1. What is the difference between nominal returns and real returns?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. What is the difference between nominal returns and real returns?"

Transcription

1 End of Chapter 11 Questions and Answers 1. What is the difference between nominal returns and real returns? Answer: Nominal returns include inflation while real returns have inflation netted out. For example, a nominal return of 12% during a year of 3% inflation has provided a real return of approximately 9%. 2. Two sources of real estate returns occur every year while two others are only observed when the property is sold or refinanced. Explain the timing of the four potential returns. Answer: Real estate returns in form of rental cash flows and tax-shelter (or postponement) occur every year. Returns due to equity buildup and price appreciation are observed on sale or refinancing for the property. From a timing perspective the before tax cash flow plus or minus tax savings or taxes due can be treated as one final source of returns during the operational stage of ownership. The appreciation and equity buildup both result in before tax proceeds at the time of sale based on an estimate of the selling price less transactions costs and the mortgage balance. Depreciation and improvements need to be considered in calculating the taxes due at the sale in order to derive the after tax proceeds or residual from resale. 3. Why is it hard to find an investment with above average cash flow yield and an above average prospect for price appreciation? Answer: It is impossible to find a real estate property that has both relatively high current income and relatively high appreciation. This is because both would create extremely high total returns and investors in an efficient market will bid up the prices until yields decline to market required levels. 4. What is the difference between direct and indirect real estate investment? Give examples. Answer: The term direct real estate investment refers to buying buildings directly with no active market for the trading of interests in the building. This is the way most real estate is owned, whether it is rented out or occupied by the owner. Owners have control over management decisions and are considered active investors. The term indirect refers to owning the investment via the public markets and securities that may be traded, also known as the securitized market. Here investors are passive and do not have any direct day to day control over the operation of the properties. A common indirect or public way to own real estate is through real estate investment trusts or REITs. 5. True/False explain: When there is no financing on a property the NOI (net Operating Income) is the same as the cash flow. Answer: True

2 NOI is the annual return on the property prior to financing, also known as the unlevered return. To get the cash flow, debt service is subtracted from NOI to pay for any mortgage financing where the debt service includes both principal and interest owed. If there is no financing there is no debt service and the NOI is same as cash flow. 6. Why is it difficult to measure total returns on direct real estate investments? Answer: For direct real estate there is no active market within which current market values can be abstracted so we need to estimate total returns based on using cash flows instead of dividends and an estimate of the change in value based on an appraisal of the underlying real estate. The problem with using appraised values in that such appraisals have been demonstrated to historically lag real market values and also to be smoothed such that the volatility of the return stream is underestimated. 7. What is the most commonly used estimate of total returns for real estate? Define it in words. Answer: For real estate the internal rate of return or IRR is a frequently used estimate when making investment decisions or comparing past performance of real estate to stocks and bonds. The traditional levered IRR is that return which discounts all future returns back to present value such that they equal the initial equity investment. The total return internal rate of return calculation works as follows: CF 1 CF 2 CF T Projected Resale CF T $Initial Equity = PV e = irr (1 +irr) 2 (1 + irr) T (1 + irr) T The cash flows (before tax or after tax) are projected for the entire holding period. CF is the cash flow from the year 1 or 2 all the way through year T noted in subscript. IRR here refers to the internal rate of return in decimal form solved by iteration such that the discounted sum of all future returns equals exactly the initial equity. T is the last year of the holding period. 8. True/false Explain: Stocks are higher risk than real estate but provide higher appreciation potential. Answer: True. The value of stocks is based on the investor s belief on its future earnings, which is unpredictable. On the other hand, real estate valuation is based on current and future earnings, which are more predictable. This subjects stocks to higher risk than real estate. Higher risk requires higher returns and historically stocks have had a higher appreciation potential.

3 9. Compare the cash flow returns likely on real estate, growth stocks and bonds. Answer: The following tables gives the comparison: Source of Return Bonds Stocks Direct Real Estate Current return Coupon usually paid twice a year. Tax sheltered return 1 Future return Total returns None unless municipal bond. Difference between par value when redeemed, usually $1,000, if this exceeds current market value at the time of maturity or before through a sale if the market value goes up because of declines in required yields. Yield to maturity considering the initial price, coupon and known terminal value. Dividends paid periodically, over market price, known as the current return. None. Price changes over time net of transactions cost. Dividends plus price change in a given year indicate total return for that year. Dividends and expected price changes over time will produce an uncertain estimate of an annualized yield to maturity. Cash flow from rents less expenses and debt servicing if any. Taxable income may be less than cash flow providing some tax benefits. Appreciation in value net of transactions costs, if any, plus equity buildup through debt principal repayment, if any. Cash flow after tax, if relevant, and net equity expected at the time of sale produce an overall estimate of the annualized yield known as the internal rate of return 10. How do the get rich in real estate seminars typically provide above market returns? What are the typical assumptions they make to convince the naïve investor? Answer: Although the real estate seminars claim to provide above market returns, in reality they don t. Among the assumptions that are seldom revealed by these get-rich-quick authors are the following: 1 Tax shelter is really tax postponement in that eventually taxes will need to be paid, yet there is a present value benefit of deferring taxes and possibly taxation at a lower capital gains rate.

