1 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN LEADERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION by JESSI MICA STEWARD A THESIS Presented to the Department ofplanning, Public Policy and Management and the Graduate School ofthe University of Oregon in partial fulfillment ofthe requirements for the degree of Master ofpublic Administration September 2009
2 11 "Common Characteristics ofwomen Leaders in Higher Education Administration," a thesis prepared by Jessi Mica Steward in partial fulfillment ofthe requirements for the Master ofpublic Administration degree in the Department ofplanning, Public Policy and Management. This thesis has been approved and accepted by: Jean S card, Chair ofthe Examining Committee Date I ~i I o<f Committee in Charge: Jean Stockard, Chair Jessica Greene Surendra Subramani Accepted by: Dean ofthe Graduate School
3 2009 Jessi Mica Steward 111
4 IV An Abstract ofthe Thesis of Jessi Mica Steward for the degree of Master ofpublic Administration in the Department ofplanning, Public Policy and Management to be taken September 2009 Title: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN LEADERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION ADMINISTRAnON Approved: Jean Stockard Although women continue to make significant advancements in the workforce, there is still progress to be made to overcome biases and systems of exclusion. Since women play an increasing and influential role in the administration and leadership of higher education institutions, understanding their unique contributions is critical. In this study, qualitative methods were used to gather data on common characteristics ofwomen leaders in higher education administration. Data were gathered from interviews with twenty women working in a cross section ofprofessional positions at four comprehensive public universities in the Pacific Northwest. Results showed that the participants used collaboration, communication, and information sharing and addressed conflict to build relationships, establish trust, and inspire a shared vision. Most ofthe participants in this
5 v study indicated that they were rewarded, recognized, and supported in their positions; however, some indicated that discrimination still occurs based upon gender.
6 VI CURRICULUM VITAE NAME OF AUTHOR: Jessi Mica Steward PLACE OF BIRTH: Laramie, Wyoming DATE OF BIRTH: December 23, 1977 GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE SCHOOLS ATTENDED: University oforegon, Eugene University ofwyoming, Laramie DEGREES AWARDED: Master ofpublic Administration, 2009, University of Oregon Bachelor offine Arts, Art, 2001, University ofwyoming AREAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Higher Education PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: University Scheduling Manager, University oforegon, Eugene, Coordinator ofconferences and Marketing, University ofwyoming, Laramie, GRANTS, AWARDS AND HONORS: Outstanding Officer ofadministration, University oforegon, 2009 Top Student Affairs Professional, University of Wyoming, 2005 Top Female Graduate, University ofwyoming, 2001
7 Vll ACKJ"-rOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my advisor, Jean Stockard, for her patience, enthusiasm and dedication in the preparation ofthis manuscript. Additional acknowledgements to the twenty women who gave so freely their time, energy and thoughts for this project. Special thanks to my community at the University oforegon for supporting me as I pursued this degree while working. Finally, biggest thanks to my friends and family who picked up the slack, were constantly encouraging, and never doubted.
