that Ministry of Cultural Affairs of Uzbekistan will do all the best in order to develop collaboration and interaction in this field. He expressed a hope for fruitful outcomes of the Workshop that will help to solve numerous problems concerned the protection of historical architectural monuments from soil salinity and underground water related damage. 4. The greetings were made by Mr. Shavkat Ochilov, representative of UNESCO Chair on Preservation and Management of Historical Centers at the SAMGASI. Mr. Ochilov underlined that Central Asian region is very rich with historical and cultural monuments an the problems of underground water and soil salinity related damage are exist not only in 6

7 Uzbekistan, but also in other Central Asian countries. This theme is one of the priority directions of UNESCO Chair in SAMGASI. He expressed sincere hope that conclusions of Workshop would assist to find solutions of decreasing the negative influence of the above mentioned factors and wished every success for the Symposium. 5. Election of Chairperson, Vice-Chairpersons and Rapporteurs. Following participants were elected as Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and Rapporteurs of the Workshop: Chairperson: Vice-Chairperson: Rapporteurs: Mr. Botir Usmanov (Uzbekistan) Mrs.LudmilaDubrovskaya (Kazakhstan) Mr. Robert Myers (United Kingdom) Mr. Mario Biritognolo (Italy) Following this election Mr. Botir Usmanov officially took the Chair. V. ORGANIZATION OF THE WORKSHOP During the workshop were made presentations of local and international experts based on the approved Agenda as well as organized one day field trip to Bukhara. The schedule of activities are presented in Annex II. VI. AGENDA first Day Morning session Presentations of international experts. During the session the following presentations were made: -Mr. Janusz Niemczynowicz (Sweden) -Mr. Rinat lskhakov (World Bank) -Mr. Robert Myers (United Kingdom) Mr. Janusz Niemszynowicz made a presentation on two main kind of problems: 1) High ground water level - can influence buildings only when capillary rise of water can reach the foundations of monuments; 2) Bad management of water in the vicinity of monuments means rising moisture level due to: -inadequate roof drainage -inadequate drainage of foundations of monuments -inadequate storm water drainage from the vicinity of foundations -watering of streets, gardens and loans -inadequate sanitation Solutions: In situation of high ground water level - good drainage of fundaments must be arranged. It must be improved the situation in whole in the case of bad water management in a city. He proposed to move all water and sanitation pipes to the distance of a 100 meters from the monuments; improve drain-

8 age of roof and areas in the vicinity of monuments; arrange tight connections in all water storm water pipes and all pipes in the buildings; to enforce strict restrictions for irrigation of gardens and loans within a distance of 100 meters from the monuments; so called dry sanitation alternatives should be applied in all new buildings and, in a longer term, in all cities. In discussion with regard to the above presentation participated the representatives of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Germany. Mr. Rinat Iskhakov made a presentation on the projects of World Bank in Uzbekistan (Samarkand and Bukhara). He noted that UNESCO and many other international organizations had had various initiatives to assist the Government of Uzbekistan in identifying needed investments in cultural heritage. One of the priority areas, which are in needs of urgent intervention, is soil and ground water salinity. The saline ground water problems in both cities pose a threat to the foundations of old structures. These problems need to be addressed to avoid further damage to the sites with consequent social, economic and financial damage to the local and cultural tourism. During the last few years since getting independence in 1991, Uzbekistan has been facing substantial difficulties resulting from deterioration of infrastructure, preliminary in water supply and sewerage sector. The government of Uzbekistan requested the World Bank for assistance in financing of water supply and sanitation project in Samarkand and Bukhara. The main objectives of project are: -assistance to the water and waste water enterprises in Bukhara and Samarkand to become more efficiently managed and operated, financially self sufficient and commercially operated municipal water supply and waste water utilities; -improvement of the safety, reliability and efficiency of water supply and waste water services through the rehabilitation and efficiency improvements of existing facilities and limited expansion of services. It is foreseen that the project will include the urgent priority and least cost investments to improve service quality and operational efficiency of water supply and waste water systems; strengthening the institutional capacity and financial viability of Samarkand and Bukhara water channels; engineering services for technical studies/analyses and preparation of designs and bidding documents and supervision of construction. The next speaker Mr. Robert Myers presented a report on studies in Bukhara and Khiva conducted in He gave a historical and geographical appraisal of the most important monuments of Islamic culture in Bukhara and Khiva, reviewed the irrigated lands in Uzbekistan. Mr. Myers also gave a breakdown of salt damage of the monuments and explained the nature of capillary action. He made a presentation of alternative historical and present day methods of preventing rising damp. In conclusion gave proposals for future trials of damp courses systems to deal with the problems in Central Asia. Following the presentation the representatives of Germany, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and United Kingdom took the floor in the discussion on how their countries were attempting to deal with the salt attack problem. 8