4 Everyone else is stupid and you can out smart them. Everyone else does less homework on the market then you will do. If you manage the property yourself you can make more money, and your time is worthless anyway since you have nothing else to do. You can leverage the property to 100% with no money down. 11. List some possible categories of risk and then explain which of these are most controllable by the investor? Answer: Categories of risk: 1. Economic risks 2. Business Risk or Management Risks 3. Financial Risk 4. Liquidity Risks 5. Political Risks Management risks are most controllable by investor as it can change the persons managing or train them to work efficiently. Financial risk is controlled through varying the level of leverage. 12. What is a liquidity premium and is this return requirement part of the required total yield for both direct and indirect real estate investments? Answer: Liquidity risks are related to the ability to convert the asset to cash quickly while preserving capital. The premium required by investor to take this risk is called liquidity premium. Real estate liquidity risks are significant for all direct investments. Transactions costs are high compared to other investments. There is no control over this risk except to lower price resulting in a loss of capital. Indirect real estate investment does not face much liquidity premium, as these interests can be traded freely on the market. 13. How efficient do you believe US real estate markets are? Answer: Markets are efficient to the extent that all of the available information is reflected in the current market prices. Efficient markets have no trading (buying or selling) based on inside information. Efficient markets consider all of the expectations influencing demand or supply. Efficient markets do not require universal agreement as not everyone needs to hold real estate or think it is a good investment for their risk preferences, but among those interested in buying, selling, or holding there are no informational advantages. Over the last few decades the quality and quantity of current market information has substantially improved due to the efforts of the larger brokerage and property management firms like CB Richard Ellis, Grubb and Ellis, Colliers International and others as well as the major data vendors like CoStar, Reis, Torto-Wheaton and others. As the quality and timeliness of real estate data has improved real estate markets have

5 become more efficient, especially among the larger assets of $10 million and up where sophisticated institutional investors dominate the market. 14. Name one advantage of using a partnership for a single real estate investment. Answer: By structuring partnership contracts a single real estate investment can cater to different investor requirements, hence partnerships are formed to benefit from this discretionary allocation mechanism. For example: one investor may want current returns and another may want future wealth. By structuring an investment with various contractual interests (securities or mortgages) that direct the return priorities to different investors multiple investors can achieve their objectives.

Click Here to Buy the Tutorial

Click Here to Buy the Tutorial FIN 534 Week 4 Quiz 3 (Str) Click Here to Buy the Tutorial http://www.tutorialoutlet.com/fin-534/fin-534-week-4-quiz-3- str/ For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com Which of the following

More information

Managing Home Equity to Build Wealth By Ray Meadows CPA, CFA, MBA

Managing Home Equity to Build Wealth By Ray Meadows CPA, CFA, MBA Managing Home Equity to Build Wealth By Ray Meadows CPA, CFA, MBA About the Author Ray Meadows is the president of Berkeley Investment Advisors, a real estate brokerage and investment advisory firm. He

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. ECON 4110: Sample Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Economists define risk as A) the difference between the return on common

More information

INCOME APPROACH Gross Income Estimate - $198,000 Vacancy and Rent Loss - $9,900

INCOME APPROACH Gross Income Estimate - $198,000 Vacancy and Rent Loss - $9,900 INCOME APPROACH The Income Approach considers the return on Investment and is similar to the method that investors typically use to make their investment decisions. It is most directly applicable to income

More information

FULL DISCLOUSURE. IncomeClub, Inc. ("IncomeClub") owns and operates a website at www.incomeclub.co.

FULL DISCLOUSURE. IncomeClub, Inc. (IncomeClub) owns and operates a website at www.incomeclub.co. FULL DISCLOUSURE June,1 2015 GENERAL DISCLOUSURES IncomeClub, Inc. ("IncomeClub") owns and operates a website at www.incomeclub.co. IncomeClub is registered investment advisor with the Securities and Exchange

More information

Real Estate Investment Newsletter November 2003

Real Estate Investment Newsletter November 2003 Maximizing Returns on Equity Why and How In this newsletter I will explain some financial management concepts that provide a framework for maximizing your wealth accumulation over time. Proper application

More information

6. Debt Valuation and the Cost of Capital

6. Debt Valuation and the Cost of Capital 6. Debt Valuation and the Cost of Capital Introduction Firms rarely finance capital projects by equity alone. They utilise long and short term funds from a variety of sources at a variety of costs. No

More information

CHAPTER 14: BOND PRICES AND YIELDS

CHAPTER 14: BOND PRICES AND YIELDS CHAPTER 14: BOND PRICES AND YIELDS PROBLEM SETS 1. The bond callable at 105 should sell at a lower price because the call provision is more valuable to the firm. Therefore, its yield to maturity should

More information

Cash flow before tax 1,587 1,915 1,442 2,027 Tax at 28% (444) (536) (404) (568)

Cash flow before tax 1,587 1,915 1,442 2,027 Tax at 28% (444) (536) (404) (568) Answers Fundamentals Level Skills Module, Paper F9 Financial Management June 2014 Answers 1 (a) Calculation of NPV Year 1 2 3 4 5 $000 $000 $000 $000 $000 Sales income 5,670 6,808 5,788 6,928 Variable