8 Dedicated to my mother, a true leader. V111
9 IX TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION. II. BACKGROUND. Literature Sources. How Do Women Get to Positions ofleadership?.. Positions- Advancement and Enjoyment.. Mentors How Do Women Assess Leadership?.. Ways Women Lead. Maintaining Stability or Change.. How Are Women Evaluated in Their Leadership?.. What Do Women Do to Lead?.. Gender and Leadership - What Is the Difference?.. Positive Attributes ofwomen Leaders How Do Women Leaders Engage Others? 20 How Do Women Handle Conflict? 26 What Is the Work Culture for Women? 26 Where Are We Now, Where Are We Going? How Do Women Navigate Bias? 28
10 x Chapter Page Additional Factors To Be Considered. Diversity - An Additional Topic for Consideration. Family Policy Implications.. Summary. III. lviethodology. Sample and Procedures.. Measures. Analysis. IV. FINDINGS. How Did the Women Get to Their Current Positions?. Career Path. Mentors. How Do Women Assess Leadership?.. How Women Perceive Their Own Leadership. How Women Believe They Are Perceived by Others.. How Do Women Lead?.. How Engage Others. How Engage in Conflict... How Mentor Others.. Leadership in Action: The Example ofbudgetary Difficulties
11 Xl Chapter Page Work Culture for Women Feeling Adequately Recognized and Rewarded 89 Wark Supportive ofthem as Women 93 What Else Do Women Have to Say? 95 What Is Hard About Being a Leader? 96 Getting Help Difference Between Genders Personal Attributes Other Core Issues IV. CONCLUSION 101 Summary ofstudy 101 How the Women Got to Their Positions How Do Women Assess Leadership? 103 What Do Women Do to Lead? 104 Work Culture for Women 105 Additional Information 106 Areas offurther Study Policy and Management Implications Management Strategies Policy Recommendations
12 xu Chapter Page APPENDICES 112 A. SCRIPT FOR UNION DIRECTORS B. SCRIPT FOR POTENTIAL PARTICIPANTS C. MEMO MAILED TO PARTICIPANTS 115 D. CONSENT FORM FOR PARTICIPANTS 116 REFERENCES 118
13 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Sometimes the mirrors you get are in shards, but they can still reflect something true. ~ Rochelle Smith Understanding higher education administrators and how they operate is critical in understanding the success or failure ofuniversities and colleges. With continuing financial crisis and increasingly competitive markets, the ability to adapt and react both quickly and appropriately are crucial skills for school leaders. Taking an organization through change and emerging on the other side safely and ready for further innovation is one true test for a leader. As women play an ever increasing and influential role in both the administration and leadership ofschools, understanding their contribution is vital. According to Thomas Sergiovanni, there is a clear delineation between how men and women approach opportunities, "for most men, achievement has to do with the accomplishment ofgoals; for most women, achievement has to do with the building ofconnections between and among people" (2003, p. 88). Others have found that "gender identity and leadership are more complex than to simply fit them into one gender construction model or another" (Christman and McClellan., 2008, p. 3). It is essential to understand how gender influences achievement, especially for those in leadership positions.
14 2 This paper hopes to inform the literature surrounding the characteristics of women leaders in higher education administration. Qualitative methods were used to gather data about common characteristics ofwomen leaders in higher education administration. Data for this study were obtained from interviews with twenty women working at four comprehensive universities in the Pacific Northwest. Participants were originally identified through nomination by the director ofthe student union or auxiliary services director at each school. Directors were asked to nominate women regardless of position or title in an effort to capture information representing a diverse range of women who were known for their leadership, not merely by rank and position. Each woman was interviewed for one hour. The interview questions were organized around the following five points that constitute the basic framework of information for each section in this paper. 1. How did women get to their current positions ofleadership? 2. How do women assess and understand the nature of leadership? 3. How do women lead? 4. How do women characterize the culture oftheir working environment? 5. Do the women have concerns that have not been anticipated by the current literature? Interviews were transcribed verbatim and composed the entire body ofdata to be analyzed. In areas of consensus or shared language, key themes were discussed and identified. In areas ofvariance, an attempt was made to show the scope and breadth of the women's experiences. Throughout the discussion pseudonyms were used for both individual respondents and the schools at which they work. Chapter II will explore literature related to leadership and women. This creates a theoretical framework for understanding both past and current environments in which
15 3 women leaders perform their work. Chapter III provides specific information about the methodology used in this study. Chapter IV is a summary ofthe data compiled from the interviews, focusing on areas ofboth consensus and variance. Finally, Chapter V summarizes and discusses the relevance ofthe study and suggests policy implications and possible areas offurther research.