9 Afternoon session Presentations of regional experts. During the session were made the following presentations: -Mr. Bolat Aubekerov (Kazakhstan) -Mrs. Ludmiia Dubrovskaya (Kazakhstan) -Mr. Vladimir Matichenkov (Kyrgyz Republic) -Mr. Vladimir Kalinin (Kyrgyz Republic) -Mr. Akmal Akhmedov (Tajikistan) -Mr. Alijon Abdullayev (Tajikistan) -Mr. Abduvali Khudabergenov (Uzbekistan) -Mrs. Larisa Kourduk (Uzbekistan) Mr. Bolat Aubekerov made a presentation on hydro-geological conditions and historical and archaeological monuments of the arid zone of Kazakhstan. In this report he gave a description of the various areas of Kazakhstan describing the hydro-geological conditions, He described the monuments by epoch and by regions. In conclusion Mr. Aubekerov underlined that all problems were complex, and the solving of them was correspondingly difficult. The opinions of experts must be taken into consideration. For the continuing existence of our monuments it is necessary: -to know in what conditions the monument was constructed; -to consider the original landscape and hydro-geological conditions and mode of a superficial drain; -to determine what conditions exist now and what are the perspectives of changes; -to realize what consequences had the previous interventions on a monument. Mrs. Ludmila Dubrovskaya focused her presentation on the problems of protection from ground waters of Khodja Akhmed Yasavi Khonaka of XIV century. She gave a detailed description of the above mentioned monument as well as the main recent data of its deformations. Mrs. Dubrovskaya reflected all the existing problems referring to the ground water related damage, described all the works on prevention of negative affects of ground waters to the monuments that were carrying out at present days and proposed: -to improve the existing drainage system; -to use a vertical drainage for decreasing the level of ground waters within the zones of the monument. Mr. Vladimir Matichenkov presented a report on hydro-geological situation within the zones of historical monuments of Kyrgyz Republic. He gave a list of the most significant of them as well as brief description of hydrogeological situation of each zone stressing that due to the number of reasons hydro-geological conditions are not completely and deeply studied yet. Mr. Vladimir Kalinin made a presentation on ground water and soil salinity related damage to the historical monuments of Kyrgyz Republic. There is rather low level of soil salinity in Kyrgyz Republic and the main reason of monument s damage is capillary rising of water, which is very intensive due 9

10 to the hot, dry and windy climate. He stressed the importance of careful choice of restoration materials, cause the modern ones could led to more large scaled damages of existing constructions and interior decorations as well. It means that it is better to use materials, which structure is very similar to the ancient ones. This also concerned the methods of protection from ground water related damage. In conclusion, Mr. Kalinin underlined unsustainable state of reconstruction and conservation works on historical monuments in Kyrgyz Republic. The next speaker Mr. Akmal Akhmedov presented a paper concerning the aspects of anthropogenic influence to the state of ground waters in Tajiki- Stan. He highlighted the fact that the most of historical monuments are located within the irrigation zones. The main factor of anthropogenic influence to the monuments is the increase of irrigation square in Central Asian region. The problems of safeguarding and protection of archaeological, architectural historical monuments are depending on solution of ecological issues of the Aral Sea basin. In order to decrease the negative affects of anthropogenic factors on the state of ground waters it is necessary: -to establish a complex monitoring of environment; -to develop gardening in mountainous areas; -to implement biological drainage technologies; -to held a reconstruction of irrigation systems. Mr. Alijon Abdullayev in presentation reflected the issues of ground water and soil salinity related damage to the historical and cultural monuments of Kabadian Valley in Tajikistan. Firstly he gave a detailed historical, geographical and geological content of Kabadian Valley and explained that the major reasons of soil salinity in this area are the high level of ground waters and dry climate. There are a lot of monuments in Tajikistan now that are still destroying due to these factors and it is necessary to start again and continue the experiments and works on prevention of negative affects of the above factors. Mr. Abduvali Khudoberganov has provided information on researches of engineering-geological and hydro-geological state of foundations of historical and architectural monuments. The major goals of researches are: -studying of geological structure of ground waters within the zone of monument s location; -data base on structure, state and physical-mechanical properties of foundations; -evaluation of ground water damage to the foundations and constructions; -identification of engineering and geological and hydro-geological reasons of architectural monument s deformations; -elaboration of recommendations on protection from ground water damage to foundations and other measures on strengthening and improvement of foundations. The main topic of Mrs. Larisa Kourduk s presentation was on prevention and liquidation of ground water and soil salinity related damage to the monuments, which was carrying out for a long time by Tamirshunoslik In- 10