More information

Chapter 7: Capital Structure: An Overview of the Financing Decision

Chapter 7: Capital Structure: An Overview of the Financing Decision Chapter 7: Capital Structure: An Overview of the Financing Decision 1. Income bonds are similar to preferred stock in several ways. Payment of interest on income bonds depends on the availability of sufficient

More information

Econ 330 Exam 1 Name ID Section Number

Econ 330 Exam 1 Name ID Section Number Econ 330 Exam 1 Name ID Section Number MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) If during the past decade the average rate of monetary growth

More information

Interest Rates and Bond Valuation

Interest Rates and Bond Valuation Interest Rates and Bond Valuation Chapter 6 Key Concepts and Skills Know the important bond features and bond types Understand bond values and why they fluctuate Understand bond ratings and what they mean

More information

Chapter 5: Valuing Bonds

Chapter 5: Valuing Bonds FIN 302 Class Notes Chapter 5: Valuing Bonds What is a bond? A long-term debt instrument A contract where a borrower agrees to make interest and principal payments on specific dates Corporate Bond Quotations

More information

ANSWERS TO STUDY QUESTIONS

ANSWERS TO STUDY QUESTIONS ANSWERS TO STUDY QUESTIONS Chapter 17 17.1. The details are described in section 17.1.1. 17.3. Because of its declining payment pattern, a CAM would be most useful in an economy with persistent deflation

More information

3. If an individual investor buys or sells a currently owned stock through a broker, this is a primary market transaction.

3. If an individual investor buys or sells a currently owned stock through a broker, this is a primary market transaction. Spring 2012 Finance 3130 Sample Exam 1A Questions for Review 1. The form of organization for a business is an important issue, as this decision has very significant effect on the income and wealth of the

More information

American Options and Callable Bonds

American Options and Callable Bonds American Options and Callable Bonds American Options Valuing an American Call on a Coupon Bond Valuing a Callable Bond Concepts and Buzzwords Interest Rate Sensitivity of a Callable Bond exercise policy

More information

CHAPTER 14: BOND PRICES AND YIELDS

CHAPTER 14: BOND PRICES AND YIELDS CHAPTER 14: BOND PRICES AND YIELDS 1. a. Effective annual rate on 3-month T-bill: ( 100,000 97,645 )4 1 = 1.02412 4 1 =.10 or 10% b. Effective annual interest rate on coupon bond paying 5% semiannually:

More information

Bonds, in the most generic sense, are issued with three essential components.

Bonds, in the most generic sense, are issued with three essential components. Page 1 of 5 Bond Basics Often considered to be one of the most conservative of all investments, bonds actually provide benefits to both conservative and more aggressive investors alike. The variety of

More information

CALCULATOR TUTORIAL. Because most students that use Understanding Healthcare Financial Management will be conducting time

CALCULATOR TUTORIAL. Because most students that use Understanding Healthcare Financial Management will be conducting time CALCULATOR TUTORIAL INTRODUCTION Because most students that use Understanding Healthcare Financial Management will be conducting time value analyses on spreadsheets, most of the text discussion focuses

More information

Answers to Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 1. The real rate of interest is the rate that creates an equilibrium between the supply of savings and demand for investment funds. The nominal rate of interest is the actual

More information

Closed-End Funds. A closed-end fund is a type of investment company. whose shares are listed on a stock exchange

Closed-End Funds. A closed-end fund is a type of investment company. whose shares are listed on a stock exchange a guide to Closed-End Funds A closed-end fund is a type of investment company whose shares are listed on a stock exchange or are traded in the over-the-counter market. Contents What Is a Closed-End Fund?...2

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT ANALYSIS: A TOOL KIT REFERENCE FOR PRIVATE INVESTORS

AN INTRODUCTION TO REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT ANALYSIS: A TOOL KIT REFERENCE FOR PRIVATE INVESTORS AN INTRODUCTION TO REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT ANALYSIS: A TOOL KIT REFERENCE FOR PRIVATE INVESTORS Phil Thompson Business Lawyer, Corporate Counsel www.thompsonlaw.ca Rules of thumb and financial analysis

More information

Commercial Real Estate Investment: Opportunities for Income Generation in Today s Environment

Commercial Real Estate Investment: Opportunities for Income Generation in Today s Environment Commercial Real Estate Investment: Opportunities for Income Generation in Today s Environment Prepared by Keith H. Reep, CCIM Real Estate Investment Consultant In this white paper 1 Advantages of investing

More information

MBA Financial Management and Markets Exam 1 Spring 2009

MBA Financial Management and Markets Exam 1 Spring 2009 MBA Financial Management and Markets Exam 1 Spring 2009 The following questions are designed to test your knowledge of the fundamental concepts of financial management structure [chapter 1], financial

More information

Goals. Bonds: Fixed Income Securities. Two Parts. Bond Returns

Goals. Bonds: Fixed Income Securities. Two Parts. Bond Returns Goals Bonds: Fixed Income Securities History Features and structure Bond ratings Economics 71a: Spring 2007 Mayo chapter 12 Lecture notes 4.3 Bond Returns Two Parts Interest and capital gains Stock comparison:

More information

Guidance Note: Calculation of the Authority s Share of a Refinancing Gain

Guidance Note: Calculation of the Authority s Share of a Refinancing Gain Guidance Note: Calculation of the Authority s Share of a Refinancing Gain 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 Clause 34.6 of the model clauses on Refinancing set out in Section 34.8 of Standardisation of PFI Contracts

More information

COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF GREATER MEMPHIS, INC. INVESTMENT GUIDELINES FOR MONEY MARKET POOL

COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF GREATER MEMPHIS, INC. INVESTMENT GUIDELINES FOR MONEY MARKET POOL INVESTMENT GUIDELINES FOR MONEY MARKET POOL discretionary Money Market Pool is expected to pursue their stated investment strategy and follow the investment guidelines and objectives set forth herein.

More information

Important Information about Closed-End Funds and Unit Investment Trusts

Important Information about Closed-End Funds and Unit Investment Trusts Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated Important Information about Closed-End Funds and Unit Investment Trusts Baird has prepared this document to help you understand the characteristics and risks associated

More information

Brown Advisory Strategic Bond Fund Class/Ticker: Institutional Shares / (Not Available for Sale)

Brown Advisory Strategic Bond Fund Class/Ticker: Institutional Shares / (Not Available for Sale) Summary Prospectus October 30, 2015 Brown Advisory Strategic Bond Fund Class/Ticker: Institutional Shares / (Not Available for Sale) Before you invest, you may want to review the Fund s Prospectus, which

More information

Management Accounting Financial Strategy

Management Accounting Financial Strategy PAPER P9 Management Accounting Financial Strategy The Examiner provides a short study guide, for all candidates revising for this paper, to some first principles of finance and financial management Based

More information

CHAPTER 7 INTEREST RATES AND BOND VALUATION

CHAPTER 7 INTEREST RATES AND BOND VALUATION CHAPTER 7 INTEREST RATES AND BOND VALUATION Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions 1. No. As interest rates fluctuate, the value of a Treasury security will fluctuate. Long-term Treasury

More information

Module 1: Corporate Finance and the Role of Venture Capital Financing TABLE OF CONTENTS

Module 1: Corporate Finance and the Role of Venture Capital Financing TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF FINANCE Module 1: Corporate Finance and the Role of Venture Capital Financing Alternative Sources of Finance TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.1 Short-Term Debt (Short-Term Loans, Line of

More information

Reverse Mortgage. by Jeffrey D. Smith

Reverse Mortgage. by Jeffrey D. Smith There are finance companies that are offering the "Reverse Mortgage" to seniors (at least age 62). Seniors with a substantial amount of equity in their residence are targets of this aggressive predatory

More information

Understanding A Firm s Financial Statements

Understanding A Firm s Financial Statements CHAPTER OUTLINE Spotlight: J&S Construction Company (http://www.jsconstruction.com) 1 The Lemonade Kids Financial statement (accounting statements) reports of a firm s financial performance and resources,

More information

Bonds. Describe Bonds. Define Key Words. Created 2007 By Michael Worthington Elizabeth City State University

Bonds. Describe Bonds. Define Key Words. Created 2007 By Michael Worthington Elizabeth City State University Bonds OBJECTIVES Describe bonds Define key words Explain why bond prices fluctuate Compute interest payments Calculate the price of bonds Created 2007 By Michael Worthington Elizabeth City State University

More information

ADVISORSHARES YIELDPRO ETF (NASDAQ Ticker: YPRO) SUMMARY PROSPECTUS November 1, 2015

ADVISORSHARES YIELDPRO ETF (NASDAQ Ticker: YPRO) SUMMARY PROSPECTUS November 1, 2015 ADVISORSHARES YIELDPRO ETF (NASDAQ Ticker: YPRO) SUMMARY PROSPECTUS November 1, 2015 Before you invest in the AdvisorShares Fund, you may want to review the Fund s prospectus and statement of additional

More information

VCR PRODUCED BY THE NATIONAL VENTURE CAPITAL ASSOCIATION AND ERNST & YOUNG LLP VENTURE CAPITAL REVIEW ISSUE 17 SPRING 2006

VCR PRODUCED BY THE NATIONAL VENTURE CAPITAL ASSOCIATION AND ERNST & YOUNG LLP VENTURE CAPITAL REVIEW ISSUE 17 SPRING 2006 VCR VENTURE CAPITAL REVIEW ISSUE 17 SPRING 2006 PRODUCED BY THE NATIONAL VENTURE CAPITAL ASSOCIATION AND ERNST & YOUNG LLP Using Derivatives to Transfer Carried Interests in Private Equity, LBO and Venture

More information

INVESTMENT TERM GLOSSARY

INVESTMENT TERM GLOSSARY A Accrued Interest - Interest that has been earned but not yet credited to a bond or other fixed-income investment, such as a certificate of deposit. Active Management The use of professional investment

More information

INVESTMENT DICTIONARY

INVESTMENT DICTIONARY INVESTMENT DICTIONARY Annual Report An annual report is a document that offers information about the company s activities and operations and contains financial details, cash flow statement, profit and

More information

Equity Value, Enterprise Value & Valuation Multiples: Why You Add and Subtract Different Items When Calculating Enterprise Value

Equity Value, Enterprise Value & Valuation Multiples: Why You Add and Subtract Different Items When Calculating Enterprise Value Equity Value, Enterprise Value & Valuation Multiples: Why You Add and Subtract Different Items When Calculating Enterprise Value Hello and welcome to our next tutorial video here. In this lesson we're

More information

Chapter 6. Interest Rates And Bond Valuation. Learning Goals. Learning Goals (cont.)