16 4 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND This chapter will explore literature related to women and leadership. It will begin with a discussion ofthe history ofwomen in higher education. This will be followed by discussion ofthe importance ofmentors. Next it will look at how women assess leadership and the specific ways that women lead, generally and in times of conflict. It will review studies ofthe current environment for women and the ways this affects the perceptions ofbeing rewarded, recognized and supported. Finally, additional information will evaluate a few key ideas that are also of importance to this area. Literature sources While literature exists for women in the university presidency role and academic positions there is little written for the specific area ofwomen in administrative positions in higher education. Sources from educational leadership, business and academic sources were all used to bridge this gap in the literature. Parallels were found between the women in this study and women working in a number ofother fields specifically, corporate and business leaders.
17 5 How do women get to positions ofleadership? This section explores the history ofwomen working in higher education, including the role ofthe Dean of Students. It continues to explore the ways that women have advanced through this field including interim positions and the help ofmentors. Positions- advancement and enjoyment When evaluating where women currently are in their careers as leaders, it is important to understand the starting point. As Rosener summarizes: Until the 1960's, men and women received different signals about what was expected ofthem. To summarize a subject that many experts have explored in depth, women have been expected to be wives, mothers, community volunteers, teachers and nurses. In all these roles, they are supposed to be cooperative, supportive, understanding, gentle and to provide service to others. They are to derive satisfaction and a sense of self-esteem from helping others, including their spouses (1990, p. 124). Past perceptions ofwomen's role in society, along with the expectations ofhow women are expected to behave, are important to understand because they are still relevant today regarding how women are perceived in the work environment. As Schwartz states, "the entire field ofstudent services, from admission and orientation to student activities, to residential housing to career services, can be traced to the work ofthe deans ofwomen" (1997, p. 505). This early perspective helped shape how universities were formed and how student services are delivered. As Schwartz continues: Much ofthe initial research on students, student cultures, and intrinsic and extrinsic value ofhigher education was completed by women. Many ofthese women were deans ofwomen
18 6 themselves or women engaged in the education ofwomen. In truth, the development of student-centered research was generated, conducted, and supported by women, some as early as the 1880's (1997, p. 518). These previous pioneers and advocates paved the way for women to be part ofhigher education and pursue careers in this field. Working in higher education can be a challenging and enjoyable career. As Sachs and Blackmore found in their study ofwomen in school leadership roles, "satisfaction that the job provided was important for all the women interviewed. It was one ofthe pleasures ofthe job that the women talked about. Getting a sense ofa job well done, that was either acknowledged by peers or by past students was frequently reported" (1998, p. 272). As women have transitioned into lead positions through student service organizations they have begun filling a variety ofpositions through the organization. Gardner states, "we must not confuse leadership with status." Further, "most positions ofhigh status carry with them symbolic values and traditions that enhance the possibility ofleadership" (2003, p. 18). It cannot be ignored that women are leading at all levels ofhigher education. Moreover, they are making an impact on those they lead. As women move forward and advance through the ranks, they are often given interim or temporary positions. As Hill explains, "stretch assignments are usually assignments with which considerable positional power is associated. Sources of positional power include relevance, visibility and autonomy" she goes on to write, "the most effective and successful individuals do not simply wait for such positions to be offered to them; they pursue or create them" (2003, p. 155). Although these positions
19 7 may provide an opportunity for women to "try on" new job responsibilities Hill also warns that these moves should not be taken lightly because "people often underestimate just how difficult it is and how long it can take to master ajob assignment" (2003, p. 156). While women may be responsible for creating their own opportunities, others play a significant role in how they find opportunities, advance and succeed. Mentors In her study on women and leadership, Fine found, "in describing how they became leaders, the women emphasized the influence ofearly role models and mentors who instilled lessons ofcitizenship and community involvements" (2007, p. 182). This suggests that the role ofmentors is important for setting examples and building connections. Building this community ofmentors can come from a variety ofsources. As Hill supports, "instead of searching for that one "perfect" mentor (something far too many people do), those who are most effective at managing their careers cultivate multiple and diverse developmental relationships in an effort to build a "personal board of directors" (for example, coaches, sponsors, protectors, role models, counselors)" (2003, p. 157). As Gardiner, Enomoto and Grogan find in their study on mentoring women in school leadership, mentors can fill a variety ofroles including "mentor as teacher, mentor as guide, mentor as parent, mentor as spiritual or philosophical guru, mentor as gatekeeper, mentor as public role model and mentor as friend or peer" (2000, p. 11).