11 stitute in Tashkent. She noted that the ground water damage especially influenced to the monuments located not far from the rivers, lakes. Mrs. Kourduk also gave an example of horizontal hydro-isolation and other protective methods of walls and foundations. Second Day Morning session Presentations of international experts (continuation). During the session the following presentations were made: -Mr. Mario Biritognolo (Italy) -Mr. Roger Capps (United Kingdom) -Mr. Pave1 Blaha (Czech Republic) -Mr. Gert Karwath (Germany) Mr. Mario Biritognolo underlined the effects of the lowering of the ground water table on the settlement of the foundation; presented the case studies concerning the monuments affected by settlement of their foundations, also related to ground water level: Tilla Kari Madrasah, and the Tower of Pisa. Finally, Mr. Biritognolo discussed the criteria for protection of monuments by the earthquake, particularly referring to appropriate interventions on the masonry structures. Mr. Roger Capps He shared with participants a philosophy of conservation, outlining the need to use local skills and materials. Mr. Capps also discussed three buildings in Bukhara in relation to rising damp and salt. He especially wished to describe why a decision was made not to redecorate with new tiles the exterior. They were that there were no longer sufficient evidence for the originalscheme and it was not acceptable to invent with a building of such a quality. No longer the skills to execute the same quality of work, and the problem of the rising salts must be given time to be resolved. Mr. Pave1 Blaha presented the results of a systematic cooperation with Uzbekistan hydro-geological authority concerning the following: -The establishment of a digital data base of the present condition,of historical buildings and a data base of building failure the automatic measurements of chosen parameters influencing the building settlement; -the slope deformations using geophysical methods for their prospecting and creating of maps in GIS system; -results of geophysical measurements around monuments; He also discussed the drinking water resources in fluvial valleys. in Uzbekistan; Mr. Gert Karwath made a presentation of a method to measure the percentages of damp within walls. He presented a device which he said would be able to dry the walls, which later was installed in the Tilla Kari

12 Afternoon session There was organized on-site discussion in Tilla Kari madrasah with installation of Mr. Karwath s device and further sightseeing of historical monuments of Samarkand (Registan square, Shakhi-Zinda ensemble, Gur-Emir mausoleum). 73ird Day One day field trip to Bukhara with visiting of Historical Center of Bukhara, lsmail Samani Mausoleum, Bayan Kuli Khan Madrasah, Chor Bakr Ensemble. The groups first visit was to Chor Bakr. Where the complex was in the middle of a major restoration. This was a problem of high ground water As a part of this work the ground waters had been reduced from 1.7mbelow ground to 4m A 2000m horizontal collector and two vertical wells had been dug It is hoped to reduce this level lm more in order to work on the strengthening of the foundations. The next building that was visited, after some time wandering through the historical center of Bukhara, was the mausoleum of lsmail Samani, which at present sits in a low archaeological pit that is completely tiled. Mr Babaev explained that this mainly represented a problem of local drainage.. At this site the water is rising. It was 2.4m now it is 1.7 This may be a problem of the near-by channel. At the other side of the monument is a lake. Two years ago, the Haouze was excavated. It is proposed to alter the drainage channel by waterproofing it, and to reduce the level of the lake, or remove it. This should make the existing drains work. The final building was Bayan Kuli Khan. Mr Babaev outlined two problems. The first was ground waters and the second being the salt saturation of the walls. Concerning the ground waters. At present two vertical wells have been dug but are in operation.and two more are proposed. The level at present is approximately lm.the new repairs executed with the aid of UNESCO are now much damaged by continuing salt damage A long discussion between the participants ensued The sacrificial lime plaster should be replaced as was originally intended. It was felt that no further work should be attempted until the salt problem was solved which may involve the installation of a damp proof course Discussions centered around a physical cut lead or bitumen course (there was concern about cutting the wall because of earth quake). Resin impregnation, or Silicone which may have the disadvantage of being irreversible and difficult to install. Methods of cutting ceramic tubes into the base of the wall are being considered. Fourth Morning Day session: Discussions Mrs. Ludmila Dubrovskaya, Vice-chairman, officially took the Chair. Firstly Mr. Tuigun Babayev, Head of Bukhara Department on Preservation of Monuments, reported on field trip to Bukhara and gave brief description of 12

