Liberty Alliance. CSRF Review. .NET Passport Review. Kerberos Review. CPSC 328 Spring 2009

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1 CSRF Review Liberty Alliance CPSC 328 Spring 2009 Quite similar, yet different from XSS Malicious script or link involved Exploits trust XSS - exploit user s trust in the site CSRF - exploit site s trust in the user s browser CSRF relies on browser automatically sending authentication/session data Very difficult to detect Server side: looks like legitimate request from user Client side: never know you just sent something Kerberos Review.NET Passport Review MIT Distributed authentication system Don t need full trust in client Tickets TGT TGS Finite life Encrypted Windows Live ID (Single Sign-On) Functions very similar to kerberos Authenticate once to server Use services of several hosts Cookies: MSPAuth MSPProf MSPSec Source: Source: microsoft.com 1

2 OWASP A4: Insecure Direct Object Reference Expose internal implementation object DB, file, directory Account # s, ID # s, etc Exposure creates potential attack vector Manually change URL parameters Hand craft SQL statements URL Jumping Directory Traversal Insecure Direct Object Reference Consider form code snippet: <select name="language"> <option value= en">english</option> </select> require_once ($_REQUEST['language ]."lang.php"); Manually set value of language:../../../../etc/passwd%00 This example relies on? Null exploit No root jail Another Example Consider backend code for form: int cartid = Integer.parseInt( request.getparameter( "cartid" ) ); String query = "SELECT * FROM table WHERE cartid=" + cartid; Evil Mel free to change cartid to any value he wants Direct Object Reference Protection Don t spill private object references to public Account/ID numbers, primary keys, etc Filter input Accept known-good Verify authorization to referenced objects 2

3 Protection Example Repaired cartid example: int cartid = Integer.parseInt( request.getparameter( "cartid" ) ); User user = (User)request.getSession().getAttribute( "user" ); String query = "SELECT * FROM table WHERE cartid=" + cartid + " AND userid=" + user.getid(); Check authorization for access Repaired file example: Backend code maps value to file name Liberty Alliance Started 2001 by Sun Microsystems Open standards for Federated Identity Management Handles Single Sign-On (Simplified Sign-On) Human Principals Automated Principals Governance Management Board 3 Expert Groups Business Technology Public Policy Interacts closely with standards bodies IETF OASIS W3C OMA Liberty Alliance & Web Services Web Services goal: simplify linking of business systems Who is Liberty Alliance? 160+ Organizations Profit, Non-Profit, Government Liberty Alliance goal: simplify authentication management Provide seamless web experience User based Organization/host based 3

4 Key Components Circles of Trust Principal Any entity that can acquire an ID and perform actions Identity Provider Protect privacy of Principals Define/Manage trust relationships Entity that creates, maintains, manages Principal IDs Service Provider Defined by agreements Entity that provides services to Principals Circle of Trust Liberty Architecture Operational Agreements Federation of Service & Identity Providers Local Identity Enables business transactions Principal s identity with a specific provider Federated Identity Set of local identities that provide simplified sign-on through liberty protocols In secure environment In seamless environment Single (Simplified) Sign-On User authenticates to Liberty enabled site User seamlessly signed-on to all sites within circle of trust (no need to re-authenticate) Can be extended to sites in other circles of trust 4

5 Identity Federation Identity Federation Principal wants to enable local account for access to federated sites in circle of trust Enables Single Sign-On Links account with other accounts via Liberty protocol SAML provides account authentication decisions to circle of trust Identity Federation (1) Identity Federation (2) User connects to IdP & authenticates User chooses which accounts to federate 5

6 Account Federation (3) Name Registration Federation initiated at the IdP When federating IDs, SPs specify how they will refer to a Principal SP naming convention may differ from IdP convention Protects Principal Does not force particular schema on IdPs or SPs Registration is required for SSO to function Federation Initiated by Principal Can be retracted by Principal IdP SP Terminate Identity Federation Federation 6

7 Single Sign-On Single Sign-On (1) Instead of the SP directly authenticating the user, the SP queries the IdP and the IdP issues an authentication assertion User connects to IdP & Authenticates Single Sign-On (3) Single Sign-On (2) User redirected to IdP based on authentication request from SP User chooses an SP 7

8 Single Sign-On (4) Single Sign-On (5) IdP issues an authentication assertion Single Sign-On (6) SP checks the authentication assertion and allows access to service Authentication assertion sent from IdP to Sp Single Log-Out Log out from SP, log out from circle of trust Notice sent to all SPs in federation Log out from IdP Notice sent to all SPs Log out from SP Notice sent from SP to IdP Notice sent from IdP to all other SPs 8

9 Initiated at IdP Single Log-Out Liberty Security XML Signature XML Encryption SAML No secret sharing on Principal between sites Authentication assertions Distributed Federation of IdPs SPs can specify authentication context Password Smart Card Certificate IdPs can provide authentication context Principal physically registration 9

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