20 8 Building a community ofmentors and advocates is critical to establishing relationships, giving and receiving advice, and learning new skills. Gardiner et al found that in ideal mentoring relationships, "women are sharing inside information and teaching other women how to work within the power structures, and also to change the dominant system, to go with their strengths and bring women's voices to bear on leadership" (2000, p. 27). They go on to point out that "women are located in a position to know and understand the system, and to defy and change it. Mentoring is a mechanism for these changes" (2000, p. 27). This suggests that mentoring can occur in a variety ofways and that it can influence change on a bigger scale. However, finding these mentors can be a challenge. Bass states that this issue is due to fewer women in top positions leading to the fact that, "fewer high-level women are available to serve as mentors" (1990, p. 716). Additionally, Freeman contends that "women and minorities may have more difficulty in a mentoring relationship, not only because there are fewer people willing to mentor them, as the literature suggests, but also because oftheir complicated history with advice" (2001, p. 49). These authors make the case that there are fewer mentors, and additionally women and minorities may struggle with the messages shared in these mentoring relationships. In their study ofcollege and university presidents Wolverton, Bower and Hyle found that mentors were "key to successful navigation" ofleadership roles. They found that, "several women we interviewed suggested that women in leadership should be
21 9 doing a better job ofmentoring other women" (2009, p. 145). After reaching their own success it seems some women fail to help others reach the same. This situation is not uncommon, as Rhode explains, "although the importance of mentors has long been recognized, the institutionalization ofmentoring has lagged behind" (2003, p. 29). According to Rhode a "common obstacle for women leaders is the difficulty in obtaining mentors and access to informal networks ofadvice, contracts and support" (2003, p. 12). ). This suggests that schools could be creating situations where women at all levels help advance others. Obviously, schools should "encourage well-placed, widely esteemed individuals to mentor women" (Eagly and Carli 2007, p. 62). Rhode explains, "for many women, the support ofan influential senior colleague is critical in securing leadership opportunities. Mentoring relationships can also help prepare women to become leaders and to take full advantage ofthe opportunities that come their way" (2003, p. 29). The renowned business leader, Warren Bennis, writes, We need mentors and friends and groups ofallied souls. I know ofno leader in any era who hasn't had at least one mentor: teachers who found things in them they didn't know were there, parents or older siblings, senior associates who showed them the way to be, or in some cases, not to be, or demanded more from them than they know they had to give" (1989, p. 91). Knowing and leaning on others is a common thread for women leaders. How do women assess leadership? Much research and writing has gone into defining the topic ofleadership (Kouzes and Posner, 2002; Bass, 1990). Despite this abundance ofinformation, defining
22 10 leadership is a dubious task. There are numerous theories and definitions that have developed over time ranging from "servant leader" to "one best man" with dozens of theories and systems between. As a general definition we can look at Komives, Lucas and McMahon who state, "leadership is about the task ofsolving problems - big problems and little problems, significant problems and seemingly insignificant problems - so that the group or organization can better meet its core purpose and be a good place for its membership" (2007, p. 314). Further, we can pull from Gardner who states, "leadership is the process ofpersuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leader or shared by the leader and his or her followers" (2003, p. 17). The literature regarding women and leadership addresses at least three different areas: discussions ofthe ways women lead and different ways to define leadership, women's leadership in maintaining stability and in promoting change, and evaluating women's effectiveness as leaders. Each ofthese areas is briefly addressed below. Ways women lead Surprisingly not all women, even those in positions that seemingly align with leadership roles, identity with the term leader. As Suyemoto and Ballou found in their study on women in leadership: Some leaders become leaders almost "accidently" through their contributions. Their intention is to contribute to moving toward the goal, but there may be no inherent desire for "leadership" per se. These leaders may be more likely to see themselves as influences, collaborators, or contributors. They may place the responsibility for naming and defining their "leadership" on