13 state of following monuments: Chor Bakr, Chor Minor, Bayan Kuli Khan, Ismail Samani. The Session was devoted to the discussion of following themes: -exchange of experience and knowledge -scientific researches -regional and international cooperation -water management During the conversation were highlighted a number of measures to deal with damp rising, including injection of resin or silicone. Mr. Matichenkov proposed a method of mixing natural water with artificial solutions. In conclusion participants expressed to get all detailed information on the above mentioned methods and views of scientists. VII. ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND CLOSING SESSION During the Closing session the Recommendations were adopted with some amendments (Annex I). This final document incorporates the suggested amendments. The Workshop was closed by Mr. Barry Lane, Head of UNESCO Office in Tashkent, UNESCO Regional Advisor for Culture. 13

14 ANNEX / REGIONAL WORKSHOP ((GROUND WATER AND SOIL SALINITY RELATED DAMAGE TO THE MONUMENTS AND SITES IN CENTRAL ASIA), Samarkand / Bukhara June, 2000 RECOMMENDATIONS On the occasion of the Regional Workshop on ground Water and Soil Salinity related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in central Asia held in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, from June 2000, the participants: 1. Thanking United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for great efforts undertaken to find solutions to the problem of ground Water and Soil Salinity related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in central Asia. 2. Appreciating the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan for support given to the Workshop project and great interest demonstrated in the development of technique against the Ground Water and Soil Salinity problem with a view to protecting architectural monuments. 3. Stressing the need in all countries of Central Asia for recognition of the stake to develop technique against the ground Water and Soil Salinity problem with a view to protect architectural monuments. 4. Recognizing of the impossibility of conserving the architectural heritage without taking into account the use of techniques for dealing with Ground Water and Soil Salinity problems. 5. Considering that traditional techniques and knowledge must be preserved. 6. Stressing the fact that modern techniques must be applied to the monuments with precaution 7. Underlining the fact that use should be made of appropriate techniques to safeguard the monuments. 8. /Yoting the historic, artistic, economic and ecological importance of the development of techniques against Ground Water and Soil Salinity problems. 9. Concernedwith the fact that the Architectural Heritage is threatened by ground water and increasing soil salinity due to natural and man made changes and therefore must be at the center of national and international cultural policy.

15 Recommend to the Governments of Member States that they should: 1. Adopt an interdisciplinary approach which will take into account engineering, geological, hydro-geological and geo-physical researches and studies of historical and architectural monuments. 2. Any restoration of a monument should not destroy or falsify the historical evidence. This evidence is contained not only in the architectural form but also in the original materials of the surfaces. No attempt should be made at reconstructing lost structure or decoration unless its past form is clearly known or if it is precious fabric needs to be protected Undertake regular monitoring of monuments and their environment. Create zones around the monuments in order to protect them from water related damage. improve the water management in historical areas by strengthening institutions and installing adequate water, drainage and sewage systems. Recommend that UNESCO should: Promote this recommendations among central Asian countries and other countries concerned by bringing this meeting to the attention of Ciovernments of these countries. Estab/ish a working group consisting of representatives of Central Asian countries and other states with a view of providing a forum for consultation on issues of restoration and conservation of monuments, which will provide practical solutions for specific problems. Facilitate the strengthening of existing programmes of research and the establishment of a special programme into the testing of traditional building materials and methods. Ofganize an international symposium on the improvement of seismic performance in historic buildings and monuments. Collect and review data on past and present methods dealing in water and salt related damage to buildings in central Asia and in other parts of the world. Establish a programme of field trials to evaluate these methods. Compile a manual of best practice in practical methods for the repairing of water related damage to buildings and monuments. 15