Chapter 6. Interest Rates And Bond Valuation. Learning Goals. Learning Goals (cont.) Chapter 6 Interest Rates And Bond Valuation Learning Goals 1. Describe interest rate fundamentals, the term structure of interest rates, and risk premiums. 2. Review the legal aspects of bond financing

More information

Introduction to Investments FINAN 3050

Introduction to Investments FINAN 3050 Introduction to Investments FINAN 3050 : Introduction (Syllabus) Investments Background and Issues (Chapter 1) Financial Securities (Chapter 2) Syllabus General Information The course is going to be organized

More information

Sources of, and raising short-term finance

Sources of, and raising short-term finance E. BUSINESS FINANCE 1. Sources of, and raising short-term finance 2. Sources of, and raising long-term finance 3. Internal sources of finance and dividend policy 4. Gearing and capital structure considerations

More information

CHAPTER 11 INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY VALUATION TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

CHAPTER 11 INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY VALUATION TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 1 CHAPTER 11 INTRODUCTION TO SECURITY VALUATION TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS (f) 1 The three step valuation process consists of 1) analysis of alternative economies and markets, 2) analysis of alternative industries

More information

Taxation of Owner-Occupied and Rental Housing

Taxation of Owner-Occupied and Rental Housing Working Paper Series Congressional Budget Office Washington, D.C. Taxation of Owner-Occupied and Rental Housing Larry Ozanne Congressional Budget Office Larry.Ozanne@cbo.gov November 2012 Working Paper

More information

Catalyst/Princeton Floating Rate Income Fund Class A: CFRAX Class C: CFRCX Class I: CFRIX SUMMARY PROSPECTUS NOVEMBER 1, 2015

Catalyst/Princeton Floating Rate Income Fund Class A: CFRAX Class C: CFRCX Class I: CFRIX SUMMARY PROSPECTUS NOVEMBER 1, 2015 Catalyst/Princeton Floating Rate Income Fund Class A: CFRAX Class C: CFRCX Class I: CFRIX SUMMARY PROSPECTUS NOVEMBER 1, 2015 Before you invest, you may want to review the Fund s complete prospectus, which

More information

insurance companies pension funds building societies

insurance companies pension funds building societies 1. Depository institutions - BANKS commercial banks credit unions savings and loan associations 2. Contractual savings institutions insurance companies pension funds building societies 3. Investment intermediaries

More information

Bond Valuation. What is a bond?

Bond Valuation. What is a bond? Lecture: III 1 What is a bond? Bond Valuation When a corporation wishes to borrow money from the public on a long-term basis, it usually does so by issuing or selling debt securities called bonds. A bond

More information

Fundamentals Level Skills Module, Paper F9

Fundamentals Level Skills Module, Paper F9 Answers Fundamentals Level Skills Module, Paper F9 Financial Management June 2008 Answers 1 (a) Calculation of weighted average cost of capital (WACC) Cost of equity Cost of equity using capital asset

More information

Summary Prospectus Supplement dated January 12, 2016. Invesco Equity and Income Fund

Summary Prospectus Supplement dated January 12, 2016. Invesco Equity and Income Fund VK-EQI SUM SUP-1 011216 Summary Prospectus Supplement dated January 12, 2016 The purpose of this mailing is to provide you with changes to the current Summary Prospectuses for A, B, C, R, Y, R5 and R6

More information

lesson twelve saving and investing overheads

lesson twelve saving and investing overheads lesson twelve saving and investing overheads pay yourself first (a little can add up) example 1: Save this each week At % Interest In 10 years you ll have $7.00 5% $4,720 14.00 5% 9,440 21.00 5% 14,160

More information

Investing in Bonds Page 1 INVESTING IN BONDS

Investing in Bonds Page 1 INVESTING IN BONDS Investing in Bonds Page 1 INVESTING IN BONDS WHEN BUYING A BOND, YOU ARE LOANING MONEY TO A BOND ISSUER IN NEED OF CASH TO FINANCE A VENTURE OR FUND A PROGRAM, SUCH AS A CORPORATION OR GOVERNMENT AGENCY.

More information

INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES OF INDIA

INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES OF INDIA INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES OF INDIA EXAMINATIONS 15 th November 2010 Subject CT1 Financial Mathematics Time allowed: Three Hours (15.00 18.00 Hrs) Total Marks: 100 INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CANDIDATES 1. Please

More information

Accounts payable Money which you owe to an individual or business for goods or services that have been received but not yet paid for.