23 11 others with whom they are working. They may resist the unspoken assumptions in the language of"leader" (2007, p. 41). Werhane, Posig, Gundry, Ofstein and Powell in their study on women in business found, "unlike leaders in hierarchically structured organizations, these women do not view their authority as a matter ofpower, nor do they think ofthemselves as persons in superior positions offormal authority" (2007, p. 177). As the definition of leader changes, it makes sense that some people cease to identify with past stereotypes ofan idea. However, a reluctance to associate with the formal term ofleadership aligns with some ofthe new ways ofdefining and thinking about women leaders. Eagly and Carli summarize the important leadership framework introduced by leadership scholar James MacGregor Bums, Transformational leaders establish as role models by gaining followers' trust and confidence. They state future goals, develop plans to achieve those goals, and innovate even when their organizations are successful. Such leaders mentor and empower followers, encouraging them to develop their full potential and thus to contribute more effectively to their organizations (2007, p. 6). Rosener describes transformational leadership in the following way, "getting subordinates to transform their own self-interest into the interest ofthe group through concern for a broad goal." She goes on to describe that these leaders "ascribe their power to personal characteristics like charisma, interpersonal skills, hard work, or personal contacts rather than to organizational stature" (1990, p. 120). Transformational leadership is often contrasted to the idea oftransactional leadership, which has been historically associated with a more masculine form of leading. Eagly and Carli summarize, "by contrast, transactional leaders establish give-
24 12 and-take relationships that appeal to subordinates' self-interest. Such leaders manage in the conventional manner ofclarifying subordinates' responsibilities, rewarding them for meeting objectives, and correcting them for failing to meet objectives" (2007, p. 6). However, it is important to realize there are no clear boundaries in this definition. "Although transformational and transactional leadership styles are different, most leaders adopt at least some behaviors ofboth types" (Eagly and Carli, 2007, p. 6). This is evidence that one ofa leader's skills is knowing how best to utilize different types of leadership at the right times. Additional descriptions ofstyles ofleadership abound in the literature on women in leadership. Rosener coined an additional term, "interactive leadership," based on her observations that the women in her study "actively work to make their interactions with subordinates positive for everyone involved" (1990. pg.120). This style suggests an intentional focus on creating positive working relationships with others. Another common leadership theme associated with women leaders is that of "servant leader." As Werhane et al. summarize, "the ultimate goal ofa servant leader is fulfilling others' needs. [They] serve followers to promote their empowerment and enable them to accomplish organizational goals" (2007, p. 85). This style ofputting others first and supporting them to be successful is closely aligned with many past expectations associated with women. In their study ofschool administrators in Australia, Sachs and Blackmore found "all ofthe women interviewed spoke ofbeing professional and presenting themselves as professional. Being professional was a code word for being in control, being perceived
25 13 as efficient by both peers, colleagues and members ofthe community and was expressed in their dress and general demeanor." They go on to state, "Being in control ofyour feelings and emotions was important ifyou wanted to be taken seriously in the job and ifyou were to be rewarded by a promotion" (1998, p. 271). This ability to be professional and in control might be seen as one other way that women are leading within their given environments. A final broad way ofleading can be seen lining up under the term "feminist leadership." This theory includes promoting social justice and inviting previously unheard voices to the table. Through encouraging broad participation, shared decision making and empowering others this system hopes to challenge the status quo and provide remedies to the inequalities that exist (Lott, 2007, p. 28). In summary, while women lead in a variety ofways, there are some key leadership theories that specifically address how women are perceived. Transformational leadership embodies much ofthe relational characteristics that are associated with women in leadership roles. Feminist leadership is a broad overview that focuses on social justice and inclusion. Multiple other terms have also tried to capture the essence ofwhat is particular to women's ways of leading. Maintaining stability or change The ability to anticipate, create, and successfully navigate change, especially unplanned organizational change, is crucial for higher education systems. According to Barth, "leading in a culture ofchange means creating a culture (not just a structure) of