16 REGIONAL WORKSHOP ((GROUND WATER AND SOIL SALINITY RELATED DAMAGE TO THE MONUMENTS AND SITES IN CENTRAL ASIA,) Samarkand / Bukhara June, 2000 PROGRAMME June 14, 2000-Wednesday Arrival of participants to Tashkent Departure to Samarkand by bus from HHotel Tashkent)) to Hotel ((Afrosiabs Dinner June 15, Thursday Opening ceremony Welcome speech by Mr. Pulat Abdurakhmanov, Mayor of Samarkand Greetings by Mr. Barry Lane, Head of UNESCO Office in Tashkent, Regional Adviser on Culture in Central Asia Opening speech by Mr. Botir Usmanov, Director of the Board for Protection of Cultural Monuments of the Republic of Uzbekistan Remarks by Mr. Shavkat Ochilov, Representative of o.oo UNESCO Chair at the SAMGASI Election of Chairperson and rapporteurs Coffee break Presentations by international experts - Robert Myers-Report on Salt Damage to Important Islamic Monuments at Bukhara and Khiva - Prof. J. Niemcynowycz -Water, Sanitation and Drainage Related Damage: Case Studies in Samar- kand, Bukhara and Khiva - Rinat Iskhakov-World Bank Projects in Samarkand and Bukhara Lunch Presentations by regional experts - Prof. Bolat Aubekerov-Hydro-Geological Conditions and Historical and Archaeological Monuments of the Arid Zone of Kazakhstan - Ludmila Dubrovskaya-The Problems of Protection of Khodja Akhmad Yassavi Khanaka of XIV from Ground Water Related Damage - Vladimir Malichenkov-Hydro-Geological Situation within the Zones of Historical Monuments of Kyrgyz Republic 16

17 Vladimir Kalinin-Ground Water and Soil Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Kyrgyz Republic - Akmal Akhmedov-Aspects of Anthropogenic Affect to the Ground Waters in Tajikistan - Alijon Abdullayev-Ground Water and Soil Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Tajikistan Coffee break Presentations by regional experts (continuation) - Larisa Korduk- Ground Water and Soil Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Uzbekistan - Abduvali Khudaybergenov-Ground Water Affect to the State of Historical and Architectural Monuments and Problems of their Protection in Uzbekistan - Rustam Niyazov-Changing of Ground Water Level and Contemporary Deformations of Ancient Architectural Monuments of Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva - Shavkat Abdullayev-Possibilities of geophysical Measurements in Studying of Historical Monuments Discussion Reception June 16, Friday Presentations by international experts - Mario Biritognolo-Experiences in Ground Water Related Problems Affecting the Monuments: the Cases of Tilla Kari Mosque and Tower of Pisa - Roger Capps-Ground Water and Soil Salinity Related Damage to the Monuments and Sites in Central Asia oo 11.OO Coffee break Presentations by international experts (continuation): - Prof. Pave1 Blaha-Joint Czech-Uzbek Projects - Gert Karwath-The Electra-Physical Method for the Dehydration of Threatened Stone Structures Discussion Lunch Visit to historical sites of Samarkand - On-site discussion in Tilla Kari madrassa with installation of Mr. Karwath s device Dinner June 17, Saturday 7.00 Departure for Bukhara by bus Lunch in Bukhara Visit to historical sites of Bukhara - Historical Center 17

18 lsmael Samani Mausoleum - Buyan Kulikhan Madrassa Chor Bakr Ensemble Dinner Departure for Samarkand by bus June 18,2000- Sunday 9.30-l 1.00 Round table discussion l 1.30 Coffee break Round table discussion (continuation) Lunch Adoption of Final Recommendations of the Symposium Return to Tashkent by bus 18