Accounts payable Money which you owe to an individual or business for goods or services that have been received but not yet paid for. A Account A record of a business transaction. A contract arrangement, written or unwritten, to purchase and take delivery with payment to be made later as arranged. Accounts payable Money which you owe

More information

CHAPTER 5. Interest Rates. Chapter Synopsis

CHAPTER 5. Interest Rates. Chapter Synopsis CHAPTER 5 Interest Rates Chapter Synopsis 5.1 Interest Rate Quotes and Adjustments Interest rates can compound more than once per year, such as monthly or semiannually. An annual percentage rate (APR)

More information

Five Things To Know About Shares

Five Things To Know About Shares Introduction Trading in shares has become an integral part of people s lives. However, the complex world of shares, bonds and mutual funds can be intimidating for many who still do not know what they are,

More information

Equity Analysis and Capital Structure. A New Venture s Perspective

Equity Analysis and Capital Structure. A New Venture s Perspective Equity Analysis and Capital Structure A New Venture s Perspective 1 Venture s Capital Structure ASSETS Short- term Assets Cash A/R Inventories Long- term Assets Plant and Equipment Intellectual Property

More information

Bond Mutual Funds. a guide to. A bond mutual fund is an investment company. that pools money from shareholders and invests

Bond Mutual Funds. a guide to. A bond mutual fund is an investment company. that pools money from shareholders and invests a guide to Bond Mutual Funds A bond mutual fund is an investment company that pools money from shareholders and invests primarily in a diversified portfolio of bonds. Table of Contents What Is a Bond?...

More information

Chapter 6 Interest rates and Bond Valuation. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-1

Chapter 6 Interest rates and Bond Valuation. 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-1 Chapter 6 Interest rates and Bond Valuation 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-1 Interest Rates and Required Returns: Interest Rate Fundamentals The interest rate is usually applied to

More information

Step 1: Determine the Size, Parameters and Construction Timeline for the Property

Step 1: Determine the Size, Parameters and Construction Timeline for the Property The Real Estate Development Process While real estate development models may look complex, the actual concepts are simpler than what you see for normal companies. Real estate development modeling is different

More information

What Do Short-Term Liquidity Ratios Measure? What Is Working Capital? How Is the Current Ratio Calculated? How Is the Quick Ratio Calculated?

What Do Short-Term Liquidity Ratios Measure? What Is Working Capital? How Is the Current Ratio Calculated? How Is the Quick Ratio Calculated? What Do Short-Term Liquidity Ratios Measure? What Is Working Capital? HOCK international - 2004 1 HOCK international - 2004 2 How Is the Current Ratio Calculated? How Is the Quick Ratio Calculated? HOCK

More information

Pioneer Funds. Supplement to the Summary Prospectuses, as in effect and as may be amended from time to time, for: May 1, 2015

Pioneer Funds. Supplement to the Summary Prospectuses, as in effect and as may be amended from time to time, for: May 1, 2015 Pioneer Funds May 1, 2015 Supplement to the Summary Prospectuses, as in effect and as may be amended from time to time, for: Fund Pioneer Absolute Return Bond Fund Pioneer AMT-Free Municipal Fund Pioneer

More information

Understanding investment concepts Version 5.0

Understanding investment concepts Version 5.0 Understanding investment concepts Version 5.0 This document provides some additional information about the investment concepts discussed in the SOA so that you can understand the benefits of the strategies

More information

Is it time to hire a professional to manage your bonds?

Is it time to hire a professional to manage your bonds? Is it time to hire a professional to manage your bonds? Today s bond markets are more complex Finding the right bonds can be difficult. The bond markets are large and complex, and it takes a lot of homework

More information

Chapter 6. Learning Objectives Principles Used in This Chapter 1. Annuities 2. Perpetuities 3. Complex Cash Flow Streams

Chapter 6. Learning Objectives Principles Used in This Chapter 1. Annuities 2. Perpetuities 3. Complex Cash Flow Streams Chapter 6 Learning Objectives Principles Used in This Chapter 1. Annuities 2. Perpetuities 3. Complex Cash Flow Streams 1. Distinguish between an ordinary annuity and an annuity due, and calculate present

More information

Review for Exam 1. Instructions: Please read carefully

Review for Exam 1. Instructions: Please read carefully Review for Exam 1 Instructions: Please read carefully The exam will have 21 multiple choice questions and 5 work problems. Questions in the multiple choice section will be either concept or calculation

More information

Chapter. Investing in Bonds. 13.1 Evaluating Bonds 13.2 Buying and Selling Bonds. 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning

Chapter. Investing in Bonds. 13.1 Evaluating Bonds 13.2 Buying and Selling Bonds. 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Chapter 13 Investing in Bonds 13.1 Evaluating Bonds 13.2 Buying and Selling Bonds 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning Standards Standard 4.0 Investigate opportunities available for saving and investing.

