Identity Management. Critical Systems Laboratory

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1 Identity Management Critical Systems

2 What is Identity Management? Identity: a set of attributes and values, which might or might not be unique Storing and manipulating identities Binding virtual identities to entities (people, ( etc groups, roles, resources, Making assertions or claims about virtual ( evidence identities (often accompanied by Using assertions to make decisions

3 Example: Authentication Authentication is just one (very limited) form of identity management Example: admin creates record for 'bob' (store username / ( password admin gives Bob his password (bind bob the user to ( human Bob the Bob tries to log in; he claims to be user bob and gives password as evidence system decides based on policy, database, and evidence

4 Complex Example Identities and claims can be chained Bob to Bartender: I'm 21, and my ID proves it Bartender checks binding of age on ID to photo Bartender checks binding of photo to Bob Government makes claim about Bob's birthday; bartender accepts government word implicitly Systems must provide: Creation and verification of bindings Policy for evaluating complex hierarchies of claims and evidence

5 What do people mean when they say Identity Management? Directory Services (e.g. LDAP) master lists of employees, customers, students, etc. Provisioning Life Cycle create/destroy accounts, allocate/deallocate resources Cross-Border Authentication (e.g. Kerberos) single sign-on, reputation systems

6 How are Identity Management systems organized? Centralized One authority for all identities; evidence is proof that claimant is that authority Windows network login: domain controller is authority, client machines ask about usernames/passwords GT keeps student records; sends transcripts with official seal to other institutions Federated Remove implicit trust relationships from system Anyone can make claims, and provide some evidence; system must provide flexible policy for users to evaluate and act on claims

7 Other Identity Management Issues Privacy: many systems work on the principle of I am Bob; Bob has attribute X; therefore, I have attribute X Anonymity requires moving to I have attribute X Some systems implement pseudonymity, where Bob is replaced with user's choice of unique name Scalability: off-line versus online verification, operations required per transaction Flexibility: what policies and attributes can be expressed?

8 Microsoft Windows LiveID (formerly Passport) Centralized system for single sign-on ( card Create unique ID, add attributes ( , credit Stored by Microsoft E-commerce sites ask Microsoft for information Problems Privacy issues (tracking identities across ( transactions Loss of user control Requires buy-in from client sites; chicken and egg problem

9 Microsoft Identity Metasystem 2005 paper calling for successor to Passport/LiveID, but federated Many identity providers, Microsoft provides the software More user control over disclosure of data CardSpace is a system for web wallets User keeps cards which may be signed or self-issued User hands out zero or more cards to websites Grand vision for meta-system, but lacking specifics

10 Liberty Alliance Project to establish open standards for federated identity Circle of Trust users register with identity provider provider makes assertions on user's behalf assertions are trusted because of pre-determined relationships between services and providers Criticism Too complex Not a large user base

11 Shibboleth Federated single sign-on middleware aimed at educational institutions Your students can access our digital library focus on open source reference implementation rather than specifications based on open standard Security Assertion Markup ( SAML ) Language Can be used generally, but there has not been much commercial deployment

12 OpenID Federated single sign-on between web sites (started with blog ( BlogSpot sites: LiveJournal and I want to leave a comment on your blog, but I don't want to have to log in again Very lightweight Identities are matched to URLs or addresses, and there are no other attributes (OpenID attribute exchange extension) Pseudonymous: anyone with a URL or account can create an identity Potential building block for more interesting systems (e.g., ( systems reputation Widely deployed: 50,000 Web sites accept OpenIDs

13 Sun / Oracle / CA / $VENDOR Many companies are selling Identity Management solutions These are generally one of two things: Account provisioning for employees Directory services for customers Mostly centralized systems, trying to reduce errors in process and meet regulatory demands

14 Basics of Digital Cash and Digital Credentials

15 Simple Digital Credential Analogous to a physical driver s license Contains attributes of the credential holder and is issued by some authority like DMV Can be implemented with certificates Certificate authority (CA) assigns public, private key pair to registering entity and validates attributes (name, address, credit card info, etc.) CA issues and signs certificate containing: Attributes that entity wants to be verifiable Entity s public key Entity provides certificate to third party (who trusts CA) and encrypts something with its private key to prove that it is the entity to whom the certificate was issued

16 Anonymous Digital Credentials Problems with simple digital credential All or nothing attribute disclosure: what if we don t want to release all of our attributes, e.g. date of birth, to every service provider we interact with? Next, we will discuss a paper on minimum disclosure credentials. Linking of credential across different uses: the credential that was used at amazon.com with a certain mailing address was also used at XXX.com.

17 Detour: Digital Payments Simple digital payment approach Bob I gave notes N1, N2 to Bob Withdraw two bank notes N1 k_pr, N2 k_pr N1 k_pr N2 k_pr N1 k_pr verify verify Digital bank verify N2 k_pr verify Bob spent N1 at Store A and N2 at Store B Store B Store A

18 Digital Cash using Chaum s Blind Signatures Digital cash (anonymous payment) approach Compute N b = N x r k_pub Bob Withdraw blinded bank note N b I gave some note to Bob (N x r k_pub ) k_pr = N k_pr x r Digital bank N k_pr verify N k_pr verify Someone spent N at B Notes: 1. Bank can detect if the same note N is used twice Store B 2. Bob cannot change value of N (if he divides result from bank by any number different from r, the signature will not verify)

19 Pseudonymous (Unlinkable) Digital Credentials using Blind Signatures Bob (primary identity S) uses pseudonyms S 1, S 2, S 3, etc. with different organizations C1, (S 2 ) C1pr (S 2 ) C1pr = ((S 1 ) C1pr / (r 1 ) b/c1 ) (r 2 ) b/c1, b = Ci S 2 = S (r 2 ) b Organization 2 S 1 = S (r 1 ) b C1, (S 1 ) C1pr (S 1 ) C1pr Signature authority (SA) S 1, C 1 Organization 1 holds credential C1 about S 1 (C1 is a public key for which SA holds the private key, C1pr)

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