26 14 change. It does not mean adopting innovations, one after another; it does mean producing the capacity to see, critically assess, and selectively incorporate new ideas and practices - all the time, inside the organization as well as outside it" (2003, p. 177). Ifthe ability to manage change is critical for success in any organization, then leaders must be able to identify the need and shift direction when faced with it. According to Kotter, "leadership and management are two distinct and complementary systems ofaction. Each has its own function and characteristic activities. Both are necessary for success in an increasingly complex and volatile business environment" (2001, p. 85). Kotter defines leadership and management as two separate but necessary skill sets within an organization. He goes on to say that people within organizations are either managers, who maintain stability, or leaders who manage risk, but not necessarily both. Though each function is critical to an organization, both are not necessarily embodied within the same individual. Budget changes and constraints commonly cause a need for change in higher education organizations. The study ofwomen in business conducted by Werhane et ai., found that many of the women had encountered economic crises and, "rather than becoming discouraged, some ofthe women we interviewed saw these problems as challenges, and became change agents and attacked them with enthusiasm and intelligence" (2007, p. xix). Dealing with change successfully is a complex process; however, dealing with it effectively is critical to the success ofleaders. In their book describing how to become a leader Komives et al. point out, "leadership committed to ethical action is needed to encourage change and social
27 15 responsibility. Leadership happens through relationships among people engaged in change" (2007, p. 5). The notion ofkeeping people and relationships whole is a reoccurring theme in the literature, especially when looking at how women navigate leadership situations. Komives et al. continues, "facilitating change is complex, fragile, exhilarating, and rewarding" (2007, p. 328). Being able to manage change is critical for the success ofany organization and leaders must be able to identify and correctly steer when faced with it. Additionally they state, "leadership is not static; it must be practiced flexibly" (2007, p. 5). If"losing control is a common fear ofhuman beings and a common concern when change is introduced in organizational environments" (Komives, 2007, p. 314) then leaders have to both overcome their own discomfort while addressing the needs ofothers. Navigating this balance is especially critical in the ever changing environment ofhigher education. How are women evaluated in their leadership? Leaders are faced with both external and internal expectations to perform. The pressures ofbeing a leader, including being simultaneously evaluated in both formal and informal ways, can be staggering. Additional stress from bias and stereotypes can further complicate this issue. Understanding how women are perceived and evaluated in their leadership is critical to understanding the support and acceptance that they experience. Unfortunately, "stereotypes color how behavioral information is encoded," and "as such, the provision
28 16 ofrelevant individuating infonnation may not be enough to overshadow stereotypes and, as a result women may be viewed as a female first and a leader second" (Scott and Brown, 2006, p. 240). Similarly, Heilman, Wallen, Fuchs, and Tamkins in their study of how people respond to women who succeed in male gender-typed tasks, found that their "results were taken to support the idea that gender stereotypes can prompt bias in evaluative judgments ofwomen even when these women have proved themselves to be successful and demonstrated their competence" (2004, p. 416). This is strong evidence that women are judged by more factors than their work perfonnance alone, they are also being evaluated specific to their gender. So, how are women evaluated by others and by what standards? As Babcock and Laschever point out: For women who want to influence other people, research has found that being likeable is critically important - and that women's influence increases the more they are liked. Since negotiation is all about trying to influence people, this means that women must be likeable in order to negotiate successfully (2007, p.95). According to Heilman et al. "being disliked was shown to strongly affect competent individuals' overall evaluations and rescind organizational rewards, including salary and special job opportunities" (2004, p. 426). They go on to summarize: These results suggest that being disliked can have detrimental effects in work settings. Evidently, when making evaluations and judgments about personnel actions, competence is not the sole consideration. Negative social reactions to highly competent employees can adversely influence both overall evaluations and recommendations for how they should be treated. Thus, being disliked is likely to be not just unpleasant but also a hindrance for upwardly aspiring women (2004, p. 425).
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