More information

Issues in Comparing Capitalization Rates for Leased Fee and Fee Simple Estates

Issues in Comparing Capitalization Rates for Leased Fee and Fee Simple Estates January 23, 2001 Issues in Comparing Capitalization Rates for Leased Fee and Fee Simple Estates Jeffrey D. Fisher, Ph.D. A. Scruggs Love, Jr., MAI, CRE There are three traditional approaches used by appraisers

More information

CHAPTER 20. Hybrid Financing: Preferred Stock, Warrants, and Convertibles

CHAPTER 20. Hybrid Financing: Preferred Stock, Warrants, and Convertibles CHAPTER 20 Hybrid Financing: Preferred Stock, Warrants, and Convertibles 1 Topics in Chapter Types of hybrid securities Preferred stock Warrants Convertibles Features and risk Cost of capital to issuers

More information

Answers to Concepts in Review

Answers to Concepts in Review Answers to Concepts in Review 1. An investment is any asset into which funds can be placed with the expectation of preserving or increasing value and earning a positive rate of return. An investment can

More information

Long-Term Debt. Objectives: simple present value calculations. Understand the terminology of long-term debt Par value Discount vs.

Long-Term Debt. Objectives: simple present value calculations. Understand the terminology of long-term debt Par value Discount vs. Objectives: Long-Term Debt! Extend our understanding of valuation methods beyond simple present value calculations. Understand the terminology of long-term debt Par value Discount vs. Premium Mortgages!

More information

Mutual Fund Investing Exam Study Guide

Mutual Fund Investing Exam Study Guide Mutual Fund Investing Exam Study Guide This document contains the questions that will be included in the final exam, in the order that they will be asked. When you have studied the course materials, reviewed

More information

The cost of capital. A reading prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake. 1. Introduction

The cost of capital. A reading prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake. 1. Introduction The cost of capital A reading prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake O U T L I N E 1. Introduction... 1 2. Determining the proportions of each source of capital that will be raised... 3 3. Estimating the marginal

More information

CHAPTER 20 LONG TERM FINANCE: SHARES, DEBENTURES AND TERM LOANS

CHAPTER 20 LONG TERM FINANCE: SHARES, DEBENTURES AND TERM LOANS CHAPTER 20 LONG TERM FINANCE: SHARES, DEBENTURES AND TERM LOANS Q.1 What is an ordinary share? How does it differ from a preference share and debenture? Explain its most important features. A.1 Ordinary

More information

Ind AS 32 and Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments Classification, recognition and measurement. June 2015

Ind AS 32 and Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments Classification, recognition and measurement. June 2015 Ind AS 32 and Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments Classification, recognition and measurement June 2015 Contents Executive summary Standards dealing with financial instruments under Ind AS Financial instruments

More information

SUMMARY PROSPECTUS. TCW High Yield Bond Fund FEBRUARY 29 I SHARE: TGHYX N SHARE: TGHNX

SUMMARY PROSPECTUS. TCW High Yield Bond Fund FEBRUARY 29 I SHARE: TGHYX N SHARE: TGHNX TCW High Yield Bond Fund I SHARE: TGHYX N SHARE: TGHNX 20 6 FEBRUARY 29 SUMMARY PROSPECTUS Before you invest, you may want to review the Fund s Prospectus which contain more information about the Fund

More information

Fundamentals Level Skills Module, Paper F9. Section A. Monetary value of return = $3 10 x 1 197 = $3 71 Current share price = $3 71 $0 21 = $3 50

Fundamentals Level Skills Module, Paper F9. Section A. Monetary value of return = $3 10 x 1 197 = $3 71 Current share price = $3 71 $0 21 = $3 50 Answers Fundamentals Level Skills Module, Paper F9 Financial Management December 2014 Answers Section A 1 A Monetary value of return = $3 10 x 1 197 = $3 71 Current share price = $3 71 $0 21 = $3 50 2

More information

Balanced fund: A mutual fund with a mix of stocks and bonds. It offers safety of principal, regular income and modest growth.

Balanced fund: A mutual fund with a mix of stocks and bonds. It offers safety of principal, regular income and modest growth. Wealth for Life Glossary Aggressive growth fund: A mutual fund that aims for the highest capital gains. They often invest in smaller emerging companies that offer maximum growth potential. Adjustable Rate

More information

INCOME APPROACH. Leased Fee Income Approach Example

INCOME APPROACH. Leased Fee Income Approach Example INCOME APPROACH The Income Approach considers the return on Investment and is similar to the method that investors typically use to make their investment decisions. It is most directly applicable to income

More information

International Monetary Policy

International Monetary Policy International Monetary Policy 2 Preliminary concepts 1 Michele Piffer London School of Economics 1 Course prepared for the Shanghai Normal University, College of Finance, April 2011 Michele Piffer (London

More information

Cash Flow Analysis Venture Business Perspective

Cash Flow Analysis Venture Business Perspective Cash Flow Analysis Venture Business Perspective Cash Flow (CF) Analysis What is CF and how is determined? CF Free CF Managing CF Cash Conversion Cyclical CF Break-even Valuing venture businesses based

More information

Mutual Funds and Other Investment Companies. Chapter 4

Mutual Funds and Other Investment Companies. Chapter 4 Mutual Funds and Other Investment Companies Chapter 4 Investment Companies financial intermediaries that collect funds from individual investors and invest in a portfolio of assets shares = claims to portfolio

More information

What's Your Business Worth? What you see isn't usually what you get - or want!