19 ANNEX/II REGIONAL WORKSHOP (<GROUND WATER AND SOIL SALINITY RELATED DAMAGE TO THE MONUMENTS AND SITES IN CENTRAL ASIA,) Samarkand / Bukhara I4-18 June, 2000 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS KAZAKHSTAN Mr. Bolat AUBEKEROV, Institute of Geological Sciences, Ministry of Science and Education. 69A Kabanbai Batir str , Almaty, Kazakhstan, tel: (3272) , fax: ( Mrs. Ludmlla DUBROVSKAYA, State Institute for Scientific Research and Planning on Monuments of Materia Culture, 21 Toloibi str., , Almaty, Kazakhstan, tel: (3272) , fax: (3272) KYRGYZ REPUBLIC Mr. Vladimir KALININ, Bishkekproekt Institute, 164A, Chui prospect, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, tel: ( ) Mr. Vladimir MATICHENKOV, Bishkek Mining Institute, Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyz Republic, 533 Frunze str. Bishkek, tel/fax: ( ) TAJIKISTAN Mr. Akmal AKHMEDOV, Tajikglavgeologia, 27, Mirzo Tursunzode str. Dushanbe, tel: , Mr. Alijon ABDULLAYEV, Ministry of Culture of Tajikistan, 34, Rudaki str. Dushanbe, tel: 2 l UZBEKISTAN Mr. Botir USMANOV, General Office for Scientific Production of Cultural Monuments, Ministry of Cultural Affaires of Uzbekistan, 30, Navoi str. Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel: ( ) , fax: ( ) Mr. Abdusafi RAKHMONOV, General Office for Scientific Production of Cultural Monuments, Ministry of Cultural Affairs of Uzbekistan, 30, Navoi str. Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel: ( ) , fax: ( ) Mr. Tuigun BABAYEV, Head of State inspection, Bukhara, tel.: (36522) Mr. Ikrom RAKHIMOV, Head of State inspection, Khorezm, tel: Mrs. Larlsa KOURDUK, Tamirshunoslik Institute, tel: ( ) / UNITED KINGDOM Mr. Robert MYERS, Price and Myers, 30 Newman str. LondonWlP 3PE, tel.: (44) , fax: (44) , Mr. Roger CAPPS, Capps and Capps Limited, the Saw Mill, Sarnesfield, Herefordshire HR4 8RH, tel: (44) , Fax: (44) , e- mail: cappsqcapps.40.freeserve.co.uk 19

20 SWEDEN Mr. Janusz NIEMCZYNOWICZ, University of Lund, Box 118, S Lund Sweden, tel: (4646) , fax(4646) , ITALY Mr. Mario BIRITOGNOLO, St.Via Fonte di fauno, 2a Roma, Italy, tel: ( 3906) , fax: , GERMANY Mr. Gert KARWATH, SKM Electronics, 9 Globinger str. D dabrun, Germany, tel: (4934) , fax: (4934) , Mr. Bemd URBAN, SKM Electronics, 9 Globinger str. D Dabrun, Germany, tel: (4934) , fax: (4934) , CZECH REPUBLIC Mr. Pave1 BLAHA, Regional Manager, GeoTest Brno, a.s., 28, rijna 287, 70900, Ostrava, Czech Republic, tel: (420-69) , fax: (420-69) , ecom.cz WORLD BANK Mr. Rinat ISKHAKOV, The World Bank Resident Mission in Uzbekistan; tel: (998-71) , fax: , UNESCO Mr. Frits VERHOOG- Consultant, Water Sciences Division, UNESCO, 8 rue Clement Ader, Voisines-le-Bretonneux, France, tel: (33-1) , Fax:(33-1) , Mr. Michael BARY LANE, Head of UNESCO Office in Tashkent, 95, Amir Temur str. Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel/fax: (998-71) , ( ) , Mr. Philippe CANIVET- UNV-Architect, 95, Amir Temur str. Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel/fax: ( ) , ( )358253, Mr. Aybek ERKABAYEV-UNV-Architect, 95, Amir Temur str. Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel/fax: (998-71) , ( ) NATIONAL COMMISSION OF UZBEKISTAN FOR UNESCO Mr. Alisher IKRAMOV, Secretary-General, the National Commission of Uzbekistan for UNESCO, 54, Buyuk lpak Yuli str , Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel.: ( ) , Fax: ( )670538, Ms. Elena CHEMULOVA, Senior Expert, the National Commission of Uzbekistan for UNESCO, 54, Buyuk lpak Yuli str , Tashkent, Uzbekistan, tel.: ( ) , Fax: ( )670538, 20

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