What's Your Business Worth? What you see isn't usually what you get - or want! What's Your Business Worth? What you see isn't usually what you get - or want! "How much is my business worth?" and "How do I know for sure?" and "Why should I care? After all, I have no intention of selling

More information

Study Guide - Final Exam Accounting I

Study Guide - Final Exam Accounting I Study Guide - Final Exam Accounting I True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. 1. Entries in a sales journal affect account balances in both the accounts receivable ledger

More information

Information on: Deferred Payment Scheme

Information on: Deferred Payment Scheme Information on: Deferred Payment Scheme From 1 April 2015 Introduction From April 2015 the way care and support is provided is changing for the better. The Care Act 2014 is a recent piece of legislation

More information

Employee Stock Ownership Plans for Banks and Bank Holding Companies The Tax-Exempt Stock Market

Employee Stock Ownership Plans for Banks and Bank Holding Companies The Tax-Exempt Stock Market Employee Stock Ownership Plans for Banks and Bank Holding Companies The Tax-Exempt Stock Market Presenters: W. William Gust, J.D., LLM President of Corporate Capital Resources, LLC Michael A. Coffey Managing

More information

Security Analysis and Portfolio Management FIN-321-TE

Security Analysis and Portfolio Management FIN-321-TE Security Analysis and Portfolio Management FIN-321-TE This TECEP is an introduction to investment alternatives, security analysis, and portfolio construction. Topics include: the environment in which investment

More information

ALLOCATION STRATEGIES A, C, & I SHARES PROSPECTUS August 1, 2015

ALLOCATION STRATEGIES A, C, & I SHARES PROSPECTUS August 1, 2015 ALLOCATION STRATEGIES A, C, & I SHARES PROSPECTUS August 1, 2015 Investment Adviser: RidgeWorth Investments A Shares C Shares I Shares Aggressive Growth Allocation Strategy SLAAX CLVLX CVMGX Conservative

More information

Chapter 19. Web Extension: Rights Offerings and Zero Coupon Bonds. Rights Offerings

Chapter 19. Web Extension: Rights Offerings and Zero Coupon Bonds. Rights Offerings Chapter 19 Web Extension: Rights Offerings and Zero Coupon Bonds T his Web Extension discusses two additional topics in financial restructuring: rights offerings and zero coupon bonds. Rights Offerings

More information

COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTING

COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTING REDEFINING REAL ESTATE INVESTING CRE101: INTRODUCTION TO COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTING COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTING ABOUT REALCROWD RealCrowd is a private, secure and simple-to-use online platform

More information

Before you develop or acquire a property, you must know how big it is size is the key metric for real estate.

Before you develop or acquire a property, you must know how big it is size is the key metric for real estate. Real Estate Development Key Terms If you want to understand real estate development, you need to know the key terms used to describe properties whether you re developing the properties from the ground

More information

Crafting a Forward Looking Investment Portfolio

Crafting a Forward Looking Investment Portfolio BOURSE SECURITIES LIMITED February 15th, 2016 Crafting a Forward Looking Investment Portfolio This week, we at Bourse evaluate the investment considerations and opportunities having looked previously at

More information

CHAPTER 5 HOW TO VALUE STOCKS AND BONDS

CHAPTER 5 HOW TO VALUE STOCKS AND BONDS CHAPTER 5 HOW TO VALUE STOCKS AND BONDS Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions 1. Bond issuers look at outstanding bonds of similar maturity and risk. The yields on such bonds are used

More information

account statement a record of transactions in an account at a financial institution, usually provided each month

account statement a record of transactions in an account at a financial institution, usually provided each month GLOSSARY GLOSSARY Following are definitions for key words as they are used in the financial life skills resource. They may have different or additional meanings in other contexts. A account an arrangement

More information

Understanding Your Brokerage Account Statements

Understanding Your Brokerage Account Statements Understanding Your Brokerage Account Statements Understanding Your Brokerage Account Statements INTRODUCTION How am I doing financially? The best way to track your brokerage account activity and performance

More information

CHAPTER 8 STOCK VALUATION

CHAPTER 8 STOCK VALUATION CHAPTER 8 STOCK VALUATION Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions 5. The common stock probably has a higher price because the dividend can grow, whereas it is fixed on the preferred.

More information

1. If the opportunity cost of capital is 14 percent, what is the net present value of the factory?

1. If the opportunity cost of capital is 14 percent, what is the net present value of the factory? MØA 155 - Fall 2011 PROBLEM SET: Hand in 1 Exercise 1. An investor buys a share for $100 and sells it five years later, at the end of the year, at the price of $120.23. Each year the stock pays dividends

More information

Introduction to Real Estate Investment Appraisal

Introduction to Real Estate Investment Appraisal Introduction to Real Estate Investment Appraisal Maths of Finance Present and Future Values Pat McAllister INVESTMENT APPRAISAL: INTEREST Interest is a reward or rent paid to a lender or investor who has

More information

Ipx!up!hfu!uif Dsfeju!zpv!Eftfswf

Ipx!up!hfu!uif Dsfeju!zpv!Eftfswf Ipx!up!hfu!uif Dsfeju!zpv!Eftfswf Credit is the lifeblood of South Louisiana business, especially for the smaller firm. It helps the small business owner get started, obtain equipment, build inventory,

More information